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Патент USA US2410814

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Nov. 12, 1946.
Y
F. c. EVANS
2,410,814
SIGNALING SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 16', 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIIG.I
TO OTHER
TRANSMITTERS *
TO CENTRAL
*—
STATION
BY y. {M
ATTORNEY
Nov. 12, 1946.
F. c. EVANS
2,410,814.
SIGNALING SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 16, ‘ 1941,
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
_'FIG.4
INVENTOR
F. c. EVANS
BY
ATTORNEY
I
Nov. 12, 1946.
F. c. EVANS
2,410,814
SIGNALING SYSTEM
Fiied ‘Dec. 16, ‘1941
4 Sheets-Sheet s
N
INVENTOR
F? C. EVANS
ATTORNEY
Nov. 12, 1946.
F. c. EVANS
2,410,814
SIGNALING SYSTEM
Filed Dec}. 16, 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR
F. C. EVANS
ATTORNEY
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
2,410,814
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘
2,410,814
SIGNALING SYSTEM
Francis G. Evans, Dongan Hills, ‘N. Y., assignor to
American District Telegraph Company, Jersey
City, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey
Application December 16, 1941, Serial No. 423,130 -
10 Claims.
1
(Cl. 177—357)
This invention relates generally to signaling
systems and more particularly to aero tube alarm
systems for detecting dangerous rises of tem
perature and initiating an alarm signal in re
sponse thereto.
Aero tube alarm systems consist of one or more
lengths of aero tubing extending ‘through and
about an enclosure which it is desired to protect
2
to the central station attendant. Therefore, such
transmitters are adapted to transmit a restora
tion signal after each winding operation which
signal indicates to the central station attendant
that the transmitter has been wound and is in
condition to respond to the ?re detecting system
and transmit an alarm signal. It is necessary,
however, to insure that the transmitter is wound
and in such relation to the enclosure that'dan
to such an extent that the restoration signal will
gerous temperatures can be detected within a 10 be automatically transmitted as it frequently
minimum time. The tubing may contain a gas
either under, at or in excess of atmospheric pres
sure, which gas expands in response to increases
of temperature to thereby increase the pressure
within the system. In accordance with conven 15
tional practice each end of the tubing circuit is
happens that unskilled persons reset and wind
the transmitter, and it is further necessary that
such transmitters be provided with mechanism
for preventing a saboteur' or incendiary from
blocking the action of a transmitter to thereby
accomplish his purpose without the initiation of
connected to an expansion chamber consisting of
a. ?re alarm.
.
a pair of ?exible diaphragms for converting
The principal object of this invention is to pro
changes of pressure within the tubing system into
vide a signal transmitter which may be directly
mechanical motion which may ‘be utilized to op 20 and mechanically operated by and in response
erate electrical contacts. The tubing system may
to small temperature-induced pressure variations
be operated to respond to a predetermined tem
[in an aero tubesystem.
perature or a predetermined rate of rise of tem
A further object of this invention is to provide
perature, the latter characteristic being obtained
a mechanically tripped signal transmitter for use
by the provision of a, vent adjacent each expan 25 in aero tube ?re alarm systems which is sensitive
sion chamber for compensating pressure changes
to low pressure variations in such systems and at
occurring at a rate below ?xed limit-s whereby
the same time resistant to the e?ects of vibration.
normal temperature changes do not result in the
A further object of this invention is to provide
initiation of an alarm. If, however, a dangerous
a mechanical trip mechanism in a signaltrans
rate of change of temperature occurs, the ex 30 mitter which is responsive to pressure changes
pansion of the gas within the tubing system
within .an aero tube circuit in a positive and fool
occurs at such a high rate that the pressure with
proof manner.
in the expansion chamber exceeds the limiting
A still further object of this invention is to
pressure to thereby initiate an alarm.
provide an aero tube ?re alarm system including
It has been the practice to operate electrical 35 a mechanically tripped signal transmitter, the
contacts by means of the pressure responsive dia
system having uniform sensitivity to temperature
phragms to thereby change the characteristics
changes of a predetermined rate of rise through
of an electrical circuit and in turn initiate opera
out its entire length.
tion of a signal transmitter by means of an elec
Still anotherobject of this invention is to pro
tro-mechanically operated trip mechanism. The
videan aero tube system which may include pres
trip mechanism releases an electrical signal
sure detecting diaphragms having non-similar
transmitting device to cause transmission of code
characteristics, together with a means for obtain
signal, impulses from the transmitter located in
ing uniform operation and sensitivity through
the protected premises, over a transmission line
out the system in spite of the said non-uniform
to a central station to thereby summon assistance. 45 characteristics.
.
"
The use of electrical circuits including contacts
Further objects and advantages of this system
and electro-mechanical devices in the protected
will be apparent after consideration of the fol-,
premises necessitates the use of local battery
lowing speci?cation and the accompanying draw
sources of electrical energy, thereby increasing
the expense of installation and the amount of 50
ings wherein:
Fig. 1 diagrammatically illustrates ‘two aero
tube ?re detecting systems, together with signal
investment required in the alarm system.
The alarm signal transmitter, which is electri
transmitters ;
cally tripped, is usually driven by a spring motor
Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the signal trans
which requires manual winding after each alarm
mitter embodying this invention;
transmitting operation, and it is necessary that 55 Fig. 3 is a front of Fig. 2 with the front plate
the condition of the spring driven motor be known
removed;
‘
2,410,814
3
Fig. 4 is a, view from the right side of Fig. 2;
Fig. 5 is a view from the left side of Fig. 2;
Fig. 6 is an expanded perspective of the trans
mitter with supporting structure omitted;
I slight, if any, deflection of the diaphragm con
nected to the other end of the tubing circuit.
Therefore, one end of the arm [4 will be lowered
Figs. 6a, 6b, and 6c are fragmentary views of
a portion of the key winding mechanism shown
about the other end of the arm as the pivot point,
the point I6 moving one-half the distance
through which the actuated end can move. Thus,
in Fig. 6;
Fig. 7 illustrates the spring motor trip mecha
a ?re at either end of the tubing circuit causes
a deflection at point l6 equal to one-half the
de?ection of the actuated diaphragm. If a ?re
occurs at a point equidistant from the ends of the
loop, both of the diaphragms l2 are deflected only
nism in its rundown condition;
Fig. 8 illustrates the spring motor trip mecha
nism after 120 degrees of rotation during the
winding operation;
Fig. 9 illustrates the spring motor trip mecha
nism after 240 degrees of rotation during the
one-half as
the ?re was
diaphragms
point l6 of
distance as
winding operation;
Fig. 10 illustrates the spring motor trip mecha
nism after 360 degrees of rotation during the
winding operation;
,
Fig. 11 illustrates the spring motor trip mech
anism at the start of transmission of the restora
4
?ection of diaphragm I2 connected to the near
end of the tubing circuit but will cause very
20
tion signal;
Fig. 12 shows the spring motor trip mechanism
in condition to transmit an alarm signal;
vFig. 13 illustrates the diaphragm operated trip
mechanism in the running condition; and
Fig. 14 illustrates the diaphragm operated trip
mechanism in a position preparatory to trans
mission of an alarm signal.
Fig. 1 of the drawings illustrates a pair of sep
arate aero tube circuits l and 3, each of which
may individually be located within separate en
closures such as one or more rooms in separate
buildings or groups of rooms in the same building,
for the purpose of detecting dangerous rises of
temperature therein. Each of the circuits l and
3 is connected to the transmitters 2 and 4, re
spectively, these transmitters being connected as
35
much as each of them would be if
located close thereto, but both of the
are de?ected to thereby cause the
arm l4 to move through the same
it does when only one diaphragm is
deflected.
This characteristic of the system constructed
in accordance with this invention eliminates the
necessity for adjusting a trip element or contact
elements for any particular maximum or mini
mum degree of movement of the diaphragms for
the reason that regardless of the location of the
?re with respect to the ends of the loop circuit
the point It of arm l4 always travels through the
same distance. Furthermore, this feature of the
invention averages whatever diiierences there
may be in the characteristics of different dia~
phragms so that the aero tube circuit is uniformly
sensitive throughout its length and the motion
of the point l6 of arm i4 is approximately the
same regardless of slight variations in the degree
of deflection of said different diaphragms under
the same pressure conditions.
The effects of vibration on the tripping mech
anism are eliminated by the provision of weight
shown in Fig. 1 in a loop circuit which terminates
I‘! in slot 41 of lever Q0. The Weight I1 is ad
at a central station Where annunciators, re
corders and alarm devices are arranged to be 40 justable horizontally in slot 41 to vary the down
responsive to transmitted signals.
Fig. 1 is an
illustration by way of example only, it being in
tended that the system shall include whatever
number of aero tube circuits and transmitters
may be necessary and feasible in a particular in
ward tension on diaphragms l2 to thereby adjust
the point on the performance curves of both of
the diaphragms at which they start to deflect in
response to pressure impulses from the tubing
as La'_ circuit.
The sensitivity of the aero tube circuit
is therefore de?nitely determinable and improved.
Weight I‘! also de?ects diaphragms l2 to such
stallation.
The tubing circuits terminate at each trans
an extent that lever 40 is positively retained at
mitter in detector units such as are partially
its lower limit of travel except when the pressure
shown in Figs. 2 and 3 of the drawings, and which
may be constructed in accordance with the'speci 50 within the tubing changes this level by de?ecting
the diaphragms. Since the position of lever 40
?catio-n and drawings of the patent to‘ F. M.
is normally ?xed by the e?ects of weight l1, vibra
Cowan, No. 2,100,184, of November 23, 1937. Fig.
tion of the transmitter cannot cause it to trip,
2 of the drawings shows tubing 8 entering the
the reason for this being that the right hand end
detector unit designated in general by numeral
of lever 40 must move downwardly to trip the
10, this unit containing passages from each end
fan 36 but this movement is prevented since dia~
of the tubing to the diaphragm expansion de
phragms l2 are normally positioned by weight l‘!
vices l2. Diaphragms [2 are connected together,
to ?x the lower limit of travel of this end of the
as shown in Fig. 3, to act either separately or in
unison by means of the arm l4 and links l5 so
that the operative function of the aero tube sys
arm 40.
Thus the only effects of vibration are
60 to cause upward movement of the right hand end
tem as a whole occurs‘ at the midpoint of arm
M which is the V-shaped portion it. This over
comes the characteristic of non-uniform response
in aero tube systems which is caused by different
degrees of response, depending upon the prox
imity of a ?re condition to one or the other of
of arm 49 and downward movement of hook 42
which is in fact a movement, in the latching di
rection with respect to fan 36. Therefore, the
provision of weight I1 overcomes an outstanding
defect in mechanically tripped transmitters in
that false operation caused by mechanical vibra
tion is completely eliminated.
The system constructed in accordance with
this invention is particularly adapted for use in
the diaphragms i2 at the ends of the tube. Thus,
the degree of displacement varies in accordance
with the proximity of the ?re to each diaphragm.
However, it will be seen that the degree of move 70 connection with mechanically tripped impulse
ment at the point I6 on arm l4 will be the same
regardless of the degree of movement of each of
the diaphragms [2. For instance, a ?re in the
vicinity of the point 5 in tubing circuit 1 will ex
pand the air within the tubing and cause de-i 75
transmitters such as that shown in Figs. 2 to 14
of the drawings. Fig. 3 of the drawings illus
trates in general the source of power for the
transmitter together with the trip mechanism
which is connected to the point [6 of arm M for
2,410,814. ‘
5
6
releasing the power source upon the occurrence
Leaf spring 64 acts to force the lever 60 and con
of a predetermined rate-of-rise of temperature
sequently hook 42 forwardly to normal fan-lock
within the ‘protected enclosure. The source of
ing position.
'
‘
>
power in this particular illustration of the impulse
It is necessary that the manual trip mechanism
transmitter is a spring motor which is most clear
(and particularly lever 60) be controlled by the
ly shown in Figs. .4 and 6 of the drawings and
motor winding mechanism to the extent that this
comprises a pair of coiled leaf springs 20 and 2|
lever, after the transmission of alarm signals, re
anchored in any suitable fashion to the drive
mains in a position causing hook 42 to be out of
shaft 23 supported in frames l3 and I9. Two
the path of fan 36, so that when the springs are
springs are provided for insuring against the 10 rewound and then released to unwind, a restora
possible loss of a source of power in the event
that one spring should fail. The motordrives
shafts 24, 26, 28 and 36, also supported in frames
l8 and I9, through a gear train comprising gears
25, 21, 29, 3| and pinions 32, 3,3, 34 and 35, where
by the motion of shaft 23 is multiplied to such a
speed as to rotate the shaft 3|] at whatever speed
is most suitable. Fan 36 which acts as a govern
ing device and a control device is normally pre
vented from rotating by means of the lever or
detent 46 having a hook portion 42 for engage
ment with a portion of the fan 36. Lever 46 is
pivoted on the adjustable pivots 44 and connected
to point N5 of arm M by means of a perpen~
dicular arm 39. The lever 40 is pivoted along
its length atsuch a point that hook 42 moves
through a distance equal to the de?ection of
either of diaphragms |2 whereby its entire mo
tion is useful at the tripping point.
'
It is necessary that the degree of engagement
between hook 42 and fan 36 be adjustable and,
therefore, the pivots 44, supported in the yoke 46,
and also lugs 48 extending from yoke 46 are held
in alignment vertically in the slots 49 in frames
I8 and I9 shown in Fig. 2 of the drawings. The
pivots 44 are positioned vertically by an adjust
ment assembly comprising springs 56, a screw 5|
and a nut 52 which moves horizontally and en
gages a lever 53 pivotally attached thereto and at
tion signal is automatically transmitted.’ This
operation is desirable since alarm transmitters
transmit alarm signals and are then in va run
down condition which requires restoration to the
normal condition for again transmitting a subse
quent alarm. It is further necessary that the
central office attendant be informed of the fact
that the alarm system has been restored to its
normal condition, and, therefore the hereinbefore
described trip mechanism must be controlled
during the winding operation and the transmis
sion of restoration signals to start and stop the
transmitter at the beginning and end of the
restoration signals.
The main shaft 23 of the spring motor has
?xed thereon a ratchet wheel 10. The pawl 1|,
which engages with the notches in ratchet wheel
'10, is pinned on gear 25, as illustrated in the ’
drawings. Gear 25 ?oats on shaft 23 and is nor
mally locked against rotation as will be explained
subsequently, and thus, when the shaft 23 is ro
‘ tated by the key, springs 20 and 2| are tightened
to fully wound condition and held there by pawl
1| in engagement with ratchet 19. Shaft 23 also
rotates cam member ‘l5 which is ?xed thereto.
Cam 15 includes slot 62, the leading edge of which
is perpendicular to the vertical surface of the
cam so that the pin 6| in lever arm 60 can drop
suddenly into slot 62 to thereby provide a posi
tive stopping motion of arm 65 and hook 42
of the tripping mechanism. The other edge of
its upper end to the yoke 46 whereby rotation of
screw 5| controls the elevation of yoke 46 together
with the degree of engagement between fan 36
and hook 42. The yoke 46 is biased downwardly
by a pair of springs 50 to provide proper posi
tioning of the entire assembly.
The trip lever 40 is arranged to be de?ected
cam 14 floats on shaft 23 and is provided with
slot 13 which extends through an arc of several
degrees with respect to the center of cam 14. Pin
11 in cam ‘I5 extends through slot 13 and moves
in a horizontal plane as well as a vertical plane
for the purpose of providing a manual release for
cam 15 so that there is lost motion between cam
slot 62 is beveled to lift the pin 6|. Secondary
freely therein for several degrees of rotation of
initiating ?re alarms manually. Fan 36 is pro
15 and the secondary cam 14. Thus, when the
vided with a slot '31 whereby de?ection of lever 50 shaft 23 rotates through the winding cycle, cams
43 in a horizontal direction may break the en
14 and 15 are also rotated.
gagement between hook 42 and fan 36 and allow
Cam 14 supports and moves pin 18 in operative
the mechanism to operate even though the aero
relation with the arm 80 of stop lever 19 which is
tube circuit has not operated. The Wide slot 38
rotatably pinned to frame I8. Stop lever ‘I9 also
in fan 36 permits rotation regardless of the posi
tion of hook 42 provided that hook 42 is in align
ment with slot 31. Lever 40 is pivoted for motion
in a horizontal plane by means of a pivot member
includes the projecting lug 8| which engages with
a pin 82 on wheel 25 to prevent rotation of wheel
25 during the winding cycle. Arm 84 of-member
19 engages the manual trip lever 66 to perform
4| extending through the block 45 which is the
the same function as that which occurs when
support for lever 40 pivoted on the pivot screws
lever 50 is manually operated. Thus, during .the
44. As illustrated, the lever 40 includes the bent
allow motion in a horizontal plane as well as a
winding cycle, lever arm 63 is held in a non
tripping position until pin 76 engages arm 80 to
rotate member 19 in a counter-clockwise direc
vertical plane. It is to be understood that any
tion, at which time arm 8| disengages from pin
over portions 43 which engage pivot pin 4| to
suitable pivot arrangement for obtaining motion
vertically and horizontally may be used.
.
The manual trip mechanism includes lever 60
82 and arm 84 disengages from lever 60. Lever
‘I9 is held in either of its two positions by spring
83 in engagement with lug 85. The operation of
the drive shaft assembly will be described in more
pivoted at 63, as shown in Figs. 2 and 6, and con
nected with fan 36 by means of a slotted lever 65,
detail later on in the description.
’
the slot 66 therein providing engagement with 70
Transmission of impulses is provided by impulse
the lever 40 to impart horizontal motion thereto.
wheel H0 which rotates with shaft 24, driven
The operating arm 63 is attached to lever 60 and
from gear 25 through pinion 32. Impulse wheel
when operated by manual pressure, forces arm
H0 engages the contact springs | | i so that the ~
40 through lever 65 to swing the hook 42 into slot
teeth of wheel I I0 intermittently open springs II!
,3‘! of fan 36 to allow the mechanism to operate.
to cause intermittent making and breaking of the
_ v2,410,814
7
transmission circuit and consequent transmission
of the code signals.
,
The winding mechanism is provided with a key
trapping device consisting of a yoke 90v on frame
I8 having a keyhole 92 which is so shaped and
proportioned that key I00, the handle of which
has been omitted from the drawings, and the pin
IOI of the key I00 can be engaged with slot I02
8
this pin will be prevented from falling into the
notch by reason of the engagement of arm 84 of
stop lever ‘I9 with the end of operating arm 60,
the reason for this arrangement being the fact
that the edge of notch 62 which would contact
the pin 6| during the winding operation is ver- v
tical as is the surface of the pin that would con
tact the edge. The reason for the vertical edges
is to provide a positive stop by suddenly moving
ing operation. The keyhole is so proportioned, 10 lever 60, arm 65 and hook 42 in engagement with
in hub ‘I6 on shaft 23 for commencing the wind
fan 36, after the transmission of the restoration
signal, but if these two vertical surfaces were
permitted to meet during the winding operation,
tion, pin IOI rotates behind the yoke 90, which
it would be impossible to wind the mechanism
thereby prevents withdrawal of the key for a cer
tain portion of the winding cycle. While the key 15 beyond that point. Considering that the key
has now been rotated through 360°, it is still im
can be rotated counterclockwise and then removed
possible to withdraw the key for the reason that
after a short are of winding movement, once the
the pin IOI has passed under lever I05, this lever
pawl ‘H engages a notch in wheel ‘I0 to hold the
however, that as soon as the winding operation
starts, with key I00 rotated in a clockwise direc
spring motor partially wound, such counterclock
wise movement as would permit withdrawal of
the key is prevented. The key trapping mecha
nism also includes a bent lever I05 which is piv
oted to yoke 90 on pin 93 and in?uenced by spring
I06 on yoke 90 in a direction toward the cam 75.
rotating about its pivot point against spring I06
to permit rotation of the key. It is to be noted
that lever I05 is long enough to engage a portion
of yoke 90 thereby preventing rotation beyond
the plane of yoke 90, whereby key I00 is trapped
in its winding position. Therefore the key must
However, as the key I00 is rotated, its pin |0I 25 be turned through an additional 30° as shown in
Fig. 11, before pin IOI becomes disengaged from
engages yoke 90 and then the rear side of member
lever I05. After 30° return motion key I00 may
I05 until rotated to such a point that the trans
be removed owing to the fact that lever I05 is
mission of a restoration signal will be assured.
beveled at its free end, as illustrated at I0‘I. As
Lever I05 prevents extraction of the key since it is
of such a length that it extends beyond the key 30 this additional winding is done, the pin 11 in
main cam ‘I5 takes up the slack in slot ‘I3 in cam
hole in yoke 90 whereby key I00 must be rotated
‘I4 and pulls it through a sufficient angle so that
until clear of the lever. It should be noticed that
pin ‘I8 of cam ‘I4 engages arm 80 of stop lever ‘I9
Fig. 11 of the drawings (wherein the illustrated
and rotates the stop lever through a small angle
parts are similar to those of Fig. 12 in which ref
in
a counter-clockwise direction, thus having the
35
erence characters are applied) shows the cam ‘I5
cam surface 85 past the bent portion of spring
and the associated elements in such a position
83 where it is held as shown in Fig. 11 until forci
that pawl ‘II is out of engagement with ratchet
bly restored to the position shown in Fig. 6.
‘I0 whereby key member IOI may rotate past the
When stop lever ‘I9 rotates in a counter-clockwise
end of member I05 at which time this member is
forced back against the cam ‘I5. Pin IOI may 40 direction, arm 84 rises above operating arm 60,
allowing pin 6I to rest against the surface of
then engage the outer surface of that member so
that, as shaft 23 rotates in a counter-clockwise
direction under the in?uence of springs 20 and 2 I,
key I00 will be forced out of engagement with
shaft 23.
Since the drawings illustrate in Figs. 2, 4, 5, 6
and '7 the transmitter in its rundown condition,
the operation will be described starting with the
winding operation. When key I00 is inserted in
hub ‘I6 of cam ‘I5, pin IOI on the key engages in
a slot I02 in hub ‘I6.
The key is rotated in a
clockwise direction through 120° or until pawl
‘II on main gear 25 engages in the ?rst notch of
ratchet ‘I0 as shown in Fig. 8. After the pawl has
engaged the ?rst notch of ratchet ‘I0 it is im
possible to withdraw the key I00 since it is looked
against withdrawal by virtue of the fact that the
pin IOI has passed underneath a portion of the
yoke 90 of the keytrap and thus it will be neces
sary to continue the clockwise rotation of the
key and the winding operation before the key
cam ‘I5, and the arm 0| of stop lever ‘I9 is disen
gaged from pin 82 on gear 25 so that the spring
motor is free to drive the mechanism. As the
- mechanism runs after being released in the above
manner, code wheel H0 is rotated in the obvious
manner through one round of signals which
designate the restoration operation and cam ‘I5
rotates in a counter-clockwise direction until
notch 62 engages pin 6I as shown in Fig. 12,
whereupon operating arm 60 moves about its
pivot point 63 under the in?uence of spring 64,
the pin BI engaging the vertical surface of notch
62 in cam ‘I5 to stop the mechanism. The trans
mitter is now in its normal or rest position and
ready to be tripped for sending an alarm.
It should be noted that during the return mo
tion of the mechanism, pin IOI of key I00 is dis
engaged fr‘om slot I02 owing to the fact that pin
I 0| engages the outer sloping surface of lever I05
which surface forces the key free of slot I02 to
thereby prevent defeat of the transmitter such
as willful application of force through the key to
prevent rotation of the mechanism and trans
can be removed. Another 120° of rotation of the
key engages pawl ‘II with a second notch in
ratchet ‘I0, as shown in Fig. 9, the spring motor
mission of an alarm.
‘becoming more tightly wound. In the meantime
The vertical surfaces on pin GI and slot 62 of
cam ‘I5 is rotated and in so doing has turned the
cam ‘I5 are of particular signi?cance since if these
secondary cam ‘III by means of pin ‘II which en
surfaces were round or sloped, the motion of op
gages in the slot ‘I3 in cam ‘I4. Therefore sec
erating lever 60 would be slow and the entire
ondary cam ‘I4 is no longer holding the stop lever
‘I9 in the stopped 01' rundown position but the 70 mechanism would stop as soon as lever 65 pulled
lever 40 to the right far enough to engage a por
stop lever still cannot move as spring 83 is hold
tion of fan 36. This would occur considerably
ing it in place by engaging lug 85.
Rotation of the key I00 through another 120”
before pin 6| could be fully engaged with slot 62
and under this condition a ?re in the protected
as shown in Fig. 10 causes the notch 62’ on cam
‘I5 to pass under pin 6?I in operating arm 60-. But 75 premises could develop a pressure in the dia
£2,410,814
9.
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,
,
‘phragms I 2 and hook ‘4 2 would operate satisfac
torily, but-the ?rst operation of the mechanism
.
.
-
‘I10
.
phragms expand substantially simultaneously
and at the same rate‘. Under these circumstances
the pressure is distributed between the two‘dia
and further into engagement position, and if the
phragms and therefore the de?ection of each one
pressure did not last su?iciently long or if there
is only one-half as great as it would be in the
was slight rotary motion due to some parts not
case of a similar ?re condition at one end of the
being in exact alignment, the mechanism might
circuit. Crossbar I4. is lowered at both ends but
'stop because the‘hook 42 would engage the fan
only‘ through one-half the distance at each end
36. However, the vertical edges on pin 6! and
in
comparison to the previously outlined situation
notch 62 permit lever 68 to assume its normal po 10
Where only one diaphragm could expand. Even
sition very rapidly and thus hook 42 is moved
so, the center of crossbar It moves the same dis
into full engagement with fan 36 within one
tance
that it would when the ?re is at either ‘end
revolution thereof. Consequently when a ?re
of the circuit, and therefore hook 42 of arm 40
occurs and diaphragms l2 operate, fan 36 is re
moves through the same distance regardless of
leased and with every turn of the mechanism, "15 thelocation of the ?re with respect to the aero
levers 60 and 65 will move further and further to
tube 'circuit, and thus the center of the circuit is
the left and full disengagement position under
would carry arms 60 and 65 further to the right
h
the in?uence of pin BI and arm 60.
.
The sequence of operations described herein
exactly as sensitive to a ?re condition as theends '
of _that;circuit. This characteristic of the trip
unit 12, l5, I4, .39, 40, 42 permits adjustment
before ends with rotation of code wheel I it which 20 ping
offthe system toobtain su?icient sensitivity to a
occurs as the result of release of the driving mo
?re at the center of the circuit without rendering
tor at the end of the winding cycle. The teeth
the.system oversensitive to unusual heat condi
on code wheel H0 act on contact springs HI to
tions which may exist at the ends of the circuit
transmit a one round restoration signal through
and‘ whichdetermine the extent of sensitivity
the central oi?ce for the purpose of indicating
25 adjustment; The above described action of cross
that the transmitter has been wound and restored
arm 14 and lever v40 is thee-same for ?res one
to normal condition and is therefore prepared for
quarter-of the way along the circuit or three
transmission of an alarm signal.
quarters- of the way along-the circuit, or at any
The aero tube system illustrated by way of eX
other point in the circuit. except ‘that bothdia
ample in Fig. 1 normally consists of several cir '30 phragms will expand a proportional amount and
cuits, each of which extends through a protected
the net movement at the center of the cross-arm
area for supervising temperature changes and de
I4 will bethe same regardlessof the location of
tecting ?re conditions within that area. If a ?re
the?re with respect to the circuit. .
- ‘
should occur near one end of the circuit, pressure ..
1n the tubing will increase greatly at that end and "
When the’transmitter is started, impulse Wheel
.IIU rotates through ?ve- complete revolutions,
very little if at all at the other end, this ‘being
thereby sending a ?ve. round signal by operating
due to the well known capillary characteristics
contact springsv l H which are connected to the
of aero tubing which cause transmission of pres
sure pulses through the tubing. Assuming the , transmission line.. Cams ‘M and 15 rotate coun
terclockwise' from the normal fully wound posi
abovecondition, the pressure builds up in the left 40 tion shown in Fig, v12 through approximately
diaphragm, - this particular diaphragm being
i3'30°>until'pin ‘I8 and cam 14 engages arm 80 on
taken by way of example for purposes of illustra
stop lever 19, at. which time stop lever 19 rotates
tion. This diaphragm under the in?uence of in
in a-clockwise direction to move the projection
creasing pressure moves downwardly and lowers
‘85 to the right of the-bent portion of spring 83
one end of the crossbar M, the other diaphragm i5 and bent. arm 8| ‘rotates into the way of pin 82
remaining stationary and serving as ‘a pivot for
in main gear 25, therebyv stopping the spring mo
the operated end of the bar M. The'central por~ _ tor. At this time cam 75 opens the shunt springs
tion of crossbar M will descend only one-half as
‘I [-6, since the cutaway portion of thecam allows
far-as the active end-of the crossbar for obvious 1;; these springs to open.‘ The transmitter is now
reasons. ‘Thus lever 40 pivots about pivots ‘44, 50 in the run-down condition and requires winding,
the end 39 attached to crossbar i4 moving down
as described hereinbefore.
.
.
i
.
wardlyand the opposite end to which hook 42 is
'. Provision is made for manual operation of the
attached moving upwardly. Hook 42 moves a dis—
transmitter inthat horizontal pressure. on lug
tance equal to the expansion of they diaphragm (=1 68 of arm~60 moves the lever“! through the slot
since that end of arm 40 is twiceas long as the 55 tedlink 65 so that hook 42 of arm 40 enters slot
other end. When su?icient pressure and expan
31 .andis disengaged from .fan 36.' Thus the
sion of diaphragm l 2 occurs, hook 42 is raised out
transmitter is againreleased to operate in the
of engagement with fan 36 thereby allowing the
manner described above in connection with inie'.
mechanism to start under the in?uence of the .= . tiation of an-alarm by the aero tube system. Any
drive springs 20 and 2!. When the mechanism 60 form of manually operated push button or lever
starts, the pin 16! is lifted out of notch 62 in cam
is suitable for manually-initiating analarm but
‘15, thereby rotating operating arm 60 about its
Fig. 4 illustrates by way of example only a break
pivot 63 so that the notchedarm 65 pushes lever
glassv spring-operated rotatable lever at I20, such
40 to the left whereby the hook 42 is in line with : as that shown in Patent No. 1,434,096, granted
the slot in fan 36. Thus if the pressurerin the 65 October 31,1922, When the glassiis broken, the
operated diaphragm i 2 decreases for some reason,
spring isreleased to. exert pressure on arm 68 of
for instance, because of destruction of a. portion
leverBO, whereupon pin 6| is forced out of the
of the aero tube circuit by ?re, the mechanism
slot 62 after which further pressure is unneces
cannot be stopped from running since, hook 42
sary since operating arm 60 is maintained in the
is not only raised above fan 36 but is in alignment 70 operated position by the surface of cam 1-5 press
with the slot 31.
a
If the ?re occurs in the center of the aero tube
ingonpin6l.
a
.
The release mechanism shown iii-Figs. 3, 4, 5
circuit, that is, at a point equidistant between
and 6 ‘iis‘adjustable by' means of the screw 5|
its ends, pressure is developed. and rises equally »
which, when rotated, forces the nut 52 in a hori
throughout the tube circuit so that both dia-' 75 Zontal direction thereby lifting the yoke 45
2,410,814
11
12
through link 53 or lowering it, depending upon
the direction of rotation of screw w5|. Clock
wise rotation of screw 5| raises yoke 46 to de
crease the pressure required to release the mech
mechanism including yoke 90 and arm 105 which
not only traps the key in its operating position
until the transmitting mechanism is fully wound
but also forces the key I00 out of engagement
anism, since the end of lever arm 40 is also
raised. Rotation of the screw in the opposite
direction lowers yoke 46 and thereby increases
the pressure necessary to effect release of the
signal is being transmitted. This feature of the
invention makes it possible for the station op
erator to detect the stoppage of the mechanism
mechanism.
The two contacts mounted on the same sup
port as the spring 64 are utilized for the purpose
of actuating a local alarm or for any other de
with the driving mechanism as the restoration
during a restoration signal and prevents attempts
applying force
10 to defeat the mechanism by
through the key at the time an alarm condition
exists, as it is obvious that the key can not en
gage the driving mechanism once the mecha
nism is in its normal fully wound condition.
sired purpose such as activating relays control
ling a power source and the like when the trans
the key trapping mechanism sim
mitter is operated to transmit a signal. By ref 15 Furthermore,
pli?es the winding operation in that it compels
erence to Fig. 6 it will be seen that the outermost
a certain de?nite sequence of operations and
long contact of this pair has a spacer engaging
only those operations whereby an amateur
the upper end of the spring 64 and when this
can wind the transmitter.
spring ‘64 is in its most forward position, the
Another advantage derived from this inven
contacts are held open. However, when spring 20
tion arises from the fact that different dia
64 is moved to the rear by movement of lever
phragms of the type usually used in aero tube
60, the outer long contact of the pair follows
systems have slightly different characteristics,
such movement closing the two contact points
and thereby permitting the closing of such local
and therefore by providing the particular trip
ping
mechanism disclosed herein together with
circuit as may be provided. The two contacts 25 the adjustable yoke which supports the tripping
H6 are used in the normal manner to short out
mechanism it is possible to adjust the tension
any other transmitter following this particular
on the two diaphragms to such a degree that
transmitter in the customary loop circuit so that
they perform substantially alike. Furthermore,
such latter transmitter cannot operate during
this particular form of trip mechanism provides
30 a single adjustment of both diaphragms.
the running of this transmitter.
It is to be noted that the aero tube system has
The particular trip mechanism also makes it
increased sensitivity because the diaphragms are
possible to manually operate the transmitter by
stressed a predetermined amount by means of the
means of a simple manual trip.
weight I1 whereby a downward force is exerted
It is not intended that the tripping mecha
35
on the end of arm 40 which is attached to the
nism
operated by the aero tube system shall be
cross-arm M. The weight provides a fairly heavy
limited only to use in signal transmitters as it
gravitational force to perform the actual work
is equally adaptable for use in connection with
of operating the detent when the diaphragms
automatically operated valves in ?re extinguish
are expanded whereby instead of relying entirely
upon the aero tube pressure and the diaphragm 40 ing sprinkler systems where such valves are of
the type adapted to be opened by a tripping
as the sole source of power, they merely permit
mechanism.
It is also intended that this mech
the gravitational force exerted by weight I’! to
anism embodying the invention disclosed herein
take effect on arm 40 as the pressure increases
may be adaptable to trip any form of device
in the aero tubing circuit. Weight 11 also loads
wherein a trip mechanism is useful and neces
45
or biases the diaphragms l2 so that they actually
sary. Further advantages and modi?cations of
start operating at a point on the straight line
this invention will be apparent to those skilled in
portion of their expansion curves so that their
the art, and therefore it is desired that this in
action is more accurately predictable and greater
vention not be limited to the speci?c mechanical
movement per ounce of pressure increase is ob‘
elements shown herein but only as required by
tained. A further important advantage of the
the prior art and the appended claims. The
function of weight I‘! is the fact that lever arm
winding mechanism described and illustrated
40 is loaded in the direction in which it operates,
herein constitutes the subject matter of my co
and it is free to move in the holding direction
pending divisional application Serial No. 453.509,
whereby vibration does not cause accidental re
lease, change of adjustment, or jamming of the 55 ?led August 4, 1942, Patent No. 2,343,964, granted
March 14, 1944.
mechanism. This feature of the invention makes
I claim:
a mechanically tripped transmitter practical and
1. In combination, a mechanical tripping mech
fool-proof. Furthermore, a series of releases by
anism,
a signal transmitter controlled by said
vibration would have to occur before the trans
mitter could be accidentally tripped since, as is 60 tripping mechanism comprising a motor, an im
pulse wheel driven by said motor, a governing, fan
plainly evident, the fan 36 must go through a
number of revolutions before cam 15 can have
moved sufficiently to disengage pin 6| from slot
62 to effect actual complete release of the mech
anism,
,
From the above description it is also evident
that another important feature of this invention
driven by said motor and engaged with said trip
ping mechanism whereby release of said fan
starts said motor, a notched main cam driven by
65 said motor, a manually operable arm in engage
ment with said tripping mechanism for releasing
it, a pin in said operating arm and in engage
ment with the notch in said cam whereby move
is the arrangement of the cross-arm M for pro
ment of the cam operates said operating arm and
viding a tripping motion which is always uni
form in length regardless of the location of the 70 said tripping mechanism to positively release said
fan, a. secondary cam on the drive shaft of said
?re with respect to the ends of the aero tube
motor,
a connection between said main cam and
circuit, whereby equal sensitivity of all parts
said secondary cam whereby said main cam ro
of the circuit is obtained.
'
A still further important feature of this in
tates said secondary cam, means in positive con
vention is the provision of the key-trapping 75 nection with said motor, a pin in said secondary
-13
2,410,814
cam, a rotatable stop lever having an operating ,
arm positioned for engagement with the pin insaid
secondary cam, a lug on said stop lever positioned
to engage said means to interrupt operation of
said motor and a second lug on said stop lever
positioned to engage said ?rst mentioned arm to
prevent engagement of the pin in said arm with
14
tively release said fan, a secondary cam floating
on the drive shaft of said motor, a lost motion
connection between said main cam and said sec
ondary cam whereby said main cam may rotate in
eXcess of 360° with respect to said secondary cam,
a pin in said secondary cam, a stop lever having
an operating arm positioned for engagement with
the main cam.
the pin in said secondary cam, a lug on said stop
2. In combination, a, tripping mechanism, a sig
lever positioned to engage a portion of said motor
nal transmitter controlled by said tripping mecha 10 to interrupt its operation and a, second lug on said
nism comprising a motor, rotating means driven by
stop lever positioned to engage said ?rst men
said motor and normally engaged with said trip
tioned operating arm to prevent engagement of
ping mechanism, a notched main cam driven by
the follower in said arm with the main cam.
said motor, a manually operable arm connected
6. In combination, a mechanical tripping
with said tripping mechanism, a pin in said arm 15
mechanism, a signal transmitter controlled by
and normally in engagement with the notch in said
said tripping mechanism comprising a motor, a
cam whereby movement of the cam operates said
governing fan driven by said motor and asso
arm and said tripping mechanism to positively re
ciated with said tripping mechanism whereby re
lease said fan, a secondary cam ?oating on the
drive shaft of said motor, a lost motion connec 20 lease of said fan starts said motor, a cam driven
by said motor, an operating arm which'is manu
tion between said main cam and said secondary
ally operable to release said tripping mechanism,
cam whereby said main cam may rotate in ex
a pin connected to said operating arm and in en
cess of 360° with respect to said secondary cam,
a pin in said secondary cam, a rotatable stop lever
gagement with said cam whereby movement of
the cam operates said operating arm and said
having an operating arm positioned for engage- V
tripping mechanism to positively release said fan
and an impulse wheel driven by said motor for
ment with the pin in said secondary cam, a lug
on said stop lever positioned to engage a portion
of said motor to interrupt its operation and a
second lug on said stop lever positioned to engage
said ?rst mentioned arm to prevent engagement
of the pin in said arm with the main cam,
3. In combination, a tripping device, a motor
transmitting distinctive signals.
'7. In combination, a tripping mechanism, a
signal transmitter controlled by said tripping
mechanism comprising a motor, means driven by
controlled by said tripping device, means driven
said motor and associated with said tripping
mechanism whereby release of said means starts
by said motor and engaged with said tripping de
vice whereby release of said means starts said
erating arm linked with said tripping mechanism,
said motor, a cam driven by said motor, an op
'" a follower connected to’said operating arm and
motor, a main cam driven by said motor, a man
in engagement with said cam whereby move
ually operable arm connected to release said trip
ment of the cam operates said operating arm and
ping device, a follower connected to said arm and
said tripping mechanism to positively release said
in engagement with said cam whereby movement
of the cam operates said arm and said tripping 40 drivenmeans, and an impulse wheel driven by
said motor for transmitting distinctive signals.
‘device to positively release said motor, a rotatable
8. In combination, a mechanical tripping
stop lever having an arm, means connected with
mechanism,‘
a motor controlled by said tripping
said main cam for engaging said arm, a lug on
mechanism, means driven by said motor and as
said stop lever positioned to engage a portion of
said motor to interrupt its operation and a sec
45
sociated with said tripping mechanism whereby
release of said means starts said motor, an op
ond lug on said stop lever positioned to engage
erating arm operable to release said tripping
said ?rst arm to prevent engagement of the fol
mechanism, and means driven by said motor for
lower with the main cam.
‘ moving said operating arm and said tripping
4. In combination, a signal transmitter com
mechanism to positively release said ?rst driven
prising a tripping mechanism, a motor, means 50 means.
~
driven by said motor and engaged with said trip
9. In combination, a mechanical tripping
ping mechanism whereby release of said means
mechanism operative in a vertical plane, a sig
starts said motor, a main cam driven by said mo
nal transmitter controlled by said tripping mech
tor, an operating arm connected to operate said
tripping mechanism, a pin follower on said op 55 anism comprising a spring driven motor, a gov
erning fan driven by said motor and engaged with ,
erating arm and in engagement with said cam >
said tripping mechanism whereby vertical motion whereby movement of the cam operates said op
of said linkage releases said fan and starts said
erating arm and said tripping mechanism to posi
motor, said fan having a slotted portion, and a
tively release said motor, and a stop means having
a portion controlled by the main cam and other 60 manually operable linkage connected to said me
chanical tripping mechanism for engaging and
portions for engaging a portionof said motor to
moving said mechanical tripping mechanism in
interrupt its operation and for engagingsaid op
a horizontal plane into alignment with the slotted
erating arm to prevent engagement of the fol;
portion of said fan'to release said fan and spring
lower on said operating arm with the main cam.
driven motor.
- ‘
5. In combination, a mechanical tripping mech 65
10. In combination, a tripping mechanism op
anism, a motor controlled by said tripping mech
erative in a vertical plane, a device controlled by
anism, a governing fan driven by said motor and
said tripping mechanism comprising a slotted
member engaged with said tripping mechanism
whereby release of said member releases said de
engaged with said tripping mechanism whereby
release of said fan starts said motor, a main cam
driven by said motor, an operating arm engage 70
vice, and a manually operable linkage connected
able with and manually operable to release said
to said tripping mechanism for engaging and
moving said tripping mechanism in a horizontal
plane into alignment with the slot in said mem
tripping mechanism, a follower connected to said
operating arm and in engagement with said cam
whereby movement of the cam operates said op
erating arm and said tripping mechanism to posi
ber to release said device.
75
FRANCIS C. EVANS.
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