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Патент USA US2410835

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Nov. 12, 1946.
Filed Sept. 25, 1945
Human. l1. MouTAeue
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
2,410,835 .
Homer It. Montague, Washington, D. G. I
Application September 25, 1945, Serial No. 618,594
.2 Claims. (Cl. 179—100.4)
(Granted under the act of “:March 3, '1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; .370 0. G.‘ 757)
type, or the type which uses a sleeve of recording
material stretched between two parallel mandrels.
Broadly, my system contemplates the use of a
The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for the Government for
governmental purposes, without the payment of
any royalty thereon.
transcribing device of the type commonly used
with the particular type of record which it is de
sired to‘ transcribe, but modi?ed in such a way
that the transcribing process can be intermittently
stopped and started with substantially no time de
This invention relates to a transcribing device
of the type used for the aural reproduction of
speech, telegraphic code or other signals which
have been recorded in more or less permanent
form upon any of the common media used for
lay. In general, I accomplish this by arranging
such purpose,'such as disks, cylinders, and belts. 10 the‘ principal driving system of the transcribing
machine for constant rotation, and I provide a fly
wheel or the like to increase the rotational energy
In the ordinary process of transcribing dicta-- '
tion, other speech signalsor indeed, signals of any
kind, the transcribing operator listens to the ma
terial as it is played by a reproducing machine,
and operates a typewriter to take down, withor 15
without necessary decoding or translating, the
material reproduced by the machine. Since the
speed at‘ whichthe signals are reproduced bythe
machine is often greater. than the speed with
which the operator can transcribe such signals, it 20
is common to provide means permitting the repro
ducing ‘machine to beslowed down, that is, run
at a speed slower than that corresponding to the
speedat which the record was made. .In the case
of speech signals, however, such slowing down
has the e?'ect of altering the pitch of the recorded
voice in direct proportion to the reduction in rec-‘
0rd speed. Experience has shown that the maxi
mum amount. of slow-down which. canbe used
with speech records is about‘ 20%, greater re
ductions resulting in lack of intelligibility of the 1
signals. In the case of code signals, such as tele
of such parts. This driving system is coupled to
the record-carrying part, that is the turntable or
mandreL-by a very rapidly acting clutch, such as
a magnetic clutch. The record-carrying parts are
made so as .to have, as littlev inertia as possible so
that it‘ can be brought to a standstill very quickly
when the clutch is deenergized, but with suflicient
damping, so as to be capable of being accelerated
" very quickly when the clutch is engaged.
"I provide the output of. the, reproducer with a
sensing system which is capable of sensing pauses
in the reproduced signal, and which is so arranged
as to control the action of the clutch to stop the
transcriber automatically for a predetermined
time immediately upon the cessation of substan
tial signal, and then to start it again for continua
tion of the reproducing process. This results in
the insertion of delay ‘between speech or code ele
ments without substantially affecting the pitch
of the signals as such.
My invention will be described in more detail in
graph code, the recorded note is likewise reduced
connection with a proposed. embodiment thereof
in pitch by the speed reduction, and substantial
reductions in record speed result in a lowepitched 35 applicable‘ to a known type of recording and re
producing apparatus, but it is to be understood
note which is “muddy” and of low intensity. In
that it is also applicable, by suitable modi?ca
both cases, the speed reduction also results in an
tions, to other known types of records and proc
undesirable reduction of the ratio of signal
esses. The selected example of my invention is
strength to background noise level.
It is an object of my invention to provide a 40 illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which
‘ Figure l is a schematic diagram of a transcribing
transcribing device which enables records of sig
device-equipped with my invention, while Figures
nals of all kinds to be reproduced by an operator
2 ‘and 3 are respectively illustrations of oscillo
whoseability could not cope with the speed of the
graphic' records of code and voice recordings of
original signal, and to do this without any varia
tion of the pitch of the signal. In effect, my in 45 the type which are to be transcribed.
Referring now to Figure 1 of the drawing, I
vention enables a slowing down» of the signals
designates one of a pair of parallel, spaced man
emitted by the reproducer, without a concomitant
drels adapted to carry a belt-like sound record
reduction in the ‘audio pitch. I-accomplish' this
new result by inserting a metered amount of'de-v
having a helical sound track thereon, such as is
lay between successive portions of the signal," 50 used in a well-known recording system. Repro
duction of the material contained in the sound
without in any way altering the speed at'whie
track is accomplished by the usual pick-up ele-‘
the words or code groups as such are reproduced.
My invention is applicable to any known type of
transcribing, system, whether of the wax cylinder
ment 22 which has a stylus that rides in the track.
Rotation of the mandrel I, and hence of the rec
type commonly used for oflice .dictation,ithe disc5 55 ord, is accomplished by a drive ‘system consisting
of a driven disc 3 and a, driving disc 4 constituting
9 is energized, and the magnetic clutch is en
the two plates of a magnetically operated clutch.
gaged. Therefore, when motor 8 is started, the
mandrel I begins to rotate, and continues to
Disc 4 is shown as a pulley, and is driven by a
belt 6 from a second pulley ‘I which is in turn
driven by the usual motor 8. In order to accom
plish the required rapid starting and stopping of
the reproducing process, I provide a, heavy ?y
rotate until the existance of signal on the sound
track produces output from pick-up 22 and hence
from ampli?er II). This signal, recti?ed and ap
plied to relay I5 causes the latter to operate,
wheel 5 on the driving side of the system, the same
?rst making contacts I1 and then breaking con
tacts I6. Relay I9 is at once deenergized, but
being here shown as connected to the pulley or
drive disc 4. The control coil of the magnetic 10 the opening of its contacts 20 does not disen
clutch is illustrated at 9, it being understood that
gage the magnetic clutch, because the circuit to
upon energization of coil 9 the discs 3 and 4 are
pulled into engagement so that mandrel I is driven
at its normal speed, while upon deenergization of
coil 9, the discs are disengaged to enable mandrel
I to come to a quick stop. If necessary, braking
coil 9 is maintained by contacts I'I. So long as
there is no pause, such as a word space, in the
signal, the device continues to reproduce through
speaker II or the equivalent reproducer.
As soon as there is a sensible interruption in
the signal, the output of ampli?er I0 decreases
rapid stop, although I have found that there is
and relay I5 falls down, making contacts I6 and
immediately thereafter breaking contacts II.
sufficient friction in existing mandrel bearings,
and in other parts normally connected to the man 20 The coil of relay I9 is hence energized, but due
drels to make such a brake unnecessary.
to its slow-to-operate construction, its armature
The signal output from pick-up 22 is applied,
does not at once pull up, and contacts 20 remain
mechanism may be provided to ensure a more
open for a short time, which is predetermined
as is usual, to a vacuum tube ampli?er designated
by the adjustment of the relay. Since both con
II], the output of which is fed to a loudspeaker
or other reproducer II. In order to enable the 25 tacts I1 and 20 are open, clutch coil 9 is deen
transcribing process to be stopped or delayed
ergized and the clutch is disconnected, mandrel
I and its record immediately becoming stationary.
automatically between groups of code signals or
between the words or syllables of speech, I con
This condition persists until the operate time of
relay I9 has expired, whereupon it pulls up, clos
nect a suitable recti?er, such as a dry disc recti
?er I2, to the output of the ampli?er ID, and 30 ing contacts 20, whereupon coil 9 is again ener
apply the recti?ed signal energy through a voltage
gized and the‘ mandrel again begins to rotate.
divider I3, I4, to a relay I5 which is of the quick
It will be seen from the above that the opera
acting type so that it will pull up and drop out
tion of the relays is to insert an additional delay
in the transcribing process,’ and that such delay
as the signal level from ampli?er In rises or falls,
these variations corresponding to normal pauses 35 is inserted only at points in the reproduction at.
in recording signals, such as the character spaces
which there is zero signal, corresponding to
pauses in the dictation, or relatively long spaces
syllable spaces of ordinary speech.
in the case of Morse code records. Further, it
Relay I5 has two pairs of contacts, a normally
is apparent that such insertion will notrresult in
closed pair I6 and a normally open pair I1, so 40 any distortion of the signals being reproduced,
arranged that, upon energization of relay I5, con
since the delay cannot be inserted at any point
other than one corresponding to zero signal.
tacts I‘! close shortly before contacts I6 open.
The contacts I 6 are used to control the operation
The operation of the device will be more clearly
, understood by referring to Figure 2 of the draw
of a second relay I9, which is of the type which
is “slow to operate”, that is, one whose armature 45 ing, representing the time-variations in the ampli
tude of the recorded signal in the case of a Morse
is not operated until a short time has elapsed
record. Portion 2a of Figure 2 represents a Morse
since its coil was energized. One common type
dot, portion 2b represents a dot-space, portion 20
of such relay has a copper slug surrounding the
represents a Morse dash, and portion 2d repre—
core adjacent the armature end thereof, eddy
currents in which retard the building up of the 50 sents a dash-space, that is, a character space. In
‘ordinary Morse, the space between characters is
magnetic flux through the armature and hence
approximately three times as long as the dot
delay its operation; this type of relay will, how
space; hence, if relay I 5 is so adjusted as to release
ever, release promptly upon deenergization of
after its circuit has been open for a length of time
its coil. The delay characteristics of such a re
lay can be adjusted in various ways, such as 55 slightly longer than one dot-space, the pause in
the transcription process will be introduced only
by adjusting the air gap between the core and
between each two characters. This is desirable
the armature, the spring tension employed on
since the operator recognizes Morse characters as
the armature, and other factors.
units, and interruptions within a character would
Relay I9 is provided with a single pair of nor
mally open contacts. Current for the operation 60 possibly result in confusion.
Figure 3 represents the amplitude envelope of,
of relay I9 may be obtained from any source,
such as a battery I8, connected through con
a recorded voice signal, portions 311 and 3c reptacts it of relay l5 to the coil of relay I9.
resenting two syllables of a word, or two short
Contacts I‘! of relay I5 and 26 of relay I9 are
words spoken in quick succession, while portion
connected in parallel, the closing of either set 65 3d represents a pause ‘between words. It Will be i
completing a circuit from any convenient power
understood that voice signals do not have the
source, such as the A. C. supply 2|, to the coil 9
regularity of Morse code signals, and that often
of the magnetic clutch controlling the move
successive syllables are found without any sub-P
ment of mandrel I.
stantial decrease in amplitude therebetween,~
The operation of the device is as follows: prior 70 while on the other hand there may be substantial‘
to the starting of motor 8, there is, of course, no
pauses within certain words. Nevertheless, I
output from pick-up 22, and hence none from
have found that the insertion of the delay in re
ampli?er I9. Relay I 5 is therefore not energized,
production at points which exhibit low amplitude‘
contacts I6 are closed, and hence relay I9 is
'results in a slowing down of the average rate of j
energized and contacts 20 are closed. Hence coil 75 delivery without a decrease in intelligibility. At
between letters of Morse code, or the word or
worst, this non-regularity of speech has the effect
of occasionally breaking up a word into its syl
lables or of reproducing a burst of short words
without any delay being inserted. In either case,
an operator familiar with the language has no
more trouble transcribing such matter than he
plated that the controls necessary for the ad
justment of the various time delays described
above will be brought out to convenient posi
tions for adjustment. Also, it is contemplated
that the same overall result can be accomplished
by other means, for example by the use of elec
tronic delay circuits in place of the electro
would transcribing the natural speech of persons
mechanical relays described in detail herein.
whose delivery speed has a similar and quite nor
Therefore, I do not intend to limit myself to any
mal variation.
particular means for accomplishing the novel re
I have earlier characterized relay [5 as being
sult disclosed herein, and I desire to include with
of the quick-acting type. This must be under
in the scope of my invention all the changes and
stood in a relative sense, that is, that the operate
modi?cations which lie within the scope of the
and release times of relay [5 are both shorter
appended claims.
than the operate time of relay l9. However, the
release time of relay I5 is made moderately long, 15 _ I1.claim:
In a transcribing device of the type in which
in order to prevent the stopping of the mandrel
a sound record is moved relative to a reproducing
when there is a very short pause in the signal
pick-up to produce an audible signal, means for
(such as in the dot-space between elements of a
inserting a predetermined delay between succes
Morse character); otherwise it might be impos
sible to re-start the mandrel without clipping a 20 sive elements of the signal as reproduced, com
prising means sensitive to the presence and ab
portion of the signal immediately following such
sence of signal energy in the output of said de
short pause.
vice, means responsive to the condition of said
As an example of the characteristics required
sensitive means for stopping the relative move
in the relays, suppose that it is desired to tran
scribe Morse signals recorded at the rate of 40 25 ment of said record and said pick-up after a con
dition of substantial absence of signal from the
output of said device has existed for more than
a predetermined interval, and means for auto
20 words per minute. The length of an average
matically causing a resumption of said relative
Morse character is about 10 times the length of
the dot-unit, hence the speed of 209 characters 30 movement after the lapse of a predetermined
time measured from the operation of said stop
per minute corresponds to about 2,000‘ dot-units
ping means.
per minute, and the interval between characters,
words (200 characters) per minute, and. that the
operator is able to transcribe at a top speed of
2. In a device for the reproduction of recorded
the dash-space, is about 1%,000 of a minute, or
sounds consisting of discrete signal elements,
about 0.1 second in length. In other words, the
interval between the elements of a character 35 means for effecting relative movement between
a sound record and a reproducer system, an am
would be about 0.03 second, and the interval be
pli?er for amplifying the output of said repro
tween characters would be about 0.1 second. In
ducer system, means for converting the output
order for relay l5 to effect the insertion of the
of said ampli?er to audible sound, a relay con
of each character, it is essential that the release 40 nected to the output of said ampli?er and adapted
to break a normally closed circuit in response to
time of relay [5 be somewhat greater than 0.08
the existence of signal energy in the output of
second, and it may be almost as large as 0.1 sec
said ampli?er, a slow-to-operate relay in said
ond. This will insure that relay [5 will accom
normally closed circuit, and a pair of normally
plish the insertion of the delay only between suc
open contacts adapted to be closed upon opera
cessive complete characters.
tion of each of said relays and connected in par
It is clear that, to accomplish a change in the
allel in a second circuit, a source of energy in said
average rate of reproduction of the signals from
second circuit and electromechanical means in
200 characters (40 words) per minute to 100
said second circuit and responsive to a flow of
characters (2'0 words) per minute, about 1,1300 of
a minute delay must be inserted after each char 50 energy therein for initiating relative movement
between said record and said reproducer system,
acter. This will be accomplished if relay [9 has
whereby such relative movement will be inter
an operate time of approximately 1/200 minute, or
predetermined delay only after the completion
0.3 second.
In order to increase the flexibility of the device
and make it useful in the reproduction of signals
at all speeds, as well as to meet the requirements
of operators of different abilities, it is contem
rupted upon a substantial cessation of signal in
the output of said ampli?er, and will be resumed
only after the expiration of the operating time
of said slow-to-operate relay.
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