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Nov. 12, 1946. 2,410,817 E. L. GINZVTON EI'AL FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM Filed May 19, 1942 FIG. I TO UTILIZATION APPARATUS _|M. 7:w..T ..._W I_ ,w_..r. a.” if;n ’ m 0T 2ZM 1. Y _u| .| .EP X u R?l ma |_ F“ s A _ k “VI m m b0o M m mm Q 1m HI.wM InIYR GA _am xw. _o\ E w ,__ _P.) l____ LW ‘laNv»v 1m]A2, IRm .|cNL3 .W0RTE_ AR on.1.0. 8 l5) FMm FREQUENCY 0-0 mm m1%.!/I 4In‘!BI a A .M 73 EM AE_.1 a M M . STABILIZED OSCILLATOR °—9 s _M qn 4 _ _ M a _ 75, m .m_ m nm #rT a 09.'5 m m. F.. m2 D apm 9o 3 D\. E RakvgEvmSQu w m m DmR IF 5 A, 3 E W .I BALANCED MODU LATOR n l b VOLTAGE AMP. 0 BY ” IC A-JENKS ATTORNEY - Patented Nov. 12, 1946 . 2,410,817 ‘ UNITE-D ~ STATES PATENT OFFlCE . 2,410,817 FREQUENCY CONTROL, SYSTEM Edward L. Ginzton, Wantagh, Winslow Palmer, West Hempstead, and Frederic A. Jenk‘s, Rock ville Centre, N. Y., assignors to‘ Sperry Gyro scope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corpo ration of New York Application May 19, 1942, Serial No. 443,605 5 15 Claims. o. (01. 25o_-36) ’ 1 This invention relates,» generally, to automatic frequency control, and, the invention has refer velocity modulation oscillator, utilizing as a. ref ence, more speci?cally, to a type ‘of automatic frequency control system most useful for con locity modulation multiplier tube whose frequen trolling the output frequency of ultra high fre erence frequency a low-power electron beam ve ' cy output is stabilized as by means of a quartz quency oscillators'of the electron beam velocity crystal oscillator used in connection with a con ventional vacuum tube frequency multiplication modulation type. circuit. _ ~ In prior art frequency control systems oper A further object lies in the provision of an au ating at radio frequencies, it has been common to _ tomatic frequency control system utilizing the use a thermostatically controlled quartz-crystal 10 signal from a narrow discriminator during nor oscillator and to obtain higher frequencies there' mal operating conditions and that from a broad from by the use of conventional vacuum tube discriminator during extreme operating condi frequency multiplication circuits. At radio or tions and during “warm-up" of the system.‘ intermediate frequencies, multiplier tubes having Other objects and advantages will become ap su?icient output to drive'the succeeding multipli cation stage are well known to the art, but at the ultra high frequencies at which electron beam velocity modulation tubes of the type disclosed in prior United States Patent Number 2,242,275 en 15 parent from speci?cations taken in connection 1 with the accompanying drawing, wherein the in ' vention is embodied in concrete form. - In the drawing, Fig. 1 is a schematic wiring diagram of the pre titled, Electrical translating device, ?led October 20 ferred form of the present invention. ‘ Fig. 2 is an explanatory graph. 11, 1937, in the name of Russell H. Varian, op erate, it is di?icult to provide su?icient driving Fig. 3 is an alternate form of a portion of Fig. 1. voltage to give optimum excitation of the ?rst Referring now to Fig. 1, there is shown at l a resonator of the electron beam velocity modula conventional three resonator electron beam ve tion tube acting as the last step in the multipli 25 locity modulation tube, such as has been pre cation chain. Without such an excitation level, viously disclosed in copending application Serial further steps of ampli?cation at ultra high fre Number 393,868, entitled “High frequency tube quency would be required, thus necessitating con structure,” ?led May 1'7, 1941, in the names of trol devices for tuning many resonators, probably William W. Hansen and John R. Woodyard. The 30 individually, to the operating frequency. ?rst two resonators of the device are coupled by It is, therefore, one object of the present inven the coaxial line 2, these two resonators serving tion to provide an automatic sensitive frequency in the conventional manner as an ultra high control system especially adapted to the control frequency oscillator. Resonators I and 5 are of the output frequency of radio apparatus such electrically coupled only by the electron beam as high power ultra-high frequency electron 35 from the cathode, and resonator 5 serves in a well beam velocity modulation oscillators, the said known manner as a buffer resonator so that system being operable even under conditions of loading of resonator 5 does not a?ect the output large deviation from the desired output fre frequency of the oscillator. Ultra high frequency energy may be extracted from resonator 5 by An object of the invention is to provide an" 40 means of coaxial line 6, which may lead to any automatic frequency control system in which op desired type of utilization, apparatus. Inserted eration of the control system is relatively unin into the walls of resonators 3 and 4 are shown ?uenced by the loading of the equipment con metal or dielectric plugs 'l and 8, which may be quency. ~ inserted to a greater or lesser degree into reso A further object is to provide an automatic fre 45 nators 3 and 4 by rotation ‘of gearing 9 and Ill quency control system utilizing broad and nar by shaft H. The tuning plugs-1 and 8 distort row band discriminators adapted to control ra the electro-magnetic ?eld inside of the resonators dio equipment such as electron beam velocity 3 and 4,‘ thus altering the natural frequency of modulation oscillators or of other types of oscil these resonators, as described in United States lators over a large range to correct the effects of 50 Patent Number 2,259,690, entitled “High frequen varying operating parameters such as tempera cy radio apparatus,” ?led April 20, 1939, in the ture changes. names of John R. Woodyard, William W. Hansen, An object of the present invention lies in the and Russell H. Varian. Any other well known provision of an automatic frequency control sys type of. mechanical or electrical tuning device“ tem for control of a high power electron beam 55 may be used in connection with resonators 3, 4, trolled. ' ' 2,410,817 4 3 frequency control system using a broad band dis criminator to drive the tuning device under con ditions of large deviation from the desired output and, resonator I may be also tuned, if desired, although resonator 3 need not be, as it is not a frequency determining element. frequency, and a-narrow band discriminator to provide very tight and positive control about the desired frequency. A further advantage of the By means of coupling loop l2 inserted in res .onator 4, an arbitrary portion of the ultra high frequency energy therein is introduced through coaxial line l3 to ultra high frequency mixer i4. use of two channels is that the narrow band discriminator provides a much greater absolute This frequency f1 may be, for instance, 3000 megacycles per second. stability of the controlling output about the cho A conventional frequency stabilized oscillator 10 sen frequency than would a single broad band discriminator of equal tightness. II, which may be of the quartz-crystal variety, In Fig. 3, there is shown a modi?cation of a supplies a frequency f to a conventional vacuum portion of the system of Fig. 1 which may be tube frequency multiplier circuit ii. If the fre used to replace direct current amplifier 33 and quency multiplication constant of multiplier I6 is n, this ‘output frequency of multiplier l6 supplied 15 motor 36 and which will afford improved oper ation of the system. The apparatus and circuit through coaxial line I‘! to resonator ll of elec shown in Fig. 3 is substitutable bodily in place tron beam velocity modulation multiplier tube of that shown in the dot-dash line rectangle i3, is then nf. Oscillator l5 and multipliers l6 and I3 constitute a stabilized frequency multipli in Fig. 1, the connections to tuning shaft II and cation chain. The operation of the multiplier 20 leads 3| and 32 being clearly indicated. Here I! has been shown in copending application Se the reversing polarity direct current signal ap rial Number 416,170, entitled “A high frequency pearing on leads 3|, 32 is applied to a voltage ampli?er 39, the output of which is converted electron tube structure,” ?led October 23, 1941, by William W. Hansen, John R. Woodyard, by balanced modulator 40 to a variable magni Sigurd F. Varian, and Russell H. Varian, to be 25 tude phase reversing alternating voltage, bal that of utilization of harmonic components of anced modulator 40 being supplied by any con the velocity modulated electron beam to pro venient source of alternating current placed on duce harmonics of the frequency producing the leads 49. The output of balanced modulator 40 velocity modulation. The multiplication con is supplied to conventional power ampli?er 4|, stant of multiplier I9 is chosen so that the out 30 whose output is, in turn, applied to one coil of put frequency of resonator 2|, supplied through two phase induction motor 44, the other coil of coaxial line 20 to mixer I4, is very close to fre which is supplied from the same alternating cur quency 11. For instance, if this freq'ien'y ,f: is rent source as is balanced modulator 40. made 2975 megacycles per second, the output If desired, an anticipation signal may be ap of mixer i4 is then 11-h or 25 megacycles per 35 plied to the ampli?er input‘ 33 by use of a con second in the example given. ventional ?eld distortion generator 45, rotated by This output frequency may be further ampli extension 50 of shaft II, which is in turn at ?ed by intermediate frequency ampli?er 22 and tached to motor 44 to drive tuning plugs 8 and ID. supplied to a broad band frequency discriminator The same source of alternating current as ap 23, whose reversing polarity direct current output 40 plied to coil 43 and to modulator 40 is applied to is shown as a function of frequency at 24 in Fig. one coil, 41, of the field distortion generator 45. 2. A portion of the frequency ,fi-j: is supplied The output of the other coil, 45, is then propor by means of lead 25 to an intermediate frequency tional to the rate of rotation of shaft 50, and may mixer 26. Also supplied to mixer 26 is a fre quency 11! derived at any convenient point in fre quency multiplier i6. Frequency nf is preferably made very close in frequency to the value of ji-h. For instance, if .fi-fa is made 25 mega cycles, frequency 11f may conveniently be 30 meg acycles. The output frequency of mixer 26 is fed to intermediate frequency ampli?er 21, and from there to a narrow band discriminator 28. The reversing polarity direct current output of dis criminator 23 has the frequency characteristic shown at 23 in Fig. 2. At 30 in Fig. 2 is shown the combined output of the discriminators 23 and 26, which appears on leads 3| and 32 to be sup be applied in any convenient manner to the in 45 put of ampli?er 33, introducing a signal to the system which causes the motor to apply a torque proportional to and opposing its own motion, thus providing damping and smoothing of the oper ation of the system. As many changes could be made in the above construction and many apparently widely differ ent embodiments of this invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying draw ing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense. plied to direct current ampli?er 33. The output What is claimed is: of direct current ampli?er 33- may be conven 1. A stabilization system for stabilizing the iently supplied to the field coils 34 and 35 of a 60 frequency of an oscillator comprising, supply direct current motor 36, whose armature 31, is supplied from a source of constant voltage, such means for producing a reference voltage of a frequency somewhat different from the desired as by battery 38. It is seen that the pass bands frequency of operation of said oscillator, a mixer of discriminators 23, 28, may have any conven connected for receiving energy from said oscil later and from said supply means, a broad band ient value. It is seen that the provision of the desired fre discriminator connected for receiving a version quencies for use in the discriminators 23, 28 can of the output of said mixer, a second mixer con nected for receiving a portion of the output of be obtained in many ways. For instance, if de said first mixer and for receiving a second ref sired, a third frequency U can be derived from the frequency multiplier ii to be mixed with 70 erence voltage from said supply means, such sec ond reference voltage being of a frequency close the output of intermediate frequency amplifier 21, and, after further ampli?cation, to be ap to that of the output of said ?rst mixer, a nar plied to a‘ very narrow band discriminator in row band pass discriminator connected for re place of discriminator 28. It is seen that the ceiving a version of the output of said second mixer, means for connecting the outputs of said system shown in Fig. 1 provides an automatic 2,410,817 5 . discriminators together, tuning motive means fo eifecting tuning of said oscillator, and means con nected for combining the outputs of said dis criminators for controlling said tuning motive means. viding means for deriving a ?rst frequency differ ent from said source frequency and varying in synchronism therewith, means coupled to said source and said signal-providing means for de 6 2. In apparatus of the character described, an ultra high frequency high power oscillator, motive means for tuning said oscillator, a stabilized fre quency multiplication chain, a mixer connected , for receiving energy from said multiplication» chain and from said power oscillator, a broad ‘ riving a second frequency of a diiferent order of magnitude from said ?rst frequency and also varyingqin synchronism with said source fre quency, broad and narrow band discriminators coupled to said mixing means and said second frequency-deriving means and responsive respec tively to the greater and lesser of said ?rst and second frequencies for producing respective out band discriminator supplied from said mixer, a second mixer supplied from said ?rst mixer and put signals corresponding to deviations of said from said multiplication chain, a narrow band ?rst and second frequencies from respective pre discriminator supplied from said second mixer, 15 determined ‘values, variable means for control and means connecting the outputs of said dis ling the frequency of said source, and means re criminators in series and connected for control sponsive to the outputs of said discriminators for ling said tuning motive means. controlling said variable means. 3. Means for stabilizing the operating fre 7. In a system for automatically controlling quency of an ultra high frequency power oscilla 20 frequency, a source, means providing a signal of tor comprising, tuning motive means connected reference frequency, means for mixing voltages for tuning said power oscillator, a stabilized fre from said source and said signal-providing means quency multiplication chain, a mixer connected to produce a. difference frequency, broad and nar to be supplied with a portion of the output of said row band discriminators connected to said mixing power oscillator and with a voltage from said 25 means and responsive to said difference frequency multiplication chain of a frequency near that of to produce respective output signals correspond said oscillator, means for amplifying the differ ing to deviation of said difference frequency from ence output of said mixer, a broad band dis a desired value, said broad-band discriminator criminator connected to be fed from said ampli beingresponsive to deviations extending over a ?er, a second mixer connected for receiving a 30 relatively large range, and said narrow-band dis portion of the output of said ampli?er and for criminator being responsive only to deviations receiving a voltage from said stabilized frequency over a relatively small range, variable means for multiplication chain of a frequency near that of controlling the frequency of said source, means the output of said ampli?er, an ampli?er con for connecting said signals in series and means nected for amplifying the output of said second 35 responsive to said series connected signals for mixer, a narrow band discriminator fed from said operating said variable means. ' last named ampli?er, and means connected for 8. In a system for automatically controlling the receiving the outputs of said discriminators and output frequency of a source, stabilized frequency for controlling said tuning motive means in ac supply means, a ?rst frequency multiplier con cordance with the sum thereof. ‘ 40 nected to said supply means, a second frequency 4. Apparatus as de?ned in claim' 3 wherein said multiplier connected to the output of said ?rst means for receiving the outputs of said discrimi frequency multiplier, means for mixing the out nators comprises a balanced modulator for con puts of said source and said second frequency verting the resultant direct current output of said _ multiplier, means for mixing the outputs of said discriminators to a variable magnitude, reversible ‘ ' phase alternating voltage ‘for controlling said tuning motive means. I 5. Apparatus of the character described for stabilizing the frequency of a power oscillator having tuning motive means, comprising a stabilized frequency multiplication chain, a mixer connected for receiving a voltage from said chain and from said power oscillator to produce a difference frequency voltage, a broad band dis criminator connected to be fed with a version of said difference frequency voltage, a second mixer also connected to be fed with a version of said ?rst frequency multiplier and said ?rst mixing means, variable means for controlling the fre quency of said source, and frequency sensitive means responsive to the outputs of said mixing means for controlling said variable means, said frequency-sensitive means comprising a broad band discriminator connected to said ?rst mixing means, a narrow-band discriminator connected to said second mixing means, and means combin ing the outputs of said discriminators. 9. In apparatus for stabilizing the operating frequency of an oscillator, variable means for tuning said oscillator, a stabilized frequency multiplication chain, a mixer connected to be supplied with a portion of the output of said difference frequency voltage and with a voltage from said frequency multiplication chain of a somewhat different frequency, a narrow band 6 O oscillator and with a voltage from said multipli discriminator fed with a version of the output cation chain of a frequency near that of the of said second mixer, means for connecting the oscillator, a broad band discriminator connected outputs of said discriminators in series, means to said mixer, a. second mixer connected for re for amplifying said combined discriminator out _ ceiving a portion of the output of said ?rst mixer puts, balanced modulator means for converting and for receiving a voltage from said frequency said outputs to a reversible-phase signal for con multiplication chain of a frequency near the out trolling said tuning motive means, and generator put frequency of said ?rst mixer, a narrow band means responsive to the velocity of said tuning discriminator connected to said second mixer, and motive means for supplying a negative feed back means connected for combining the outputs of to said balanced modulator to prevent hunting of '10 said discriminators and for controlling said said tuning motive means. ' variable tuning means in accord therewith. 6. In a system for automatically controlling the 10. The apparatus de?ned in claim 9, wherein output frequency of a source, means providing a said means for combining the outputs of said signal of reference frequency, means for mixing discriminators comprises means for converting voltages from said source and said signal pro 75 the direct current output of said discriminators 2,410,817 7 8 to a variable magnitude and reversible phase alternating voltage for controlling said variable and narrow band discriminators connected to said mixers and responsive respectively to deviations of said ?rst and second di?erence frequencies from respective predetermined values, said nar tuning means. 11. Automatic frequency stabilization appa ratus comprising an oscillator, the output fre row-band discriminator being adapted to produce quency of which is to be stabilized, variable means for tuning said oscillator, means providing a ref a greater oscillator tuning effect for a small change in said second difference frequency than said broad-band discriminator. erence frequency, frequency sensitive moans con nected to said oscillator and to said reference frequency means, said frequency sensitive means embodying means operable to produce an output signal representing ‘the amount of deviation of 14. In a system for automatically controlling frequency, a source of frequency to be controlled, stabilized frequency supply means, a mixer, means for introducing a voltage from said source into said mixer, means for introducing into said mixer said oscillator frequency from a desired relation a voltage of a frequency which is a version of with respect to said reference frequency and over a relatively large range of such deviation, and 15 said supply frequency, a second mixer, means for introducing into said second mixer a voltage of also embodying further means operable to pro a frequency which is another version of said sup duce a second output signal representing the ply frequency, means introducing a version of the amount of said deviation over only a relatively output of said ?rst mixer into said second mixer, small range of such deviation, said second signal being greater than said ?rst signal for equal 20 variable means controlling the frequency of said source, and frequency sensitive means respon deviations within said small range, means com sive to the outputs of said mixers for controlling bining said signals in series, and means for con said variable means, said frequency sensitive necting the output of said combining means to means comprising a broad-band discriminator said variable tuning means to actuate said tuning 25 coupled to said ?rst mixer and a narrow-band means. discriminator coupled to said second mixer. 12. In a system for automatically controlling, frequency, an oscillator, stabilized frequency 15. High frequency apparatus comprising an ultra high frequency oscillator, means for tuning supply means, frequency multiplier means con said oscillator, a source of reference frequency, nected to said supply means, a mixer inter-con necting said multiplier means and said oscillator 30 a mixer connected for receiving energy from said reference frequency source and from said oscil to produce a ?rst difference frequency, a second lator, a broad-band discriminator supplied from mixer coupled to the outputs of said ?rst mixer said mixer, a source of second ~reference fre and said multiplier means to produce a second quency, a second mixer supplied from said ?rst difference frequency of a smaller order of magni tude than said ?rst difference frequency, fre 35 mixer and from said second source, a narrow band discriminator supplied from said second quency sensitive means for maintaining the fre mixer, and means responsive to the outputs of quency of said oscillator in ?xed relation to that said discriminators for controlling said tuning of said supply means, and means for coupling motive means. said ?rst and second mixers to said frequency 40 EDWARD L. GINZTON. sensitive means. 13. The system defined in claim 12, wherein said frequency sensitive means comprises broad WINSLOW PALMER. FREDERIC A. JENKS.