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Патент USA US2410840

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NOV. 12, 1946-,
A. L. SAMUEL
I
2,410,840
ELECTRON BEAM MODULATbR
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Filed lay a, 1942
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207
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INVENTOR
A. LSAMUEL
BY
.
2,410,340
ncrnon n
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Monroe‘ ~ -
Arthur’ L. Susi, .S I
mit, N. .11., assignor to '
Belt Teiephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New '
YormN. 2.,‘ a corporation of'New York
Application May 6, 19d2,-Serlai No. 441,937 ~
3
"5 Claims. .(ci. 250-20)
This invention relates to electronic devices, par- _
from said gun to the collector 3. A pair of adja
cent discs 2“ and 2I2 respectively form parts of
An object of the invention is to intermodulate ' " opposing walls of an input resonator I20. vThe
waves of di?erent frequencies by virtue of non
disc 2" may have attached thereto av short tube '
linear actions in a system comprising an electron
2I8 aligned with the aperture and extending out
stream associated with a plurality of electrodes,
wardly
with'respect to the walls of the resonator
particularly in frequency shifting arrangements
I20, The disc 2I2 has fastened to the edge. of
for radio repeaters, ?rst and second detectors in
the aperture therein a relatively long,- ?aring tube
- superheterodyne receiving systems, and the like.
:22. longitudinally of the path of the electron‘ ‘
Another object of the invention is .to facilitate 10 stream'a gap I2! is- de?ned between‘ the central h
the omration and tuning of ampli?ers, oscillators
portion of the inner surface-of the disc 2“ and
and the like,‘ especially those employing resonat
ticularly for operation at ultra-high frequencies.
ing chambers or cavity resonators. -
the small and of the tube I22. The disc 2| 3 has
fastened to the edge of the aperture therein a
'
A feature of the invention is a system to ef
ring-shaped electrode. I24 positioned adjacent to
fect frequency conversion employing an electron 15 the large end of the tube I22. An annular gap
beam and one or more resonating chambers, in‘
I23 is de?ned between the adjacent ends of the
which the output is obtained at the frequency of . tube
I22 and the electrode I24. ‘A pair of adja
a local energy source.
- ~ ,
cent discs 28d and 2I5 respectively form parts of .
Other features include ?ne adjustment and
walls of an intermediate resonator I28.
broad-band tuning arrangements for a resonat 20 opposing
The'disc 2H4 supports a ?aring tube I20 similar.
ing chamber.
_
. .
to but inverted with respect to the tube I22 with
~ This application includes subject matter orig
the
large end of the tube I26 de?ning together
inally disclosed in my copending application, Se
with the upper edge of the electrode I24 an an
rial No. ‘112,067,, ?led September 24, 194:1.
nular gap I25. ' The disc 2I5 may have, attached
‘Further objects and features of the invention 25 to
its outer side and ‘surrounding the aperture, a
will be apparent from the following detailed de
short tube 2I9.‘ A gap I21 is
scription and the accompanying drawing, while
de?ned- between thev
central portion of the inner surface of‘the disc
the scope of the invention is de?ned in the ap- .
‘
'
The
walls
of
the
resonator
I20
should
be
con
The single ?gure of the drawing represents a 30
pended claims,
2 I5 and the small end of the tube I26. .
'
ductive, or should at leasthave conductive inner
surfaces. The tubes'l22, I26, 2I8 and N9 and .
preferred embodiment of the invention.
Referring to the drawing, an evacuated, in
sulating envelope I is represented as enclosing a
plurality of elements including a suitable source
the ring ‘I26 should be conductiveand should be
conductively fastened to their respective support
ing discs.
of'an electron stream such as an ‘electron gun or 35
beam projector shown generally at 2, and an‘elec;
tron ‘I intercepting electrode or collector 3. The
electron gun 2 is provided with an electron. 'e'mit-'
_
”
‘
'
The‘ portion of the arrangement so far de- y
scribed is similar to one disclosedand claimed in
my copending application Serial No. 388,031, ?led
April 11, 1941, and assigned to the assignee of the ting cathode 9 which may be associated with any
present application. The resonator I20 may be .
suitable heating means energized, in the embodi- 40 connected with a suitable wave guide for supply
men-t illustrated, through leads I0 and‘ “by a
ing incoming waves to the resonant system, the
source ii of electromotive force. Associated with.
guide being separated from the resonant cham
the cathode Q there may bean electrode I3 for
ber by a conductive, partition ISI. Coupling be-'
use in regulating and varying the current of ‘the
tween the guide and the resonant chamber may
electron beam and commonly known as an ac 45 be effected by means of a suitable aperture I 62 in
celerating electrode. It may be adjacent to and
the partition I?l. The wave guide may be formed
coaxial with the cathode.
- >
as anextension of the walls of the resonator I20
A plurality of conductive discs M I to~2l1 inclu
sive are hermetically sealedinto and through the
Separated from the ‘gap I21 by a suitable drift. '
envelope l in any known manner. The discs are. 50 space‘l 29 is a gap I30 which is de?ned by opposed
spaced at suitable intervals along the path of the
truncated‘conical portions of the discs M6 and '
electron stream as hereinafter described, and each
2H. These-discs form portions of the walls of a
is provided with a. central aperture in alignment
as shown.
'
'
>
'
resonator, ‘e. g., a quarter wave-length coaxial
with the axis of the electron gun 2 in order to
, __accommodate the passage of the-electron str
'
55
conductor system 208, which mayhave a tuning _'
branch209. A source‘llo of alternating poten
2,410,840
3
tials is connected with the electrode I24, the direct
potential of electrode I24 being maintained at a
relatively low potential with respect to the
cathode by a source I4I, whereas the conductive
, portions of the resonators I20, I28 and 208 and‘
the collector 3 are maintained at a relatively high
4
shown a precise or ?ne tuning arrangement,
comprising a branch cavity 202 of relatively small
dimensions, shown broken open, in which is slid
ably mounted a piston I53 which may be moved
by means of a suitably connected knob I54. A
similar arrangement may be employed in con
‘ nection with the resonator I20. The branch
positive potential with respect to the cathode by
cavity 202 is preferably of such restricted dimen
means of batteries 200 and 20I. The electrode I3
sions compared with the main cavity that the
may be connected, as shown, to the positive ter
resonant frequency of the main cavity is close
10
minal of the battery 200. To effect the relative
to and somewhat below the range of free trans
potential values hereinbefore speci?ed the po
mission of the branch cavity so that the latter
tential of the battery I4I may be relatively low
will ‘not fully support a wave of the frequency to
with respect to the combined potentialof bat
be resonated. Then a relatively large motion of
teries 200 and 20I. The tuning branch 209 may
the piston I53 will produce only a relatively small
serve to de?ne the short-circuited end or voltage
node of the quarter wave-length line 208, another
change in the resonant frequency of the com
bination. The currents ?owing in the branch
cavity will be less than in the main cavity with
branch 2I0 being provided for connection to any
suitable load.
the result'that any losses associated with the slid
In the operation of the system shown in the
ing contacts between the piston I53 and the walls
drawing, the input wave, the carrier frequency 20 of the cavity 202 will be minimized.
of which will be designated 11 and which wave *
The resonator I20 is provided with adjustable
may bear signals in the form of modulations,
side cavities 203 and 204 for the purpose of en
e. g., amplitude modulations, is resonated in the
abling the resonator to respond to a relatively
chamber I20 and produces an electron velocity
wide frequency band. The side cavity 203 is cou
variation in the electron stream as the latter 25 pled to the main cavity by means of an aper
traverses the associated gap I2I'. The frequency
ture 205 and is adjustable by means of a piston
of the wave supplied by the local source I40 will
206 connected to a knob 201. The side cavity
be designated f2. Electron velocity sorting takes
204 is connected to the main cavity and adjust
place within the tube I22 due to the in?uence-of
able in a similar manner. The resonator I28
the relatively low potential of the electrode I24. 30 may be similarly equipped. The aperture 205
With proper selection or adjustment of the bat-'v
is preferably of a suitable size to provide a loose
tery potentials, a condition is readily secured in
coupling between the adjacent chambers. The
which the faster electrons pass through the space
side cavities may be independently adjusted to
within ‘the electrodes I24 and I26 whereas the
resonate at the same frequency as the associated
35
slower electrons are de?ected and intercepted by
main cavity or at slightly different frequencies,
the electrodes I22, I24 and I26, the result being
producing in either case a broad frequency band
a charge density variation both in the stream of '
or relatively flat transmission characteristic in
electrons which pass beyond the tubev I26 and
the well-known manner of coupled resonant cir
in the current intercepted by the electrodes. The
cuits of whatever “form.
40
degree of velocity sorting and resultant group:
In the operation of the system as above de
ing produced is, however, in the present system,
scribed the resonator I20 is ‘assumed broadly
under the control of the local source I40 by
tuned to the frequency f1 of the incoming wave
and responsive to the sidebands due to the mod
upon the direct current biasing potential of the
ulation which the incoming wave may bear. The
45
electrode I24 which causes the resultant bias to
resonator I28 may be tuned broadly to (fl-‘+19 or
?uctuate. Upon passing the gap I2'I, the density
(ii-f2) as desired, while the line 20a is tuned
variedv electron stream serves to excite electro
to In. It is also feasible to operate by tuning the
magnetic oscillations in the resonator I28, which
resonator I28 sharply to one of .the above-men
resonator may be tuned to respond to one or both
tioned frequencies. In that case, the side cham
of the ‘frequencies (fi+f2) and (ii-f2), to rein
bers, 203’ and 204' are not needed and the aper
force these frequencies which, it will be noted,
tures for coupling the side chambers to the main
are modulation products separated from the fre
cavity should be closed. It is, also feasible to
quency of resonator I20 by an amount equal to
operate with the resonator I28 tuned so broadly
the value of the frequency of the source I40.
as to include both (f1+fz) and (fl-f2) , in which
Oscillations thus produced in resonator I28 im 55 case the line 208 may be energized at twice the
press a corresponding‘velocity variation upon the
frequency f2 and the length of the line 208 up
electron stream as the latter traverses the gap
to the position of the tuning stub should be in
I21. The velocity variation of the electron
creased accordingly.
stream entering the drift space I29 will contain
is claimed is:
I
a component of the local frequency f2 of source, 00 I What
1. In a frequency conversion system employ
I40 bearing the signal modulations of the original,
ing an electron beam device, a source of modu
incoming wave of frequency ii. The velocity
lated waves of carrier frequency Ir, a source of
variation is converted in the draft space I29 into
waves of frequency f2, means for combining waves
density variations at~the gap I30 by the grouping
of frequencies f; and 12 from said respective
85
effect of faster electrons overtaking slower
sources in conjunction with the electron beam to
electrons.
‘
_
produce charge density variations in said beam
The resonant line 208 may be tuned by means
with frequency components of h plus and minus
of the adjustable branch 209 to the frequency f:
I: and bearing the said modulations originally
of the source I40 and will be, excited into forced
carried by the wave of frequency ii, a resonator
oscillations by means_ of the density variations 70 selectively responsive to one of the frequencies
at the gap I30. The output of the line 208 may
(fl-Hz) and (f1-—fz) in energy exchanging rela
be led through the branch 2 I0 to a suitable load
tion with the electron beam to be energized by
such as an intermediate frequency ampli?er or
said electron density variations of the electron
other utilization means.
beam and in turn to impress electron velocity
75
In connection with the resonator I28 there is
virtue of the variable potential superimposed
2,410,840
6
variations upon said beam, means for converting
the compound variations of the electron beam so
produced into a second succession‘ of electron
(fr-f2) , variably controllable means located be
density variations, and resonating means tuned
to the frequency f2 in energy exchanging rela
tion with the electron beam to be energized by
components of said second succession of electron
density variations which carry substantially the
' original, modulation.
2. In a frequency conversion system employ
.
second resonator in said order being resonant to;
one of the combination frequencies \(h + f2) and
tween said first and second resonators to convert
velocity variations of the electron stream into
charge density variations, a source of waves of -
the frequency fa, means actuated by waves from
said source to variably control said conversion
means, and means located between said second
10 and third resonators‘for the further conversion
ing an electron beam device, a source of modu
lated waves of carrier frequency ii, a source of
waves’of frequency h, a resonator selectively re
of velocity variations of-the electron stream into
charge density variations.v
>
4. In a frequency conversion system, means for
producing an electron stream, a source of modu- ,
sponsive to the frequency h in energy exchang
ing relation with the electron beam to impress 15 lated waves of carrier frequency f1, means to
electron velocity variations upon said beam un
impress upon said electron stream a velocity varl- ,
der the control of modulated waves from said
ation in accordance with waves from said source,
source of said waves of carrier frequency f1,
means to impress an electron retarding ?eld of
variably controllable means located beyond the
region of said velocity varying means whereby
variable potential upon said velocity varied beam 20 velocity variations of the stream are-converted
under the control of waves from said source of
into density variations, a source of waves of a
frequency f: whereby the slower electrons are
turned back and electron density variationsare
given frequency f2 for variably controlling said
conversion means, means located beyond the
thereby developed in the continuing portion of
region of said conversion means whereby a com
the stream including frequency components of 25 ponent of one of the combination frequencies
fit)‘: and bearing the said modulations origi
(f1 + f2) and (f1—f2) is reinforced to produce in
nally carried by the waves of frequency f1, 9. res
onator selectively responsive to one of the fre
quencies (,f1+fz) and (f1—f2) in energy exchang
ing relation with the electron beam to be ener
gized by said electron density variations of the
electron beam and, in turn, to impress further
said stream a velocity variation under the control ,
of the said charge density variations, means
, located beyond the region of said reinforcing
30 means whereby velocity variations are con
verted into charge density variations, and load
means arranged to be excited by modulated’
charge density variations at a carrier frequency
electron velocity variations upon said " beam,
equal to f2.
‘
means de?ning a drift space for converting the
compound variations of the electron beam so pro 35
5. The method of frequency conversion which
comprises operating upon an electron stream ac
duced into a second succession of electron density
cording to the following steps in the order given:
variations, and a resonator for waves of frequency
velocity varying said stream under control of a
f: in energy exchanging relation with the elec
modulated wave of carrier frequency f1, developing .
tron beam to be energized by components of said
second succession of electron, density variations 40 density variations in variable degree under control
of a wave of frequency in, reinforcing a component
which carry substantially the original modula
variation of one of the combination frequencies
tion.
(1‘; + f2) and (‘,fi-fé) by developing at said fre
3. In a frequency conversion system, means for
producing an electron stream, a plurality of
quency a velocity variation under the control of
resonators coupled to the electron stream in
energy exchanging relation and arranged at suc-A
cessive points along the path of the electron .
stream, the‘ ?rst resonator in order in the direction
of flow of said stream being resonant to a given
frequency ii, the third resonator in said order 50
being resonant to a. given frequency f2, and the
said density variations, developing further density
variations from the component variations so pro
duced and using said stream to excite a load
circuit at a carrier frequency equal to f: accom
panied by substantially the original modulations
of said modulated wave of carrier frequency {1
ARTHUR L. SAMUEL.
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