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Патент USA US2410823

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Nov. 12, 1946.
J. M. LAIHO
2,410,323
CALCULATING “CHINE
Filed Sept. 17, 1941
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Nov. 12, 1946.
J. M. LAIHO
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CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed Sept. 17, 1941
13 Sheets-Sheet 2
Nov. 12, 1946.
J. M. LAIHO
2,410,823
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed Sept. 17, 1941
13 Sheets-Sheet 3
Nov. 12, 1946.
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CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed Sept. 17, 1941
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Filed Sept. 17, 1941
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Nov. 12, 1946.
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Nov. 12, 1946.
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CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed Sept. 17, 1941
13 Sheets-Sheet l1
Nov. 12, 1946.
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2,410,823
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed Sept. 1'7, 1941
15 Sheets-Sheet 12
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INVENI‘OR.
Nov. 12, 1946.
J, M, LAIHO
2,410,823
CALCULATING MACHINE
Filed Sept. 17. 1941
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BY
‘2,410,823
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,410,823
CALCQLATIN G MACHINE
Jalmer M. Laiho, Skokie, 111., assignor to Felt &
Tarrant Manufacturing Company, Chicago, Ill.,
a corporation of Illinois
Application September 17, 1941, Serial No. 411,194
40 Claims. (Cl. 235-82)
1
This invention relates in general to calculating
machines, and has more particular reference to
the provision of means for facilitating the use of
power-driven key-responsive machines in sub~
tractive operations.
In calculating machines of the type shown in
United States Letters Patent No. 2,063,962, issued
December 15, 1936, and generally in substantially
all machines having actuating mechanism
2
key subsequently depressed in any denominational
order higher than the units order, and to auto
matically add the ten’s complement of the key de
pressed in the units order, and to add the respec
tive complements of zero in any orders where no
keys are depressed. The complemental marking
of the keys is dispensed with, so there are only the
large ?gures thereon and all chance of confusion
to the operator is eliminated.
_
adapted to drive the registering or accumulating 10
Heretofore, in machines of this type, the ac
tuating movement was immediately responsive to
mechanism in only one direction, subtraction is
depression of any ordinal key, but the present in
performed by a process of complemental addition.
vention contemplates the provision of means for
For example, if it is desired to subtract “127” from
delaying the power action or actuating movement
the number “824,” the latter is registered in the
numeral wheels of the accumulator, and the nine’s
and maintaining the keys representing the sub
trahend in a depressed, or key-set, position during
complement of the subtrahend less one, or the
a subtractive operation until released, the reason
ten’s complement of the units order and the nine’s
for which will be made evident in the description
complement of all other orders of the subtrahend,
following. In the machine of the present inven
namely, “873” is added to the minuend. This
would normally leave a result of “1697” in the ac 20 tion, if it is desired to subtract “20964” from the
number “45678,” the latter is registered in the m1
cumulator. In certain of the prior art machines,
meral wheels of the accumulator by depression of
such as those disclosed in the patents to D. E.
the keys bearing those ?gures. The machine is
then conditioned for the subtractive operation by
a manual control, and the keys bearing the fig
ures representing the subtrahend “20964” are
then depressed and will be maintained in such
position until a second control is manipulated,
lectively operable to prevent a transfer or a carry
when the nine’s complement of the first four fig
of the “10’s” thereto. In this manner, the “10's”
added to the left of the highest order of the minu 30 ures and the ten’s complement of the units ?gure
will be automatically added to the minuend. In
end in subtractive operations are eliminated. In
other words, while the keys bearing the ?gures
other of the prior art machines, the carry of the
Felt, Nos. 767,107 and 960,528, issued on August 9,
1904, and June 7, 1910, respectively, a subtraction
or carry cut-out lever is provided in association
with each denominational order of accumulator
mechanism, except the units order, which is se
"20964” were depressed, the amount "79036” was
"10's" is allowed to take place, and “9’s” are added
added to the minuend, which ordinarily would
in all orders to the left of that order in which the
?rst ?gure of the subtrahend is entered, thus 35 leave a result of “124714.” However, while the
complement of the subtrahend is being added to
bringing to zero position all of the said orders.
the minuend, “9’s” are also being added in all
orders in which no ordinal key has been depressed,
so that the correct result will be obtained. In
To aid the operator in quickly determining the 40 other words, “9's” are added in all orders to the
left of that in which the ?rst ?gure of the sub
complement of the subtrahend, it has been the
practice to imprint in small ?gures on each key
trahend occurs, in order to bring all of the higher
denominational wheels to zero position through
the nine’s complement of the larger ?gure im
a carrying operation, thereby leaving the true
printed thereon, as shown in Fig. 1 of the above
mentioned U. S. letters Patent No. 2,063,962. In 45 remainder “24714.”
The principal object of the invention, there
the machine of the instant invention, however,
fore, is to simplify subtractive operations in key
the operator is completely relieved of the respon
responsive calculatingmachines.
sibility and mental burden of determining the
Another important object of the invention is
complement of the subtrahend and locating it
upon the keyboard when performing a subtrac 150 the provision of control means operable to render
a normally key-responsive calculating machine
tive operation. This is accomplished by means of
Thus, in both instances, the correct result, “697,”
will appear on the numeral wheels of the accu
mulator.
a control key which, as will be more fully ex
key-set, for the purpose of enabling the comple
plained hereafter, upon depression by the op
erator, conditions the machine to automatically
add to the minuend the nine’s complement of any
mental values of a subtrahend to be automatically
entered in subtractive operations.
A further important object of the invention is
2,410,823
to eliminate the complemental indicia usually
employed on the ordinal keys of calculating ma
chines having uni-directional actuating mech
anism.
Another object of the invention is the provision
of means for causing entry into the accumulator
of a, calculating machine of the nine’s comple
ments of the values of the keys depressed in all
denominational orders, except the units order,
and the ten’s complement of the value of any key
depressed in the units order.
A further object of the invention is the pro
vision in such a machine of means for also caus
ing the automatic entry into the accumulator of
“9's” in all denominational orders in which no
keys have been depressed, and "10” in the units
order if no key has been depressed therein.
ii
rear of the machine and looking toward the front
thereof, with certain parts omitted to show de
tails of the subtraction control mechanism when
the machine is set for additive actuation;
Figure 16 is a similar view showing the subtrac
tion control mechanism when the machine is set
for subtractive operation;
Figure 17 is a top plan view, broken away cen
trally from front to back, of the calculating ma
chine shown in Fig. 1, showing details of the ar
rangement of the digital actuation control mech
anism and shifting means; and
Figure 18 is a detail sectional view showing the
connecting means for operating the actuating
mechanism of the over?ow order.
For the purpose of illustrating my invention,
I have shown in the drawings a key-responsive,
power-driven calculating machine similar to that
shown and described in Patent No. 2,063,962,
of normally inoperative subtraction control
means operable to condition a key-responsive cal 20 hereinbefore referred to, and with some changes
Another object of the invention is the provision
culating machine for a subtraction operation, to
gether with other control means operable to cause
actuation of the machine and automatic return
of the subtraction control means to inoperative
position.
A further object of the invention is to provide
means for insuring proper sequential operation of
as subsequently shown in United States Letters
Patent No. 2,018,933 issued October 29, 1935. Re
ferring more particularly to the drawings, the
calculating machine is shown as having an outer
25 casing 2i within which the various instrumen
talities of the machine are mounted on skeleton
frame members or partition plates 22 disposed
between the actuating mechanisms of the several
such control means.
denominational orders and secured together in
Another object of the invention is the provision
of normally inoperative subtraction control means 30 spaced relationship at suitable points by tie-rods
23. A plurality of columns of digital keys 20, nor
operable to render a key-responsive calculating
mally held in raised position by means of springs
machine key-set and to condition the digital ac
38, are arranged to extend through a keyboard
tuation control mechanism to cause complemen
25, positioned as part of the upper wall of the
tal values of the keys depressed to be entered in
casing 2i, which keys are adapted for manipu
35
the accumulator.
lation to determine the digital degree of actua
Numerous other objects and advantages of the
tion to be imparted to the different denomina
invention will be apparent as it is better under
tional orders of accumulator mechanism. Each
stood from the following description, which, when
column of keys 25 controls the rotation of an ac
taken in connection with the accompanying
drawings, discloses a preferred embodiment 40 cumulator actuating pinion as (Fig. 2) journaled
upon a transverse shaft 2? that extends across
thereof.
the machine and is supported by the frame mem
In the drawings:
bers 22. Rotation of each of the actuating pin
Figure 1 is a top plan view of a calculating ma
ions 26 is transmitted through an internal ratchet
chine embodying my invention, showing the
mechanism to a combined lantern wheel and ac
“minus” and “equals” keys located to the left of
cumulator gear 28 (Figs. 3 and 4) which is also
the several denominational orders of digital keys;
journaled on the shaft 27. The gear of the lan
Figure 2 is a longitudinal, vertical section taken
tern wheel 28 meshes with a carrying gear 30
through the calculating machine shown in Fig.
journaled on a'sha-ft 2% (Figs. 3 and s), which
1 on a plane‘adjacent a column of digital keys;
is disposed in parallel relationship to the shaft
Figure 3 is a longitudinal vertical section taken 50 2'7. The carrying gear also meshes with an inter
at the left side of the calculating machine shown
mediate gear 3| journaled on a transverse shaft
in Fig. l, with parts omitted or broken away and
32, which in turn meshes with a numeral wheel
also showing details of the accumulator mech
pinion 33 journaled on a transverse shaft 86 and
anism;
Figure 4 is a longitudinal vertical section taken 55 ?xed to a numeral wheel 35 (Figs. 3 and 4).
Carrying mechanism is provided in each de
through the calculating machine of Fig. 1 show
nominational order of the accumulator mecha
ing details of a single order of actuating mech
nism for the purpose of imparting a digital unit
anism, with parts omitted;
of actuation thereto each time that a ten’s trans
Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8 are enlarged detail views
of the subtraction control mechanism in various 60 fer is to take place from the next lower denomi
national order of the accumulator. This mecha
states of operation;
nism, as well as that hereinbefore described, is
Figure 9 is a longitudinal vertical section taken
more fully disclosed in United States Letters
through the calculating machine shown in Fig. 1
Patent No. 1,357,747, and No. 1,357,748, issued on
on a plane adjacent the overflow column and
65 November 2, 1920, and includes a carrying-cam
showing the subtraction control mechanism;
member 36 (Fig. 4), which is given a 180° rota
Figures 10, 11 and 12 are detail views of the
tion by a suitable carrying motor spring 3'1! as
digital actuation control mechanism.
sociated with a carrying gear of the next lower
Figure 13 is a detail view showing the con
denominational order for each ten’s transfer that
struction of the digital control bar, taken along
70 is to be effected. The carrying-cam member 38
the line l3——l3 of Fig. 11;
acts upon a dolly roll secured to a bell-crank car
Figure 14 is a longitudinal vertical section taken
rying-lever (not shown) to swing the latter in a
through the calculating machine of Fig. l on a
clockwise direction, viewing Figs. 3 and 4. Such
plane adjacent the over?ow column and showing
swinging oi the carrying-lever causes a carrying
the digital control shifting mechanism;
Figure 15 is a transverse section taken at the 76 pawl iii pivotally mounted on said lever to throw
2,410,823
5
6
the lantern wheel and accumulator gear 28 a suffi
cient distance to impart, through the train of
gears, a digital unit of actuation to the numeral
wheel 35.
The adding is accomplished upon depression of
the keys 24 and corresponding actuation of gear
sectors 42 (Fig. 4) which are in mesh with the
pinions 28, a said sector being associated with
each denominational section of the accumulator
unit in association with its controlling column of
keys. The gear sectors and the control and actu
ating mechanism for them are duplicated for
each denominational order of the calculating ma
chine, and a general description of a single set
on the parallel motion bar 48 is provided with a
a laterally extending lug 89, which is adapted for
downwardly (viewing Figs. 2 and 4) on an idle
or setting stroke in amount determined by the
value of the particular digital key 24 of the asso
ciated column depressed, this amount increasing
in graduating steps from "1” to “9.” The keys
24 in addition act through a power trip mecha
nism to e?ect a connection whereby power sup
plied by an electric motor, indicated generally
turns in a counter-clockwise direction.
engagement with a 111g or shelf ‘II on a spring
lifted lever 12 pivotally mounted on the guide
member 60 with the hook 58. The operation of
the parts is such that upon depression of a key
24, the stem 41 engages and depresses bar 48, im
parting motion to the parallel motion device,
which carries dog 81 downwardly to depress lever
12. A spring mounted on the pivot between the
link 58 and the hook 58 engages the lever 12 and
the hook to urge the rear end of the latter down
wardly, so that it will normally cause engagement
of the hook 58 with a toothed wheel 13 upon de
of such mechanism will be su?icient for an un 15 pression of lever 12. However, this spring con
nection between hook 58 and lever 12 will permit
derstanding of them all, except that they have
movement of the latter by the dog 81 relative to
to be arranged and adapted to cooperate selec
the hook, if the hook is restrained in its normal
tively and collectively with the power ‘members.
raised position of Figs. 2 and 4 in a manner to
The gear sectors 42 are mounted upon a shaft
43 which extends through the partition plates 20 be later described. The toothed wheel 13 is fas
tened to the power shaft 45, which continually
22 of the machine, and are adapted to be moved
The en
gagement of the hook 58 with the wheel 13 pulls
the link -59 toward the rear of the machine, or
toward the left, viewing Figs. 2 and 4, which im
parts downward motion to gear section 42,
through the yielding clutch 63. Forward motion
is thus imparted to the digital control bar 5|,
until one of several lugs projecting vertically
at 44 (Fig. 3) , through a power shaft 45, which is 30 therefrom, as will be hereafter more fully ex
plained, is stopped by the stem 41 of the key 24
connected to the motor in any suitable manner,
depressed.
is effective to extend a spring 48 associated with
The rearward motion of hook 58 and link 59,
the particular order of mechanism with which the
which are articulately connected to each other
key depressed is identified. Release of this spring
and to guide arm 68, causes said guide arm to
thereafter accomplishes adding movement in
pivot in a counter-clockwise direction about its
amount determined by the particular digital key
shaft 50 to extend spring 45, one end of which is
of the order depressed. Upon depression of said
connected to the guide arm and the other end‘
key, the gear sector 42 is moved through its idle
to a shaft or rod extending through partition
or downward stroke by the power shaft 45 into
position to impart proper and accurate digital 40 plates 22. The link 59 moves the gear sector 42
downwardly on an idle stroke and into position
accumulation to the adding mechanism upon its
to impart an adding movement upon release of
return movement, which is accomplished by the
the hook 58 and contraction of the spring 48.
associated spring 48.
The downward movement of the gear sector 42
In the calculating machine shown in the draw
ings, depression of a key 24 causes its stem 41 45 is under the control of the digital control bar SI
(Fig. 4), and the gear sector is halted when it
(Fig. 2) to engage a parallel motion bar 48 which
has been moved downwardly the proper distance,
is pivoted at the front at 49 and at the rear at
enabling it upon return to impart the degree of
5| to levers 52 and '53, respectively, which levers
digital advancement to the adding mechanism
are pivoted in turn upon cross shafts or rods 54
and 54’ extending through the partition plates 22. 50 which corresponds to the particular key de
pressed. The yielding clutch 63 permits the con
A link 55 is pivotally connected at 56 to the lever
tinuation of the rearward movement of the link
52 and at 51 to the lever 53. The bar 48, levers
59 after downward movement of the gear sector
52 and 53 and the link 55 form part of a parallel
42 has been stopped, and until the end of the
motion device, and are constructed and mounted
as shown and described in United States Letters 55 power stroke and the automatic release of the
hook 58. The release of the hook 58 is accom
Patent No. 2,063,962, earlier mentioned. Further
plished automatically in each instance, after a
and more particular description of these parts
set increment of action has been imparted to the
is therefore thought to be unnecessary. Each of
link 59, by the teeth of the wheel 13. Upon the
the gear sectors 42, as stated above, is pivoted
upon a cross shaft 43, and through a yielding 80 return stroke (the operative stroke of the gear
sector), the yielding clutch 63 permits relative
clutch 83 is articulately connected to a hook 58
movement of the parts in reverse direction to the
by a link 59 (the hook 58 and link 59 being articu
beginning of the adding movement, and there
lately connected to a vertical guide member 68
after the adding actuation is accomplished.
which in turn is pivotally mounted on a shaft 58).
It is apparent, therefore, that upon depression
Each gear sector 42 is also articulately connected
of a key 24, the digital control bar 6| determines
to a movement controlling bar, generally shown
the degree and extent of the downward move
at 6|, by a pin 62 securely ?xed to an arm 39 of
ment of the gear sector 42, and the bar 48 accom
the gear sector 42 (Fig. 4), as will be later de
plishes connection of the latter to the power
scribed in detail. A spring 64 attached to lever
53 and to a tail piece 65 of a latch member 66 70 mechanism. Means are provided to prevent re
carried by the bar 55 normally contributes to
ward holding the parallel motion device in ele
vated position, and also holds latch member 88 in
forward position for a purpose which will be pres
turn movement of the dog 61 before the hook 58
has opportunity to fully engage the toothed
wheel, which means comprise latch member 88
which is pivoted at 14 on link 55.
This latch
ently explained. A dog 51 which is pivoted at 88 75 member has an engaging arm 15 which is adapted
2,410,823
to engage upon the laterally projecting end ‘it
of the dog 61 to hold the dog down against return
upward movement and the parallel motion device
in depressed position. Just prior to the release
and construction of the parallel motion bar 89
is similar to that of bar 438, so that further de
scription thereof is not thought to be necessary,
the parts of the parallel motion device 89 being
given reference numerals having the last two
of the hook 58, a pin 11 in an upwardly extending
?gures the same as those given to similar parts
arm 18 of vertical guide member 80, which
of the bar 48, and preceded by the ?gure “2."
through its connection with hook 58 has been
Depression of “minus" control key 86 and par
carried rearwardly, engages a ?nger 19 of latch
allel motion device 89 causes forward movement
member 66 and frees the dog 81 so that the par
allel motion device may return to normal raised 10 (to the right viewing Figs. 5 and 6) of the link
255, and allows arm 215 of latch member 2% to
position. In this operation, the key 24 which has
engage the laterally projecting end 2% of dog
been operated is held depressed until release of
261, which is pivoted at 268 on parallel motion
the hook 56 from the wheel 13, when the keyvwill
device 89, to hold the parallel motion device in
be released and returned to normal raised posi
tion. A bar 8| having rearwardly extending 15 depressed position. The key 86 is also maintained
in depressed position by a tooth 9! formed on a.
pointed locking lugs or teeth 82, is pivoted upon
bar 92 which is pivoted upon studs 283 and 283'
studs 83 and 83' extending through slots 82 and
extending through slots 284i and 286' in the bar
84' in bars 58 in each denominational order of
89. Upon depression of key 86, the bar 92 is
the machine. Consequently, upon depression of
a key 24, bar BI is moved rearwardly (to the left 20 moved rearwardly (to the left viewing Figs. 5
and 6), allowing tooth 9! to enter the aperture
viewing Fig. 2), relative to key stems 4W. Refer
285 in the key stem 88. The bar 92 is also pro
ring more particularly to Figs. 15 and 16, each
vided with a vertical projection 93 adapted nor
key stem is provided adjacent its lower end with
mally to underlie the stem 88 of the “equals” key
an aperture 85 extending therethrough into
which the tooth 82 enters in the rearward move 25 81, for a, purpose to be later described.
As has already been mentioned, it is necessary
ment of the bar Bl, thus holding the key down
that the actuating action be not immediately re
until the parallel motion device is released and
sponsive to depression of the ordinal keys 2%, as
the parts returned to normal elevated position.
is normally the case, and that the keys repre
It will be understood that, while no two keys 26
of the same column or denominational order may 30 senting the subtrahend be maintained in a de
ent No. 2,043,021 issued June 2, 1936, any key of
pressed position when a subtractive operation is
being performed. To this end, therefore, means
keys representing the figures of the subtrahend
lever 95 in a clockwise direction with a conse
be operated simultaneously, as described in Pat
are provided, which are operable at the will of
one order may be operated at the same time as
the operator, for preventing immediate engage
any desired key of any other denominational
35 ment of hooks 58 with toothed wheels ‘it upon
order or orders.
depression of ordinal keys 2%. These means are
The present invention contemplates the pro
under the control of the “minus” key 38 which,
vision of means for facilitating subtractive oper
upon depression, engages an upwardly extending
ations by conditioning the machine to automati
arm 94 (Figs. 7 and 8) of a lever 95 which is also
cally control the digital actuation of the actu
ating mechanism therein in accordance with the 40 provided with a downwardly and forwardly ex
tending arm 95. The lever 95 is pivoted at 9?!
complemental value of the keys depressed in
on a pin ?xed to an intermediate plate 22, and
entering the subtrahend. Such means com
is normally maintained under tension of a spring
pletely eliminate the heretofore dual marking of
98 in its upward position, as shown in full lines
the keys in accordance with the nine’s comple
mental value thereof, thus relieving the operator 45 in Fig. 8, where further upward movement is
limited by a vertical lug 90 formed on arm 96
of the mental burden connected with determin
contacting the under surface of the bottom plate
ing the complemental value of the subtrahend.
of the keyboard 25. Engagement of stem B8 of
In the exemplary embodiment, after the machine
“minus” control key 86 with arm 96 rocks the
is conditioned for a subtractive operation, the
quent downward movement of arm at, as shown
are depressed and maintained in such position,
in Fig. '7. Pivoted to the lower end of arm 95
and the actuating movement is delayed until a
is a pawl 98 which is provided with a downwardly
second control key is depressed which automati
extending arm 99, a rearwardly extending hori
cally causes the complement of the depressed
keys representing the subtrahend to be added to 55 zontal arm fill and an upwardly extending arm
I92. The pawl is normally urged in a counter
the minuend in the accumulator. Further, si
clockwise direction (viewing Figs. 7 and 8) by a
multaneously with the adding of the complement
spring IE3, and such movement is limited by
of the subtrahend, “9's” are added in all denomi
engagement of arm fill with a pin ltd secured
national orders in which no key has been de
pressed, except the units order in which "10” is 60 to the arm 96. The lower arm 95 is normally
positioned above a pin H35 in an arm 505 which
added if no key therein has been depressed, for
is securely fastened to a transverse rock shaft
a purpose which will be more fully explained
I01. Located upon the shaft Hill and also se
hereafter.
curely fastened thereto are lock arms H98 (Figs.
The subtraction control device in its preferred
form comprises a set of keys including “minus” 65 4, 5, 6 and 1'7), one for each denominational order
of the machine, and each of which is provided
and "equals” control keys 86 and 81, respectively,
with a laterally extending lug 109 adapted, upon
(Figs. 1, 5. 6 and '7) located to the left of the
depression of control key 86 and consequent
ordinal series of keys 22 for convenient access.
counter-clockwise rotation of rock shaft it'd, to
The keys are provided with the usual stems 88
extending through the keyboard 25 and are nor 70 engage an associated vertical lug ill, one of
which is struck up from each of the hook mem
mally held in raised position by springs 238.
bers 58. The lock arms Hi8 are normally held
The lower portion of stem 88 of "minus” key
in upward disengaging position under tension of
86 is in engagement with a parallel motion bar
a spring “it, which normally maintains shaft
89 which is a modi?ed form of the parallel mo
tion bars as earlier described. The arrangement 75 ill‘! in the full line position of Figs. 7 and 8.
2,410,823
It will be readily apparent, however, that de
pression of “minus” key 86 will, through arm
96 and pawl 98, cause shaft I01 to rock, allowing
lugs I09 of all of the lock arms I08 to engage their
respective lugs VIII of hooks 58. The parts are
maintained in such locking engagement during
subsequent depression of ordinal keys represent
10
been provided in the present invention to auto
matically control the digital actuation of the
accumulator mechanism in the units order in
accordance with the ten’s complement of the
key depressed, or, if no key has been depressed,
to automatically add “10” in such order to bring
about the correct result. This is accomplished
by an arrangement or spacing of the stops on
ing figures of the subtrahend, which, as pre
the ten’s complemental stop bar “3' of the
viously explained, would normally result in a
power action through engagement of hook 58 with 10 units order (as shown in Fig. 12), different from
that of the nine’s complemental stop bar H3 in
toothed wheel ‘I3, and until released by depression
all other orders. In other words, the stops H5
of the “equals” key 81, as will be hereafter more
on the ten’s complemental stop bar “3' of the
fully explained. As earlier described, upon de
movement controlling bar 6| in the units order
pression, the ordinal keys 24 are momentarily
held depressed by engagement of tooth 82 with 15 (Figs. 10 and 12) are spaced progressively one
step further back than are the stops H5 on the
aperture 85 until the parallel motion device 48
nine’s complemental stop bars H3. The gear
is allowed to rise, when pin 11 of vertical guide
sector in the units order therefore is given a
member 60 releases latch 66, freeing dog 61.
relatively greater adding movement by the ten’s
Until engagement of the hoolm 58 with their
toothed wheels ‘I3 is allowed to take place, there 20 complemental stop bar H3’ than are the gear
sectors of all other higher denominational or
fore, it will be readily understood that the keys
ders under the control of their complemental stop
24 depressed in entering the subtrahend will be
bars I I3. The complemental stop bars H3 and
maintained in such key-set position until the
H3’ are each provided at their forward ends
hooks 58 are released from lock arms I08 and
with depending arms H6 having a bifurcated
allowed to drop into engagement with toothed ~'
portion adapted to embrace the pin 62 located
wheels ‘I3, and dog 61 has been released from
in the upwardly extending arm 39 of the asso
latch member 86 to return the parallel motion
ciated gear sector 42 (Figs. 4 and 14). As has
device and keys 2A to normal elevated position.
Means are also provided to automatically con
trol the digital actuation of the adding mecha- ‘
nism in accordance with the nine’s complemental
value of the keys depressed in entering a sub
trahend in all denominational orders except the
units order, in which the ten’s complemental
value of the key depressed is added. In other
already been described, in normal operation, upon
depression of an ordinal key 24 and engagement
of the clutch hook 58 with the toothed wheel 13,
there is a consequent downward movement of
gear sector 42 which, through its connection
with the digital control bar 6|, as just explained,
is halted by engagement of the associated stop
lug H5 on the stop bar H2 with the stem 41
of the depressed key. The resulting movement
is thus just sufficient to add into the accumula
tor an amount represented by the value of the
words, in performing a subtractive operation, the
keys used in such calculation have only single
value indicia inscribed on their top surfaces, the
complemental value of such keys depressed in
entering the subtrahend being automatically de 40 key depressed.
Means are provided, when desiring to enter
termined and added to the minuend by means
the complement of the subtrahend during a sub
now to be described. The mechanism controlling
tractive operation, for shifting the complemental
the digital actuation of the adding mechanism in
stop bars H3 and H3’ into operative relation
each denominational order is indicated gener
with the ordinal series of keys, so that upon
ally at 6| (Fig. 11) and comprises a regular stop
depression of a key and subsequent downward
bar I I2 and a complemental stop bar I I3, secured
together and spaced relative to each other by
movement of the gear sector l2, the complemen
tal value of the key depressed will be added into
means of studs II4 (Figs. 10 and 13). The bars
H2 and I I3 have formed thereon vertically pro
the accumulator, as distinguished from the actual
value of the key depressed when the regular stop
jecting stop lugs H5, the lugs I I5 of the stop bar
H2 being spaced progressively further back of
bar H2 is in operative relation therewith. The
the key stems from the front to the rear of the
lower portion of stem 88 of the subtraction con
machine, and the lugs H5 of stop bar H3 being
trol “minus” key 88 is provided with an angular
spaced progressively further back of the key stems
surface in engagement with a roll H8 which is
rotatably secured to an upright arm H9 (view
from the rear to the front of the machine (as
shown in Figs. 4, 10, 11 and 14). The stop lug
ing Figs. 14, 15 and 16). The arm H8 is fixedly
II5 of the regular stop bar H2 just to the rear
secured to a rock shaft I2I running from front
of the “1” key is spaced one step back of the “1"
to rear of the machine (Figs. 14 and 17), and
key, and the distance from each succeeding stop
having a bearing in the lateral faces I22 and
lug to its associated key stem toward the rear 60 I22’ provided in the upper portion of vertical
of the machine graduatedly increases until the
support pieces H1 and I H’, which are in turn
rearmost lug is spaced nine steps back of the
pivotally supported on the tie rods 23. Also se
“9" key. The stop lug of the complemental stop
curely ?xed to the rock shaft I2I are upright
bar H3 just to the rear of the “1” key is spaced
arms I23 and I24, located adjacent the front and
eight steps back of the “1” key and the spacing 65 rear of the machine, respectively (Fig. 14). The
graduatedly decreases until the lug back of the
upper free portion of the arm I23 is disposed in a
“8” key is spaced one step therefrom and the
small slotted portion I20 of a transverse support
last stop lug is just even with the “9” key.
bar I25 positioned near the front of the machine
It has been earlier explained that in machines
(Figs. 10, 14 and 17), which is slidably mounted
of this type it has been the necessary practice 70 in the intermediate frame plates 22 and is pro
in entering the subtrahend to enter one less in
vided with a plurality of laterally spaced, up
the units order, or, in other words, to strike the
standing pins I26 ?xed therein. The pins I23
nine’s complement of all orders except the units
are adapted to enter the open portion between
order, in which the ten’s complement was en
the stop bars H2 and I I3 of the digital control
tered to obtain the correct result. Means have 75 bars 6| to maintain proper alignment thereof
2,410,823
ll
with respect to the key stems M. A similar
transverse support bar I2‘! is mounted at the
rear of the machine, and formed thereon is a
forwardly extending, slightly offset horizontal
12
is provided with a hub portion IZQ pivoted on a
short shaft I 3| ?xed to an intermediate frame
plate 22. The lever I28 is provided adjacent its
rearward end with a downwardly extending arm
I32, to_ the lower extremity of which is securely
?xed a pin i33 adapted for engagement with the
upwardly extending arm I 02 of pawl 90. The
pawl 98 is rocked in a clockwise direction, view
ing Figs. 7 and 8, against the tension of its spring
arm (Figs. 10 and 14) provided at its forward
end with a small slotted portion I20’, similar to
the slotted portion I20 in the transverse support
bar I25, in which is positioned the upper portion
of the upright arm I24. The bar I21 is also pro
vided with pins I26’ adapted to be embraced by 10 I 03, upon depression of the “equals” key 81.
Such clockwise movement of the pawl 98 causes
the open portion of the digital control bars ill to
its lower arm 99 to be swung rearwardly to be
maintain proper alignment of the rear ends
disengaged from pin I05 of arm I06, allowing the
thereof with respect to the key stems 41. The
shaft I07 to be rocked clockwise under the ten
rock shaft I2I and the support bars I25 and I21
and digital control bars BI are normally main 15 sion of its spring I00. The lock arms I08 are
thus removed from locking engagement with the
tained in the position of Fig. 15 under tension
lugs III formed on the hooks 50, thereby allow
of a spring I30 interconnected between the lower
ing those hooks 5B in the denominational orders
end of the arm I23 and a frame plate 22 to retain
in which digital keys have been depressed in the
the regular stop bars I I2 in operative relationship
20 previous setting of the subtrahend into the key
with their associated digital key stems.
board to drop into engagement with their toothed
With such an arrangement, it will readily be
wheels 13 (Fig. 7).
perceived that upon depression of the “minus”
As has been mentioned, it is necessary that
control key 86, the resulting movement of arm
“9’s” be added in all denominational orders in
II9 to the left (viewing Figs. 15 and 16) will
cause the shaft IZI to be rocked counter-clock 25 which no digital key has been depressed, and
that “10” be added in the units order if no key
wise to shift the support bars I25 and I2‘II to
has been depressed therein, for the purpose al
the left, through the medium of upright arms
ready explained. To accomplish this, the lever
I23 and I26. The digital control bars GI, sup
I28 is provided at its forward end with a second
ported by the bars I25 and I27, will similarly be
shifted to position the stop bars H3 and H3’ 30 downwardly extending arm Iaél provided with a
bifurcated lower portion I35 embracing a pin
in operative relation with the stop portions I9
I36 fixed in the curved upper end of a lever Isl.
of the key stems 41. It will be apparent that
The lever I31 is securely ?xed to a tranverse rock
when either of the stop bars H2 or H3 is in op
shaft I38 and is urged in a rearward or counter
erative relation with the stop portion I9 of the
ordinal key stem, the other stop bar is completely 35 clockwise direction, viewing Figs. '7 and 8, under
tension of spring I00. Also securely fixed to the
out of operative relation therewith. This is ac
complished by means of a slot 40 which is cut in
rock shaft I38 are a plurality of upright arms
I39, spaced transversely across the machine in
each denominational order thereof, the upper
H3 and H3’ when the stop bars II 2 are in e?ec 40 extremities of said arms being in engageable re
lationship with pins I4I in links 55 (Fig. 2). De
tive or operative position relative to the key stems
pression of the “equals" key 81, as has already
41, as shown in Fig. 15. When the stop bars
been described, rocks lever l28 upon its pivot,
H3 and H3’ are in effective or operative posi
thus swinging its forward arm I36 upwardly to
tion relative to the key stems 41, then the stop
bars II2 will pass freely by the stop portions I9 45 rock the shaft I38 forwardly. Such movement
also swings all of the arms I30 forwardly, there
at the left of the key stems, as viewed in Fig. 16.
by urging the links 55 in a forward direction.
As has been previously described, the parallel
Movement of any of the links 55 in this manner
motion bar 89 and “minus” control key 88 are
imparts motion to the associated parallel mo
maintained in depressed position after actuation
of the latter, and lock arms I08, in conjunction 50 tion device to cause depression of the hook 58
controlled thereby into the path of its associated
with the vertical lugs I I I, are in position to pre
toothed
wheel ‘I3, which results in an adding ac
vent engagement of hooks 58 with the toothed
tuation in that denominational order. Movement
wheels 13, which otherwise would result in an
of the parallel motion device not having result
actuating movement upon depression of an or
dinal key when entering the subtrahend in a 55 ed from depression of a digital key 26 in such
order, it will be readily apparent that bar 6|
subtractive operation. The ordinal keys de
which controls the digital setting of the gear
pressed in entering the subtrahend are main
sector 42 will receive full forward movement,
tained in such depressed or key-set position fol
with a consequent maximum downward move
lowing depression of the “minus” control key 86,
and the parallel motion bars of the respective 60 ment of the gear sector su?lcient to add “9” into
the accumulator upon the upstroke of the sector
orders cannot return to normal because of the
under tension of spring 4t. When no key has
lateral ends of their dogs I37 having been engaged
been depressed in the units order, that is, when
by the associated latch members 66, which re
the lower portion of each of the key stems 41 and
is adapted to be in alignment with the stop bars
main in such engaged position until a power ac
tion takes place, as earlier described.
Means are also provided, therefore, for releas
ing the clutch hooks 58, after the subtrahend has
been set upon the keyboard, to enable their en
gagement with the toothed wheels ‘I3 to allow
a zero occurs in the units order of the subtra
65 hend, forward swinging of the arm I39 therein
will likewise cause maximum downward move
ment of the gear sector 62, but the resultant up
stroke by the spring 115 will add “10” into the
units order of the accumulator, rather than the
the complement of the subtrahend to be added 70 “9's” added in the other orders in which no keys
were depressed.
into the accumulator mechanism to complete
In machines in which the present invention is
the subtractive calculation. The means for ac
embodied, there is usually provided an “over
complishing this is under the control of the
?ow” numeral wheel I50 (Fig. 1) to which is
“equals” key 81, the stem 88 of which is in‘ en
gagement with a lever I28 (Figs. 7 and 8) which 75 transferred the carry of the “10’s” resulting from
2,410,823
13
14
operation of the actuating mechanism in the last
plained, the guide member 60 in that order will
be pulled rearwardly and, by its connection with
guide member 260 of the over?ow order through
the lock piece I54, the gear sector 242 of the over
flow order will be given a maximum downward
movement to add “9” upon its upward movement
under the action of spring 246.
or highest denominational order.
Formerly, in
such machines, a subtraction or carry cutout
lever was provided in association with each de
nominational order of accumulator mechanism
which was selectively operable to prevent a trans
fer or a carry of the “10’s” thereto from a lower
denominational order.
The present invention,
however, contemplates the provision of actuating
As the guide member of the over?ow order is
moved rearwardly as just described, pin 211 lo
mechanism in the over?ow order for automati 10 cated in the upward extension of vertical arm
218 of the guide member 26!) engages ?nger 219
cally adding the value of “9” to the accumulator
on the latch 266 to swing the latch member in a
mechanism of that order to bring to zero posi
clockwise direction from its operative position
tion the numeral wheel of that order when a
of Fig. 6. The dog 261 is thus freed from am
“1” has been carried thereto by the entering of
the complemental value of the subtrahend and 15 215 of the latch 288 to allow parallel motion bar
89 to return to its normal raised position to re
the subsequent carrying of the “9’s” across the
move tooth 9I from aperture 285 in the stem 88
register as just described. To this end there is
of key 86. While this release of latch 288 will
provided a sector 242 (Fig. 9) similar to the sec
normally allow the associated spring 238 to re
tors 42 already described and mounted on the
shaft 43, but directly connected to the guide 20 turn the “minus” key 86 to its upper or inopera
tive position, such operation cannot take place
member 280 by means of a link 259, which is
unless downward pressure has been removed
pivotally connected to the sector 242 at I42 and
from the “equals” key 81 and the latter has been
to guide member 260 at I43. A spring 246 con
returned to inoperative position by its spring 238
nected at I44 to guide member 268 and to a rod
extending through the intermediate frame plates 25 to remove the stem 88 thereof from the path of
movement of the projection 93 on bar 92.
22 at I45 normally serves to maintain the guide
Means are provided for preventing the relatch
member 260 and gear sector 242 in the position
ing in a depressed position of parallel motion bar
of Fig. 9. Rearward movement of the guide
89 and “minus” key 86 if the "equals” key 81 is
member 260 will, through the link connection
259, cause the actuating sector 242, to be moved 30 allowed to rise while key 88 is still being held
depressed by the operator, or if the "equals" key
downwardly in its idle or setting stroke, and
81 is held down by the operator. To this end,
spring 246 will return it ‘to normal raised posi
there is provided a forwardly extending arm I58
tion in an adding movement in the manner pre
viously explained, relative to the regular sec
on latch 266 of the overflow order which is
tors 42.
35 adapted to engage the face of a lip or lug I8I
formed at the extremity of a vertical lever I62
Rearward movement of the guide member 260
in the over?ow order is accomplished through
(as shown in Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 9). The lever I62
is moved slightly forward against the tension oi’
connection with the guide member 80 of the next
its spring I63 by the arm I59 when parallel mo
lower denominational order, or that order to the
tion bar 89 is depressed by the “minus” key 88,
right (viewing Figs. 1 and 18) of the over?ow
and link 255, to which the latch 286 is pivoted, is
order. Upon forward movement of link 255 when
moved forwardly. Subsequent operation of the
parallel motion bar 89 is depressed by “minus”
“equals” control key 81 causes rearward move
control key 86, a pin I46 ?xed to the link 255
ment of the guide member 268 of the over?ow
urges forwardly an upright arm I41 with which
it is normally in engagement (Figs. 5, 6 and 9). 45 order, as already described, whereupon pin 211 of
guide member 260 engages the ?nger 219 of latch
The upright arm I41 is part of a lever I48
member 288 to swing the latter in a clockwise
mounted upon a short shaft I49 and urged in a
direction from its position of Fig. 6 to its position
counter-clockwise direction under tension of a
spring I5I (Fig. 5). The lever I48 is also pro
of Fig. 7. In such movement of the latch 288,
vided with a downwardly and forwardly extend 50 the arm I59 thereof is swung beneath the lip or
ing arm I52 in the forward extremity of which
lug I8I on the lever I82, and the latter is moved
is located a pin I53 in engagement with the upper
rearwardly in a counter-clockwise direction by its
surface of a lock piece I54. The lock piece I54
spring I63 to maintain the latch 266 in inopera
is pivotally secured at I55 to a horizontal arm
tive position. In this position, the downwardly
I56 formed on vertical arm 2118 of guide member
extending arm 215 of the latch 268 is to the rear
260 in the over?ow order (see also Fig. 18), and
extends rearwardly and is offset into the next
lower denominational order where it is adapted
of projection 216 of dog 281, and the dog cannot
be relatched in such position until the parallel
motion bar 89 has been allowed to return to its
to overlie a pin I51 secured to the guide member
upper or normal position and has again been de
60 of that order. The lock piece I54 is normally 60 pressed by the "minus” key 88. Thus the sub
maintained in its disengaged position of Figs. 5,
tractive control devices are compelled to return
8 and 9 uder the tension of spring I58. Upon
to normal position after a subtractive operation,
depression of “minus” key 86, however, and for
and the machine is automatically conditioned for
ward movement of link 255, the lever I48 is
additive operation.
rocked in a clockwise direction urging the lock 65
Means are also provided to insure the proper
piece I 54 into engagement with pin I51 of the
sequence of depression of keys 86 and 81, re
guide member 80 of the next lower order, where
spectively. This means comprises bar 82, earlier
it is maintained until parallel motion bar 89 is
described, and its stop 93. In the normal or in
released and allowed to rise to normal position.
operative position of Fig. 5, stop 93 is directly
Upon engagement, therefore, of hook member 58 70 beneath the lower surface of stem 88 of the
with toothed wheel 13 in the denominational
“equals" key 81 to effectively prevent depression
order to the right of the over?ow order, either
of the “equals” key 81 before the “minus” key 86
resulting from setting of a digital key 24 therein
is depressed. Upon depression of key 86, however,
and/or depression of the "equals” control key
the bar 92 is moved rearwardly to the position of
81 and release of lock arms I08 as already ex
76 Fig. 6, due to its pivotal mounting upon the paral
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