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Патент USA US2410842

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Nov. 12, 1946.
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Nov. 12, -1946.
L. A. scHoLz
Fileà Sept. 13, 1944.,
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Patented Nov'.v 12, 1946
UNITED Y' >>s'r'rss
P'rENr orriscs
Louis A. Scholz; Dayton, Ohio I
Application september 13, 1944,`seria1N0f5153,849 ’
(Granted under the act of March '3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
' The invention described herein may be manu
li‘igure> 1 illustrates the general arrangement of
factured and used by or for the Government for
a camera and a dome rotatively mounted thereon,
governmental purposes, without the payment to
the whole structure being adapted to be sup
ported at the bottom wall or skin of the fuselage-
me of anyrfroyalty thereon.
' ’
This invention relates to aerial photography
and more particularly to aerial camera of the
type designed to take substantially» horizontal
panoramic views from an airplane, and it has for
an vobject to providel a mechanism for quick and
convenient directional control of an aerial cam
era. _A further object of the invention is to pro
vide an arrangement of elements of a photo--
graphic optical system adapted to extend exteri
orly of an airplane and having a novel structure
to minimize interference with the air stream.
In accordance 'with the objects, I provide an
of an airplane;
Y ~
Figure 2 is a'plan view interiorly of theddomey
disclosed in Figure l; »Y
Figure 3 discloses a sectional view of a means
for supporting and rotating the dome;
ï‘ - '
’-* Figure 4 shows a section vthrough the planeY
of Figure 3;
Figure 5 discloses an electrical system for con
' trolling rotation of _the dome; and
Figure 6 represent-s another embodiment of the
invention having a modiiied optical system.
With reference to Figures 1 and 2, a lring l is
aerial cameral comprising a motor driven camera ,
shown adapted to be secured in any suitable
and a mirror disposed in angular relation to the
camera nlm plane so that 'the scene to be photo
manner around a circular aperture in the wall
or skin 2 at the bottom of an airplane fuselage
graphed is reflected from the mirror through the 20 and having secured thereto bracket members 3
to support a camera generally indicated by A.
camera lens, in one form of the invention, or
The camera vis of a type known in the art having
'ï'ïithrough the camera'lens to the mirror in another
an electric motor and mechanism for taking a
form, and thence to the nlm plane of the camera.'
series of photographs in rapid succession as long
By mounting the mirror, 0r the mirror and the
lens, in a horizontally rotatable symmetrically 25 as the motor is energized, the motor and mecha
nism being contained in the camerav body. A
contoured dome disposed in the air stream be
lens »barrel ¿l houses lens 5 and is extended to
neath the fuselage and providing the dome with
form a iilter holder B. A dome 1 is rotatably Y»
a transparent window for passing light rays from
supported by a mechanism 4B secured to ñlter
the object terrain, photographs may be obtained
in substantially horizontal directions; since the 30 holder 6. A mirror 8 and a window 9 are mount
ed within dome 1 and adapted to rotate there
bulk of the camera and controlling mechanism is
with and are arranged to transmit light rays by
housed within the airplane fuselage, the only
reflection from mirror 8 through lens 5 to the
DI‘Oîl‘llf-‘lírlg pOrtiOn of the device is the substan
film plane I0 of the camera, as indicated by the
tially symmetrical dome. ‘Such a construction
produces a minimum of air-resistance for the 35 bent optical path of a light ray C. îThe mirror
~ 8 is mounted within dome 'l at a suitable angle
results obtained and in conjunction with a novel
relative the skin 2 to avoid including the ex
control system which synchronizes the camera
terior thereof in the reflected image. Mirror S
motor with rotation of the dome to preset posi
and window 9 are secured by suitable members
tions, the terrain over which the airplane is fly
ing may be photographed in various directions 40 il, i2, and I3, attached to the curved 'portion of
the dome, and by members l5, 16,11, 'and I8
at the will of thepilotwith very little attention
vattached to a cover plate 20. Cover plate 26 is
drawn» fromnthe -task of piloting the airplane.
secured to the dome ‘I by a plurality of boltsçEl
The control system is so devised that directional
and to the supporting and rotating mechanism”
'control of the rotatable dome is accomplished
either right or left of the line of'flight by rota 45 B by a plurality of bolts 22. A control box D,
tion of the dome 180° in response to pressing a
push button switch adapted to be conveniently
held in the pilot’s hand. Likewise, directional
` adapted to be mounted in the pilot’s cockpit, is
shown, having a, panel on which are mounted
f *four` direction indicating signal »lamps designated
“Left” “Right,” “FO1‘e,” and “Aftj’ and three
pressing the push button switch, there being other 50 direction selector switches designated as “Left
‘ Right,” “Fore-Aft,” and “ManuaL” and a fourth
switch means provided for determining response
switch designated as “Lock,” all for a purpose to
to the push button switch in either the fore-and
be hereinafter described. A ñfth lamp 23, cen
aft or leit-and-right directions. The system is
trally disposed of the other four and preferably
also adapted to provide successive 90° rotations
of the dome responsive to successive actuations 55 of different color, is likewise provided on the
control fore or aft is provided in response to
of the push button so that photographs may be
taken at 90° 'intervals around a 360° traverse of
the dome.
_ panel, and is adapted to light at the time of
" A detailed description of the invention follows
' such that lamp 23 being lit at the same time as
lighting of any of the four direction indicating
lamps. The configuration of the iive lamps is
with reference to the appended drawings in 50 one of the other four, the alignment of the two
lit‘lamps and the color diiierence serves to better
iiexible drive cable 30 coupled to shaft 64 causing
indicate direction. Electrical conduits 25 and 21
rotating of ring gear 53 and collar 50 whereby the
are shown leading, respectively, to the camera
motor 28 and an electric motor 29 operative to ‘j_ jcontact means 57 successively engages the metal
lic surfaces 59a, b, c, and d, in the order named,
,rotatejdorne 1_» through a flexible drive cable Sù
¿.‘coupledätòlmechanisin B. A conduit 3| encasing _, viLitbe assumed that'rotation of collar 53 is clock
‘ _:wise, and the dome- ‘l and mirror 8 rotated simul»
“wireswòf' the electrical control system to be here
inafter described is disposed between the control . `taneously- The metallic segments 59a, b, c, and
d, have leads G9a, b, c, and d, connected thereto,
box D and mechanism B. A hand switch 33 of
f-respectively, the four leads passing through con
the push button type is provided, adapted to be
duit 3| to the control box D (Figure l) for con
biased to open position and so constructed as to
nection with an electrical system as disclosed in
be conveniently held in the pilot’s hand and ccn
»; Figure 5,’ comprising two lines 'i0 and 7l adapted
nected by a iiexible conduit 34 to control box D.
The scheme of operation provided for in the " to be connected to an electrical power source.
Three relays '13, T5, and '58, included in the system,
structure thus far generally described comprises
are adapted to be normally closed in the position
rotation of the dome 'i by means of the motor 29
shown on this figure of the drawings, i. e., contact
through a predetermined arc of rotation to take
photographs either fore and ait or right and left
oi’ the linev of flight of the airplane. At the will
of the -operator, fore and aft or right and left
intermediate movable contact 8 l, adapted to make
lines of view are chosen by the appropriately
contact alternately between a pair of stationary
normally exists at 13a., '5511, and “ißa and b. A
conventional step relay GG» is shown, having an
designated switching means on the panel of con
contacts 89a and 80h, and simultaneously there
trol box D, the push button 33 then being actu
with, an intermediate movable contact 82 is
ated to rotate the dome to either the fore or aft
adapted to make contact alternately between sta-,
¿tienary contacts 80e and öûrL-the mechanism of
the relay 8S being adapted to 'alternatecontacts
Viewing position, or, the right or left viewing
position, an appropriately designated direction
indicating lamp and the lamp 23 lighting to indi
cate the direction in which the mirror -is facing,
depending upon the line of View chosen and for
which the switching means on the face of ~the
control box D has been set.
' ’
as described each time the solenoid thereof is de
energized. _All relays of the electricalA system are
contained in the -control box D (Figure l).
Represented in the system are four switches,
designated on the diagram as “left-Right,y “Fore
Aft,” “ManuaL” and “Lock,” to correspond with
Figure l. The segments 59a, b, c, and d of Figures
.A detailed~ description of the rotating means
and control system now follows with reference to
3 and 4 are represented and each segment has a
Figures 3, 4, and 5. In Figures 3 and 4, an en
signal lamp connected in series therewith, each
larged disclosure of the mechanism B is shown
wherein a ring @.8 is alîlxed by a conventional pin 35 segment and associated lamp being designated
as “Left,’l"“Right,” “Fore,”'or “Ait,” to corre
»Ik-¿and slot means 42 to a ñange 43 integrally formed
spond with Figures 1, 3, and 4. The rotating con
on the iilter holder 6. Ring 49 has machined
tact means 57 likewise is represented in Figure 5,
therein an outer ball race 45. Ball bearings (il
having a signal lamp in series therewith corre
are retained between the outer race 45 and an
inner race 48 comprising sloping external ñanges 40 sponding to the centrally disposed lamp 23 of
Figure l, and also represented are the motors 2B
of two collars 5U and 5l threadedly secured to
and 29 and the hand switch`33 with an associated
gethers Collars 5€) and 5l are thus rotatively se
cured to ring 4D and depend therefrom.
collar 5o has a ring gear 53 force ntted about a
neck extension 54 and three bores 55 are provided
having their centers at the meeting line 5S be~
tween gear 53 and neck extension 54 whereby half
the material removed to form each bore is re
tension spring biasing it to open position. '
By way of general description, the circuit ar
rangement as shown on Figure 5 provides for con
nections between the pair of stationary contacts
80a and b and alternately disposed contact seg
ments 59a and c, respectively; and likewise the
'z pair of stationary contacts 83e and d are ccn
gear 53. Each of the bores 55 has a contact means 50 nected to the alternately disposed contact seg
moved from neck extension 51 and half from ring
comprising a plunger-like member 5? therein
adapted to rotate with collar 5D and biased by
a spring 58 into successive sliding electrical con
ments 59D and d, respectively. When energized,
relay 'E8 reverses the connections between 59D and
59C, whereby 59h is connected to 80D and 59o is
tact with four metallic contact elements or seg~
connected to GEC. -Accordingly, the relay 13,
ments Stia, b, c, and d, designated as “Right,”
which acts as a solenoid switch in the circuit of
“Aft,”. “Leftj’ and ‘.‘Fore,” respectively, relative
mirror motor 29, is energized when rotating con
tact means 5l engages any of the four contact
the line of night of the airplane which may be
assumed to be indicated bythe dotted arrow.
Contact means 51 are provided in plurality, three
such means being shown, in order to insure suili
cient electrical contacting area for coaction with
the metallic segments 59a, b, c, and d, which are
retained in suitable recesses in a ring BD composed
of insulating material and ñxedly retained in an '
annular recess 6I in the upper face of- the ring
lill and thus held stationary relative the rotative
Contact means 5l, A pinion 63, having a shaft
6A coupled to the ilexible drive cable 3€] (Figure l)
and passing through ñange (i3 and through in
sulating material 60, is adapted to mesh with the '
segments which happens at the momenti'to be
» connected to a Contact of relay 80, depending on
whether ' the “Fore-Aft” or the “Left-Right”
switch is closed. When relay 18 is in the position
"shown, only alternately disposed contacts, viz.,
the “Fore” and “Aft” or the "Left” and “Right”
are effective to energize relay '13; when, however.
relay 13 is energized by means of the “Manual”
switch, all four contacts are eiîective to energize
relay '13, assuming both the “Fore-Aft” and the
“Left-Right” switches are closed. A detailed de
scription of the operation of the system now
Ope1'ation--Left and right
teeth of ring gear 53 and thus rotate the collar
50 from whence is suspended by means of collar
5| and bolts 22, the cover plate 28 of the dome
hereinabove described. Accordingly, when motor
Assuming the condition shown on Figure 5
wherein switch 33 is open and the camera motor
29 is energized, pinion 63 is rotated by Íiaeans of
28 is not rotating due to the open contact at 15b,
and the “Left-Right” switch is closed, a circuit
is established between lines 10 and 1| via the
contacts at 13a and 15a, the “Lock” switch, and
the mirror motor 29. Accordingly, the dome 1
rtions, by successive actuations of the hand switch
33 whereby the pilot is enabled, without remov
ing his attention from .the controls of the plane,
to take pictures on both sides of the line of night
(Figure l) is at the moment rotating. Assuming 5ll wzith alternate depressions of the hand switch 33.
that the rotating contact means 51 is in some
Operation-Fore and aft
the dotted`position
1 will
as indicated
.continue ’
- Assuming the condition shown in Figure 5 with
the exception .that the “Left-Right” switch is
to» rotate until contact means 51 engages the
“Left” segment 53e, as shown in full lines on 1Q> open and the “Fore-Aft” switch closed, a circuit
Iis established between lines 1U and 1| Via the
Figure 5, at which time a circuit will be estab
contacts at 13a and 15a, thence through the
lished between lines 19 and 'H through the sole#
“Lock” switch and the mirror motor 29, .the dome
noid of relay 13, signal lamp 23, rotating contact
1 being at the moment rotating. Assuming that
means 51, the “Left”_ segment 53o, the “Left”
lamp associated therewith, contact 18a, contact 15 the rotating contact means 51 is in some inter
mediate position at this instant, as indicated by
80h, and the “Left-Right” switch. Relay 13 will
thus be- energized to open contact at 13a, the _ the dotted position, the dome 1 will continue to
rotate until means 51 engages Ithe “Fore” seg
mirror motor 29 then stopping and the circuit
ment 59d, passing “Left” segment 59e without
thereof Jbeing held open at 13a since rotation of
contact' means 51 has ceased and it has come to 20 effect due Ito .the opening of the “Left-Right”
switch. A circuit» will then be established be
rest on “Left” segment 59C. In this condition,
Ltween lines 10 and 1| through the solenoid of
the mirror 8~(Figure 1) is stationary and facing
relay 13, signal lamp 23, rotating contact means
left relative to the line of flight, this condition
being indicated yto the pilot by the lighting of - „51, the “Fore” segment 59d, and the “Fore” lamp
the “Left” lamp, and the lamp-‘23, .the camera 25 associated therewith, contact 80d and the “Fore
-Aft” switch.V The solenoid of relay 13 will be
motor 28 still being inactive. If hand switch 33
thus energized, opening contact at 13a in the
is now closed so as to energize relay 15 and thus
circuit of mirror motor 29 and stopping rotation
open contact 15a .to further ensure the shutting
thereof. As indicated by lighting of .the “Fore”
off of current to mirror motor 29 and also to
establish contact atV 15b, the camera motor 28'is 30` lamp and lamp 23, the mirror 8.will then be
facing forward relative the line of iiight of the
connected across the lines 10 and 1!> and will be
airplane. If the hand switch 33 now be de
energized, taking a successive series of pictures
pressed, the solenoid of relay 'I5 will be energized
as long as switch 33 is held closed. At the same
making contact at 15b, and thus energizing the
time relay 8D is energized, the mechanism there
of being such that when hand switch 33 is opened,v 35 camera motor 28 and the mechanism of step
relay 89, no motion of the contacts 8l and 82 of
-~ ¿the contacts 8| and 82 take an alternate position
A*whereby Contact is made at 83a and 80e and
broken at 89h and 80d. Simultaneously with the
opening of switch 33, the relay 15 4is de-energized
step relay 80 taking place, however, at this time,
15b- is broken, thus stopping the camera motor
28.e ’The relay 13 now being de-energized due to
the breaking of contact at 83h, contact is closed
hand switch 33, the solenoid of relay 15vwill be
de-energized opening contact at 15b to thereby
stop the vcamera motor 28, and simultaneously
Ithe mechanism of step relay 80 will function to
as heretofore described. A series of photographs
will be obtained in the forward direction as long
and contact at 15av established while contact at 4Q as hand switch 33 is depressed. Upon releasing
at 13a, again establishing a lcircuit through the
mirror motor 29 and causing a continuation of 45 open contact at 80h and d and close contact at
80a and c, thus de-energizing the solenoid of
rotation of dome 'l and the rotating contact
segment 5Min this continued rotation, but there
relay 13 and closing Contact at 13a, whereby a
circuit is reestablished through the mirror motor
is no eifectin so doing since the “Fore” segment
is in a circuit which is openat 39d at the time.
29 in the I manner previously described. _The
dome 1 is then set into rotation once more
When, however, Vcontact means 51 rotates in-to
engagement with “Right” segment 53a, a circuit
through an arc of 180° until the rotating contact
means 51 engages the “Aft” segment 59h, at
which time the solenoid of relay 13 is energized,
opening contactat 13a and again stopping the
mirror 8 facing in the aft direction relative the
line of flight of the airplane, as indicated by
lighting of the “Aft” lamp and lamp 23._,_l3_e-`
means 51.
Contact means 51 engages the “Fore”
will., be established betweenY lines 13 andi!`
through the “Left-Right?.switch, contact 83a,
‘.fRight’ßlamp, “Right”, segment 59a,.rotating
contact means 51, lamp 23. andrrelay 13, ener
gizinge'the/'latter and opening contact ,at 13a,
pressing `the hand switch 33 is now operative to "
~ the mirror 8 thus being stopped facing to the
take a series of photographs in the aft direction,
the pilot by the lighting cflthe vracht" lamp' 60y and by this mode of operation-photographs may
rightrelative theline of flight, asindic'at'ed to
be obtained alternately forwardly and rearwardly
and lamp 23, whereby-_ by pressing hand switch
33, another series of photographs may bevtaken.
„along the line of flight,
When hand switch 33 is released, an alternate
.. f ..
positioning Vof step relay 80 takes place once
.- Í Assuming the “Manual," “Fore-Aft,” and “Left
more, whereby contact is made at 8319 and d, and (,0
broken at 80a and c, which is the initial condi
Right” switches are closed, the solenoid of relay
tion described, 13a then being closed and the
mirror motor 29 being energized and continuing
to rotate until the rotating contact means 5'!
passing the “Aft” segment 53h without effect due 70
13 will be energized whereby contact is opened
at 13a. and b and closed at 18o and d, thus re
versing the connections between segments 59h
to the open circuit at 80e, engages the “Left”
segment 53e, at which time the mirror 8 is again
brought to a stop, facing left. In this manner
the mirror 8 may be repeatedly rotated _l80°, al
and c and contacts B'Llb and c. The mirror motor
23 is at the moment rotating, as in the previous
modes of operation, and assuming Lthat the ro
‘ tating contact means 51 is in the dotted position
at the instant, the. mirror motor 29 will continue
ternately between left and right viewin’g direc 75 torotate, the» rotating contact means 51 passing
switch, contact 80d, the “Fore”, lamp, segment
28 could be replaced by any device which con-l
sumes electric current, and mirror motor 29 could
be replaced by any energy consuming device, such
as an hydraulic turbine, since it is apparent that
5A the operation of the system is not dependent on
" the form of energy supplied thereto, it'being
'-*necessary only to provide a means responsive to
electric current, such as relay 13, and adapting
said means to control any given type of energy
59d, contact means 5l, lamp 2%, and the solenoid
10 consuming device.
the “Left” segment 59C without effect, assuming
the contacts of relay 80 in the position shown,
since segment 59o is in an open circuit due to
the open Contact at 30C. However, as continued
rotation of mirror motor 29 brings the rotating
Contact means 5l into engagement with the
“Fore” segment 58d, a circuit is established be
tween lines 10 and ïl through the “Fore-Aft”
of relay 13, whereby energization thereof opens
the Contact 13a, stopping mirror motor 29 with'
the mirror 8 facing forward oi the line of flight.
In the for-m shown on Figure 6, the modifica-f
tion consists of a structure comprising a camera
body A', supported by brackets 3' over an aper
ture in the wall or skin 2' of an airplane, and
of photographs will be obtained. Upon opening l5 having a lens 5’ adapted to receive light rays
directly from the object terrain and secured
hand switch 33, the step relay S0 assumes the
alternate position wherein contact is broken at ' within a dome 'I' rotatably suspended from the
If the hand switch 33 now be depressed, a series
80D and d and made at 83a and c. The solenoid
camera body A’ by suitable mechanism B', there
being a mirror 8' inside the dome for reflecting
the Contact at 83d and rotation of the mirror 20- light rays from lens 5' to the iilrn plane (not
shown) of the camera body A’. The embodiment
motor 29 is resumed due to closing of the contact
shown in Figure 6 distinguishes from the form
13a. Rotation continues until contact means 51
shown in Figure l in the mounting of the lens
engages the “Right” segment 5ta, at which time
within the dome. Since the rays of light from
a circuit is established through the "Left-Right”
switch, contact 80a, the “Right”_lamp, segment 25 the object terrain go directly through the lens
and are converged thereby before striking the
56m, rotating contact means 5'1, the lamp 23, and
of relayj3 is de-energized due to the opening of
the solenoid of relay ‘i3 which is energized and
thereby opening contact at 13a and stopping the
mirror vmotor 29. If hand switch 33 now be de,
pressed, a successive series of photographs will 30
be obtained in a direction to the right of the line
mirror 8', the size of the mirror required is smaller
for the same size nlm image than that required
in the form shown in Figure l, and the size of
the dome 'l' may be reduced accordingly. The
mechanism B’ and an electrical control system
of flight. Upon opening hand switch 33, relays
therefor may be identical'with that previously
13 and 80 again assume the position of original
Attention is >called to the fact that a 'transpar
condition shown in >Figure 5, mirror motor 29 is
energized and dome 'I is rotated through another 05 ent dome having a suitable light transmitting sur-'
face could be used in conjunction with my dis
“190° arc until contact means 51 contacts the “Aft”
segmentA 59h thereby energizing relay 'i3 by a
closures; and in the form shown in Figure 6, as
a means of protection foi~ the exposed surface of
circuit through the “Left-Right” switch, Contact
the lens 5', a window could be provided exteriorly
85h, 78d, the “Aft” lamp, segment 59h, rotating
contact means 5i, the lamp 23, and the solenoid 40‘ thereof, all without departing from the spirit of
of relay i3, the mirror motor 29 thus being ' my invention which I seek to protect by United
States Letters Patent within the scope of the
stopped by opening of the contact 73a.
claims appended hereto.
After hand switch 33 has been depressed to
take a series of photographs in the aft direction, r _ I claim:
1. In a photographic device, in combination, a
and released, contact at '13a is closed to start 40
camera including a camera body having an elec
the mirror motor 29 and relay 30 assumes a posi
tric motor therein and adapted to take successive
tion wherein contact is made at 80a and c and
broken at 89h and d thereby rendering the “Left’1
photographs when said camera motor is ener
segment 59o operative to stop the mirror motor
gized, and a rotatable mirror whereby the limage
29 at the end of the succeeding 90° travel of dome 50 of an object to be photographed follows a bent
optical path to the film plane of said camera from
Contact means_5’l engages segment 59o.
selected directions, electrical means comprising
In this manner, photographs may be obtained
selector switch means operative to control rota
every 90° around a 360° traverse.
_ Y
tion of said mirror relative to said camera body
In the event that it is desired to hold the mirror
8 in any given position, opening the “Lock” switch 55 through predeterminable arcs for taking photo-graphs at selected intervals in a r360° traverse,
will deprive mirror motor 29 of current independ
and including a hand switch operative to Vsimul
ently of the functioning of the remainder of the
taneously energize said camera motor and-’stop
electrical system. Further, the mirror motor 253
rotation orsaid mirror, the arrangement of said
may be stopped at any time by> depressing the
hand switch 33 which energizes relay 'l5 to open 60 hand switch and said selector switch means being
such that said‘camera motor and said mirror ro
contact at 15a in the circuit of mirror motor 29.
For the sake of simplicity, the switches desig~ f tating means may be alternately energized for
taking photographs at selected intervals within a
nated as “Left-Right,” “Fore-Aft,” and “Manual”
360° traverse as determined by said selector switch
are illustrated as independently operable indi
vidual switches in the drawings, but as a mattei' 65 means or at any point in said 360° traverse by op
of actual practice, conventional combination
eration of said hand switch.
2. In an aerial camera comprising yan optical
switch structures are used whereby closing of the
system having a rotatable reflector for taking
“Manual” switch automatically closes the “Fore
photographs in predeterminable directions, an
Aft” and “Left-Right” switches and closing of
either the “Left-Right” or “Fore-Aft” switches 70 electrical control System for controlling rotation
of said reflector comprising a plurality of contact
automatically opens the other two. The elec
elements, a contact member, means for providing
trical control system which has been described
is not regarded as being limited in utility to the
photographic art, nor is it necessarily limited to
' successive engagement of said contact member
with said Contact elements responsive to rotation
control of electric motors, e. g., the camer’a motor 75 of said reiiector, a relay having a plurality of sta
trol system as set forth in -claim 4, including
tionary contacts connected to said contact ele
means for 'reversing one connection from each
ments and having movable contacts adapted to
pair of contacts so as to connect adjacent con
selectively engage said stationary contacts, means
for providing selective engagement between saidKv ftact elements to pairs of relay contacts whereby _
stationary contacts and said movable contacts, .’5' engagement of said contact member with any of
said contact elements is operative to establish a
respective selector switches associated with said
movable contacts whereby a series circuit may be
series circuit through said contact member, said
established through said contact member, one of
contact element, the relay contact then con
v- nected to said contact element, the intermediate
said contact elements, a stationary contact, a se
lected movable contact, and the selector switch l0 contact in engagement with said relay Contact,
associated with said movable contact depending
and the selector switch means associated therewith depending on the closing of said selector
on the closing of said selector switch and engage
ment of said contact member with said one con
~ l»'7. In an aerial camera comprising an optical
3. In an aerial camera having an electrical cen -l5 system having a rotatable reflector for taking
trol system as set forth in claim 2„including
photographs in predeterminable directions, an
switchpmeans connected intermediate said sta
electrical control system for controlling rotation
ltionar‘y contacts and said contact elements where
of said reflector ___comprising a plurality of contact
by connections from non-adjacentlydisposed con
elements and a contact member adapted to suc
tact elements may be reversed, thereby providing 20 cessively engage said contact elements responsive
for the establishment of said series circuit by en
to rotation of said reiiector, a step relay having
gagement of said contact member with adiacent-Y ._, a pair of relay contacts and an intermediate con
ly disposed contact elements, er, non-adjacently
tact adapted for alternate engagement with ei
disposed contact elements, >as determined by op
ther of said relay contacts, means providing for
eration of said intermediate switch means.
l¿5 alternate engagement thereof, said relay contacts
4. In an aerial camera comprising an optical
being connected with said contact elements
system having a rotatable reilector for taking pho
whereby at the time said contact member en
tographs in predeterminable directions, an "elec
gages any of said contact element-s connected to
trical control system for controlling rotation of
a relay contact in engagement with said inter
said reilector comprising a plurality of contact 30 mediate contact, a series circuit is established
elements, a‘contact member, means providing
comprising said contact member, said contact ele
successive engagement of said contact member
ment, said relay contact and said intermediate
with said contact elements responsive to rotation
of said reflector, a relay having contacts arranged
-8. In an aerial camera comprising an optical
in pairs, each pair being connected to non-adja 35 system having a rotatable reflector for taking
cently disposed contact elements, said relay hav
photographs in predeterminable directions, an
ing an intermediate contact means associated
electric motor for rotating said reflector and an
with each pair of contacts and adapted for alter
electrical control system for predetermining arcs
nate engagement therewith, means providing al
of rotation of said electric motor comprising a
ternate engagement thereof, selector switch 40 plurality of arcuately spaced contact elements, a
means associated with each intermediate Contact
contact member, means providing relative rota
means whereby a series circuit is established
tion between said contact elements and said con
through said contact member, a contact element,
tact member responsive to rotation of said reflec
the contact of one pair of contacts connected
tor whereby said contact member is adapted to
thereto, the intermediate contact means in en 45 successively engage said contact elements, and a
gagement with said contact and the selector
step relay having a plurality of pairs of station
switch means associated therewith, depending on
ary contacts connected to alternately disposed
closing of said selector switch means and engage
contact elements, said step relay having a mov
ment of said contact member with said contact
able contact between each pair of stationary con
50 tacts and selector switch means in series between
5. In an aerial camera comprising an optical
4each of said movable contacts and one side of
system having a rotatable reiiector for taking
an electric line, a solenoid operated switch con
photographs in predeterminable directions, an
trolling said electric motor,~ the solenoid of said
electrical control system for controlling rotation
switch being in series with said contact member
of said reflector comprising a plurality of contact 55 and the other side of the line, a switch fg>_r,_ener--`
elements, a contact member, means providing
successive engagement of said Contact“ member
.with said contact elements responsive to rotation
gizing the solenoid of said step relay, said 'step
relay being adapted to alternate engagement of
said movable contacts from one to the other of
of said reflector, a'step relay having a plurality
said stationary contacts upon operation of said
of relay contacts arranged in pairs and ’connected .iìo‘switcn whereby engagement of said contact
to alternately disposed contact elements», said step
member with any contact element connected
relay having intermediate contacts between said
through said relay to one of said selector switches
pairs of contacts, and means providing alternate
engagement of said intermediate contacts with
either of the associated pairs of relay contacts,
selector switch means associated with said inter
mediate contacts, whereby a series circuit may be
established through said contact member, one of
said alternately disposed contact elements, its as
is operative to energize said solenoid switch to
stop said motor, depending on closing of said
65 selector switch.
9. In an aerial camera comprising an electric
motor for actuation of the iilm and shutter there
of, and including a rotatable reflector for -taking
photographs in predeterminable directions, a sec
sociated relay contact, the intermediate contact 70 ond electric motor for rotating said reflector and
engaged therewith and its associated selector ‘ an electric control system for providing alter
switch means, depending on the closing of said se
nate operation of said camera motor and said
lector switch means and engagement of'ßsaid con
reñector motor comprising a switch adapted to
tact member with said contact element.
,be biased to open position, a relay controlled by
6. In an aerial camera having an electrical con v'I5 said switch and operative to energize said camera
diate contact in each pair adapted to alternately
threadedly secured together and having an eid
ternal annular bearingI race provided between op
posing ñanges of said members, and bearing
engage each contact of said pair of contacts upon
means retained between said races whereby said
motor, a step relay comprising a plurality of con
tacts arranged in pairs and having an interme
de-energization of said step relay, said step relay 5,."ring and said collar are rotatively secured to
being energized in response to the closing of said
15. In an aerial camera as set forth in claim 12,
wherein said supporting and rotating means com
prises a ring secured to said lens barrel and a
switch whereby opening of said switch is opera
tive to provide said alternate engagement, a se
lector switch associated with each intermediate
contact, a contact member, a plurality of con
tact elements, means providing successive engage
ment between said contact member and said con
tact elements in response to energization of said
reflector motor, said pairs of contacts being con
collar rotatively secured to said ring, said optical
elements being supported by said collar and said
electrical contact means comprising a' member of
insulating material supported by said ring and
having arcuately spaced metallic contact seg
ments, and means provided on said collar adapted
to successively contact said metallic segments with
relative rotation between said ring and collar-
nected to non-adjacently disposed contact ele
ments, means eiTective to start or stop said re
ñector motor and being operative to stop said re
flector motor upon engagement between said con
tact member and one of said contact elements
whereby a series circuit is established including
16. In an aerial camera comprising an electric
motor for actuation of the ñlm and shutter there
of, and including a rotatable reñector for taking
photographs in predeterminable directions, a sec
ond electric motor for rotating said reflector and
an electrical control system for alternately ener
gizing said motors and determining the duration
said contact member, said contact element, the
contact of said step relay connected thereto, the
intermediate contact in engagement with said
contact and the selector switch associated with
said intermediate contact, depending on the clos
ing of said switch.
of energization of said refiector motor, comprising
a contact member, a plurality of contact elements,
means responsive to energization of said reflector
motor for providing successive engagement be
control system as set forth in claim 9, including
tween said contact member and said contact ele
means adapted to be set for reversing connections
from non-adjacently disposed contact elements 30 ments synchronized with operation of said re
ñector motor, a step relay having contacts con- _
to said step relay whereby engagement of said
nected to said contact elements and selector switch
contact member with adj acently disposed contactmeans associated selectively with said relay con
elements or with non-adjacently disposed contact
10. In_ an aerial camera having an electrical
„ elements is eiîective to establish said series con
nection, depending on the setting of said revers
ing means.
11. In an aerial camera, a lens barrel and an
optical system including optical elements dis
tacts, means for energizing said step relay and
simultaneously energizing said camera motor, said
step relay being adapted to alternate connections
between said relay contacts and said contact ele
ments upon de-energization of said step relay, and
means associated with said reñector motor re
posed for rotation about the axis of said lens
barrel and exteriorly thereof, means for support 40 sponsive to engagement of said Contact member
with one of said contact elements dependent upon
ing and rotating said optical elements compris
operation of said selector switch means for de
ing a ring secured to said lens barrel and having*
energizing said reñector motor.
an annular bearing race, collar means concentric
17. In an electrical control system as set forth
with said ring and having an annular bearing
race, bearings retained between said bearing races 45 in claim 16, including means for reversing a plu
rality of connections between said contact ele
whereby said ring and said collar means are ro
ments and said step relay whereby engagement of
tatively secured, means for providing relative ro
said contact member with adjacent or non-adja
tation therebetween, and electrical contact means
cent contact elements is operative to eiîect de-en
rotatively associated with said ring and collar`
means whereby relative rotation between said ring 50 ergization of said reflector motor depending on
operation of said reversing means.
and collar means is operative to provide successive
18. In a system for selecting one of a number
electrical engagements of said electrical contact
of predetermined lines of view of optical elements
means for coaction with an electrical control sys
of an aerial camera, means for rotating said op
tem for controlling rotation of said optical ele
12. In an aerial camera, a lens barrel and an
optical system including elements disposed for ro
tation about the axis of said lens barrel and ex
teriorly thereof, means for supporting and rotat
ing said optical elements, and electrical contact
tical elements through a plurality of predeter
mined lines of View, a Contact member, vajplu-A
rality of contact elements corresponding in num
ber to the number of predetermined lines of View,
said contact member and said contact elements
being adapted for successive engagement there
'between synchronized with rotation of said op
means disposed for rotation with said optical ele
ments and adapted to provide electrical contact
engagements successively with rotation thereof
for coaction with an electrical control system for
tical elements whereby successive engagements
occur coordinately with rotation of said optical
elements through successive predetermined lines
(55 of View, and a control system associated with said
controlling rotation of said optical elements.
contact elements and said contact member in
13, In an aerial camera as set forth in claim 12,
wherein said electrical contact means comprises a
cluding means rendering said system responsive to
ring of insulating material co-axial with said lens
barrel and having arcuately spaced metallic seg
lected contact element whereby said engagement
engagement of said contact member with a se
70 is operative to eñect de-energization of said ro
. tating means for the purpose of ñxing the viewing
direction of said optical elements along a prede
termined line of view corresponding to said se
prises a ring secured to said lens barrel andfhaving
ments secured thereto,
14. In an aerial camera as set forth in claim 12,
wherein said supporting and rotating means com
an internal annular bearing race, and a“ collar
within said ring comprising ring-like members 75
lected contact element.
19. In a system as set forth in claim 18, wherein
said control system comprises an electrical sys
tem including a relay having relay contact con
nected to said contact elements and selector
switchvmeans associated with said relay for se
and control means for said motor comprising
relay means operative to cut off current to said
motor, selector switch means, and a plurality of
>arcuately spaced electrical contact means ro
lecting lines of view.
4r,tatable with said optical elements and electrically
" associated with said relay means through said
20. In a system as set forth in claim 18, wherein
said control system comprises an electrical sys-N . ¿selector switch means, said selector switch means
tem including a relay having two pairs of relay
contacts, and said contact elements comprise four
metallic segments arcuately spaced 90° apart,
the lcontacts of each pair of relay contacts being
connected to non-adjacently disposed metallic>
segments, and selector switch means associated
with said relay operative to render pairs of said
metallic segments responsive to engagement with
said contact member for cie-energizing said rotat
being operative to selectively provide electrical
continuity through said contact means to said
relay means for predetermining the arc of rota
tion of said elements by cutting off current to
said motor upon energization of said relay means
resulting from current conduction through a se
lected contact means.
25. In a photographic device for an airplane,
in combination, a motor actuated camera, a re
ñector adapted to be rotated for directionally
ing means.
2l. In an-aerial photography device, an aerial
camera _adapted to be mounted on an aircraft,
a reflector adapted to be rotatably mounted on f
the aircraft for transmitting an image to be
photographed to the film plane of the camera,
power means for rotating the reilector, limit
switch means actuated by rotation of said re
ñector to de-energize said powerb means when
>the reflector is in any one of a plurality of prede
termined positions, a manually actuated switch
and means connected to said limit switch means
varying the photographic view of said camera, a
motor for rotating said reíiector, and a control
system having means for alternately energizing
said camera motor and said reñector motor, in
cluding a manually operable two-position switch,
said means being constructed and arranged to
energize said reflector motor and to out off said
camera motor when said switch is in a ñrst posi
tion, and to cut off said reflector motor and en
ergize said camera motor when said switch is in
a second position.
26, In a photographic device as set forth in
to render said manually actuated switch effective
upon subsequent openings thereof to cause said 30 claim 25, including means in said control system
power means to rotate the reflector sequentially
for predetermining cutoff points of said reiiector
from one predetermined position to another,
whereby the reflector may be positioned at will
in any selected one of said predetermined posi
22. The structure as claimed in claim 2l in
which said limit switch means includes a plu
motor in preselected viewing directions fore and
aft or left and right, said manual switch and
said predetermining means being so arranged as
to preset said control system in response to shift
ing of said manual switch from said first to said
second position to cause rotation of said reflec
rality of switches each positioned for operation
tor from left to right or vice versa, or, from
by rotation of said reflector into a respective one
fore to aft or vice versa responsive to actuation
of said predetermined positionsy means for ren 40 of said manual switch in subsequently shifting
dering all but one of said limit switches inop
from said second to said first position.
erative, and means operative when the mirror
has rotated into the position for actuation of said
one effective switch for rendering another of said
switches operative, said last two named switches
plane of said camera body, means for rotating _
said reflector may be sequentially positioned in
only two of said predetermined positions by suc
cessive openings of said manually actuated switch
said mirror relative said camera body through
predeterminable arcs for taking photographs at
selected intervals in a 360° traverse, comprising
a motor for rotating said mirror, power cut-off
means rotative with said mirror, and means se
23. In an aerial camera, in combination, a
camera including a camera body having a lens
barrel and a lens therein, means for mounting
said camera body on the ñoor of an airplane so
that the lens barrel is substantially aligned with
a cut-out area in said floor, a protective dome
rotatably supported on said lens barrel and
adapted to be disposed outwardly of said airplane
. lectively operative to render said power cut-off
means eiîectivc to cut oir power to said motor
after said mirror has rotated through a prede
termined arc, said power cut-oil means compris
ing a contact member and a plurality of elec
trical contact elements adapted for rotationfrel
ative said contact member and for successivefen-"r
gagement therewith during rotation of said mir
, in said dome within the ñeld of View of said lens 60 ror, said selectively operative means comprising
and completely shielded in said dome fromßaid
selector switch means and relay means associated
air stream, and means permitting transmission .,Witl‘rsaîd contact member and contact elements,
of light rays through said dome to said reflector
said selector switch means being adapted to ren
means, whereby rotation of Said dome is operable
der one of said contact elements operable to en
to directionally vary the photographic view of
ergize said relay means to cut off power to said
sai'd camera.
motor, and means whereby said relay means is
24. In a photographic device, means for con
adapted to predetermine operability of a second
trolling rotation of elements of a camera optical
contact element to cut off said motor subsequent
system through a 360° traverse for obtaining pho
to resumption of power continuity through said
tographs in predeterminable directions, compris 70 motor.
ing an electric motor for rotating said elements
iloor in the air stream, reflector means secured
whereby the image of an object to be photo
graphed follows a bent optical path to the film
being rendered alternately operative whereby
27. In a photographic device, in combination,
a camera including a camera body and a mirror
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