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Nov. 12, 1946. o H, LUCY 2,410,888 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MOLDING THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES FROM DRAWINGS Filed March 31, 1944 ' 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 s 68 68 0 a > 72 62 ‘ ' . .60 6 7g I , A l 2,3 _ * . , /a . 5 . Z5’ 5 ' 18 6 ' /7 . Z Z6 J9 /0 E ' I521, /$, A ' . . l8 I Q I _ fl, INVENTOR. Oh‘: I: :Hi. LUCL/ Nov. 12, 1946. o. H. LUCY 2,410,838 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MOLDING THREE-DIMENSIONAL J SHAPES FROM DRAWINGS Fil'ed March 31, 1944 4 Sheets-Sheet 2. INVENTOR. U H0 i-l ., L u c: L/ Nov. 12, 1946. _ ' ' o. H‘. LUCY 2,410,888 ' METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MOLDING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ‘ SHAPES FROM DRAWINGS Filed March 51, 1944 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 t__ __+ LE 7 5” 17 I8 , *7 ,7 54. )8; 451:! /< f) 5r? rs IH@@@@@@E@@@H .25 lb‘ 4ZJ 7 l 1Z4; ‘z; _J_=_1' 1.7.. :2' 25‘ 1 55 ?E/I-S 76 , fit/.10 INVENTOR. £7110 BY_-H-. LucL/ _ NQV. 12, 1946.- O H, LUCY - - 2410,888 9 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MOLDING THREE~DIMENSIONAL SHAPES FROM DRAWINGS Filed March 31, 1944 4' Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Nov. 12, 1946 2,410,888 IU'NlTED STATES‘ PATENT OFFICE", METHOD'AND APPARATUS FOR MOLDING THREE-DIMENSIONAL‘ SHAPES FROM DRAWINGS Otto H. Lucy, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor t0 Murray-Lucy-Marvosh - Company, Pasaden Calif., a partnership Application March 31, 1944,‘ Serial No. 525L033 17 Claims. (o1. 2'5_118) 1 , This invention has to do with the art of pro-' ducing shapes or contours and has for one of its objects the developing andproducing of . any de sired contour or shape without the use of con ventional templates. ~ ' , 2 ‘ - . ?ecl; form," of contour-de?ning pin, inside eleva tion; . Fig. 11 is a fragmentary section showing- an otherv modi?ed form of contour-de?ning pin;v Figs. 12,13 and Marc perspective, side eleva tion and end views, respectively, showing a fur ther variational v‘form ~of contour-de?ning pin; ' It is another object of my invention to provide apparatus for transferring ?at drawings or refer ence- lines to three-dimensional shapes. Another object of the invention is to provide novel ‘apparatus for producing a shape and pro Fig. 15 is a fragmentary-view of amodi?edform ‘ of pin-locking means; » - Figs. 16 and 17 are side elevation and longitu vidingin the produced shape reference indicia to dinal sectional'views,trespectively, of a further’ be subsequently employed as a ?nishing guide variational form ofv contour-de?ning pin; Fig. 18 isa view similar to» Fig. 17 showing a and forother checking purposes. . Another object is to provide method and appa ratus for producing from ?at drawings three drill disposed axially of the pin; dimensionalshapes which'conform in contour to the drawings with extreme accuracy. Another object is to provide in such apparatus means for providing the shape with a base which - Fig- 19 is- astill further variational form of 15' pin; and ._ . Figs. 20,- 21'and 22 are perspective, side eleva ' tion andend elevations, respectively, showing a modified form of setting block. . may be employed as a, reference for checking and 20. , Referring now tothe drawings,- I show a body or frame providing channeled side members 5. The frame is here ‘illustrated as being of metal, cast in one integral piece, but, of course, may be composed. of separate frame members suitably measuring layout Work in relation thereto. My invention has still further objects and cor responding advantages, the nature and‘ identity of which will become apparent to those skilled in assembled. The frame is'supported upon corner the art‘ from the following detailed description legs 6 which may be secured to the frame asb-y of a‘presently preferred embodiment which I have dowels ‘l. ' chosenlfor purposes of' explanation. In this con Along the top‘ surface, adjacent the inner edge, nection, however, I wish it understood that my of. each of the sides 5,_I provide- a scale of cali invention, in ‘its broader aspects as de?ned by the appended claims, is not‘ to be con?ned to the 30 brations 9, here shown as being formed into the sidesalthough, of course, the scale may be other details'and association of parts now to be par wise applied. ticularly described, since it is'capable of being A plurality of pin-retaining contour transfer ring elements or frames generally designated at Illv are disposed in parallel relationship trans practiced in~other modi?ed forms of apparatus which the following description will suggest to those working in the‘ art; ' For purposes of the ensuing description I shall refer to the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1~is a’perspective of'my apparatus with a matrix- and a shape disposed thereon, some parts 40 being broken away for'illustra'tive purposes; Fig52 ‘is a top plan'view; ' - ‘ ‘ , , , . Y , Fig. 9 is a perspective view showing a setting’ . Fig. 10 is a fragmentary view showing- a modi to the top- barlby anattaching flange I8a (Fig. 4). Each collar is split and .is adapted to be clamped ’ , H . , , The top end... of each of‘ the vpinsor spikes, I'l tapers to a point as shown at Ila, and ,a washer‘ 23 maybe loosely placed over the pointedendso as ‘to. be rockable thereon Whenever necessary, to accomplish the proper-contour as will be here Fig. 7 is a view taken on line 1—1 of Fig. 6; Fig. 8 is a View taken on line 8-—8 of Fig. 6; block; adapted to be clamped in any set position relative to the bars by means o-fa clamp collar. l8 secured about ya pin'as by a screw. [81). Fig. 6 is a top plan View showingv the setting element; Spaced-pairsofregisteringhole-s iii are provided throughthe bars l5,‘ 15a and through each ‘pair of registering holes a contour-de?ning pin or ‘ Fig. F'is'anfenlarged fragmentary view show- 8 mg, in side elevation, one of the conto-ur-éde?ning pins; larframe having- a top bar 15 and a bottom-bar 15a secured together ,,by- end members [5b. spike i‘l adjustably extends... Eachof the pins is Fig‘. 4’is ‘an‘enlarged‘section taken on line li—4 of'Fig. '3‘; Versely. between the sides 5.. Each. of the elements I 0. consists of a rectangu inafter explained. . 55 e , » , . Theiendsuof' the. top bars l5 have extensions 25 2,410,888 3 resting on the sides 5 and the inner edge 25 of each of the extensions is alined with the longi tudinal axis of the openings 15 and the pins l1. 4 the setting block is adapted to be registered with the contour line 51 and disposed normal to the drawing. As shown in Fig. 9, the front face of the block 54 has a perpendicular reference line Thus the edge 26, when registered with the scale 55 with which the pointed ends of the respective 9, permits the operator to accurately aline the pins ‘ll are brought into contact when the block axes of'the pins with the desired indicia on the is registered with the contour line 5| at the end scales 9. of the pin being set, to thereby register the pin As best shown in Fig. 3, each of the side mem end with the line. As each pin 11 is thus set bers 5 has a depending ?ange 30 whose inner side surface 3| is beveled. To the left-hand end 10 in the desired position relative to the contour line, the clamp screw itlb of the collar I8 is I5b of each frame I pivotally secure, as by a pin tightened to secure that pin in the set position, 32, an eccentric clamp 33 having a handle por and the block 54 is manually moved to the next tion 33a, which clamp eccentrically engages the adjacent pin and the same setting procedure is undersurface of the depending ?ange on the left-hand frame member 5 to positively retain 15 there followed. This pin-setting procedure con tinues until all the pins ll of a given frame 10 are the bar extension 25 against the top surface of the side 5. To the right-hand end |5b of each frame, I pivotally secure, as by a pin 34, an. eccentric clamp 35 whose inner side face is bev eled to cooperate with the beveled surface 3| 20 of the ?ange 30, so as not only to hold the ex-_ tension 25 in engagement with the top surface of the right-hand frame member 5, but also to pull the right-hand end I5b of the frame into engage ment with the ?ange v3|]. Since the frames in ?t between the sides 5 with suf?cient looseness set and secured at the desired position, after which the frame In is removed from the table 42 and placed between the sides 5 as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, with the bar extension edges 26 registering. with the appropriate reading of the scales 9, which correspond to the relative posi tion ‘of the contour line on the drawing with which'those pins have been coordinated. Then a different contour line on the drawing 50 is used for the setting of the pins of the next frame and this procedure is followed until there to permit of free insertion and removal, this co is a frame If] in position between the sides 5 operation of ‘clamp 35 with the beveled surface 3| corresponding to all‘the desired contour lines insures uniform positioning of all the frame ele ments Ill between the sides 5. To prevent swing 30 on the drawing. Thus, when the pins and frames are positioned as shown in Fig. 1, the pointed ing of the elements 10 relative to the sides 5, ends of the pins I1 collectively de?ne the contour I provide a third eccentric clamp 3‘! pivotally of the shape which it is desired to produce. secured to an extension of one of the ends l5b Next the washers 23, which function as stop of a pin 38 for eccentric clamping engagement with the upper surface of a ?ange 39 provided 35 guides and supports, are placed loosely over the pointed ends of the pins and a matrix is mounted on the side 5. Spacers 40 may be provided be thereon. First, in forming the matrix, I place a tween the ends I 5b and the clamps 33, 35, 31. sheet of pliant screen wire 50 over the pointed It will be observed that the several top bars l5 ends of the pins I ‘I and force the screen down of the frames I0 are thus disposed in a common plane on the sides 5 and the pointed ends of the 40 against the washers 23, thus conforming it to the contour defined by the pins. Next a matrix pins are adjusted relative to that plane. Before sheet ‘62, such as a sheet of pliant modeling clay, mounting the frames ID, with their carried pin is formed over and conformed to the screen, the elements, between the sides 5, the pins I‘! are sheet 52 being forced over the pointed ends of adjusted so that their pointed ends register with the respective contour lines of a ?at drawing to 45 the pins until the points of the pins project above the top surface of the sheet 62 to a slight extent, be followed, and in Figs. 6, '7 and 8 I show what of the order of ‘(112 inch. The extent of this pro I term the setting table for accomplishing this jection is determined by the extent of final ?nish adjustment. Here vI show a table or ?at plate ing which it is desired to perform on the shape 42 whichoppositely disposed angle iron guide brackets 45 secured thereto adjacent its opposite 50 to be formed on the matrix. I Before forming, the ?nal shape 65 to be de side edges by their attaching flanges 46 and bolts scribed, I provide a suitable base-locating struc 41. I show one of the frames III with its carried ture for the shape by placing on the sides 5 a pins laid flatly against the table, with the bar pair of height blocks 68 upon the tops of which extensions 25 bearing against the front faces of the guide brackets. The frame is secured in 55 I rest a straight edge 69. To the straight edge I secure, as by C-clamps ‘l0, leg members ‘I! whose position by the clamp 33, engaging the adjacent free ends are disposed in position'spaced slightly face of one of the guide brackets and by the above the matrix surface so as to become em beveled clamp 35 engaging the beveled adjacent bedded in the shape 65 when the latter is formed. surface 46a of the other guide bracket, which Next the material of which the shape 65 is to cooperating beveled surfaces draw the left-hand 60 be formed—which typically may be plaster-of end [51) of the frame against the left-hand guide bracket 45. . . The drawing or “left”. to be followed, here Paris or other suitable plastic-is poured or other wise applied over the matrix 62 and allowed to set or harden, the free ends of the legs 1| becoming denoted by thenumeral 50, is placed ?atly against the table 42 under the adjacent pointed ends of the pins [1. _First the clamp screws I81) of the may be desirable to first coat the matrix 52 with collars are loosened so that the pins may be a suitable mold-release material. embedded'in the shape.’ :For some materials it . After the shape 55 has set, it is removed from the matrix. Its outer surface will have small 70 depressions 12 formed by the protruding ends of the numeral 5|. the pin l1, and the bottoms of those depressions A setting block 54, here shown as an angle delineate the ?nal outer surface of the shape. iron, is placed loosely on the face of the drawing Thus in ?nally ?nishing and polishing the shape, 50 so that it may be freely, manually moved from the ?nisher will remove the surface material to a position opposite one pin end'to a position op posite another pin end. The front face 54a of 75 the depth of the depression, which depressions adjusted axiallythrough the collars. A contour line to be followed on the drawing is denoted by 2,410,888 5'. . serve as a guide" not only for the ?nal ?nishing being. followed. In Figs. 20-22 I show a modi?ed operation, but'also' enable the ?nisher‘ to check the contouragainst the original contour ‘draw . ances or variations may be simply made.v I Here, mg; instead'of the ?xed contact face on theblock to . If no such ?nal ?nishingiwork is to ‘be doneon the set shape, the pointed ends of thepins should terminate ?ush with'or short of the top surface of the matrix sheet 62 so as not to form depressions on:the shape. ‘ form of setting block I05 by which such'allow ‘ ‘ i betengaged‘ by the pin being set, as before de scribed, I employ a .micrometer adjustment wherein the ,micrometer‘ plunger H16 /may be moved outwardly or inwardly relative to-the front“ face I01 of the block by the conventional microm In Fig. 10 I show a modi?ed form of pin I‘! 10 eter mechanisms I08. The plunger I06 is non which is as before described'except that I here rotatable and has a line I99 registering with the employ anvauxiliary spike ‘l5 pivotally mounted on-a ‘collar 16 secured onithe pin.’ Spike v‘l5 af fords additional support for the matrix inter mediate adjacent pins l1. perpendicular center line H0 on the front face of the block. -Thus' when line I I0 is registered with the contour line H I of the flat drawing, the 15 relative setting of the pin I1 may-be Varied to . In Fig. 11 I show a further variational form any measured extent by axially moving plung of-contour-de?ningpin8? having a tubular shank er I06. _ I claim: 89a; axially adjustably mounted. on a pin 8|, which’ latter may be rigidly. attached to the bar 1-. Apparatus forgforming shapes comprising, t~5qof~a frame element l0. A set screw 82, or 20 in combination, a plurality of pins adapted to othersuitable locking means, maybe employed have their adjacent ends adjusted into positions to. retain the pin in‘ adjusted position. coordinate with 1a contour line of a drawing ~ In some cases, particularly where the pins are whereby‘ collectively tode?ne the contour of said, being coordinated to contour lines of relatively line, setting means for so adjusting said'pins, smallradius, to obtain extreme accuracy it may 25 pin-retaining means securing the pins in assem be necessary to employ objectionably'long tips on bly in said adjusted position and a matrix made the‘ spikes. In Figs. 12, 13 and 14 I show a modi of sheet material formed to a shape substantially ?ed form of pin which overcomes this necessity, conforming to the contour line de?ned by said and also‘ may eliminate the stop washers 23. adjacent ends of the pins, the pin ends being Here the shank of the spike 85 has a longitudi 30 positioned to project above an upper surface por nally'flattened portion 85a which prevents rota tion. of the‘matrix surrounding the pin ends. tion of the spike relative to the carrying bar 2. Apparatus for forming shapes comprising, in when ?tted in a hole in the bar which has like combination, a plurality of rows of pins, the pins cross-sectional shape. The top, pointed end of V of» each‘ row being adapted to have their adja- . the spikeisv axially split to provide a flat face 35 cent ends adjusted into positions ‘coordinate with 86 and a spherical portion 81. Thus the tip may a contour line of a drawing whereby collectively be-accurately registered with the contour line 88 to define'the contour of said line, a plurality of of a drawing (see Fig; l4)l-.regardless of the length separate pin-retaining members, each of said of the tip end. The relatively increased diameter. members securing the pins of ‘a row in adjusted of the'shank portion provides an~annular stop v position, a body providing means supporting'said shoulder~89 for the matrix. - . separate pin-retaining v‘members in a common‘ In Fig; 151 show a pin or spike mounting which plane and in assembled position whereby the ad jacent ends of the pins of the several rows collec before described. ‘ Here I‘merely ‘employ a set tively de?ne a composite shape, and a matrix screw 96‘ thre'adedly mounted in a lateral hole 45 supported on said adjacent ends of the pins‘ of in the bar‘ 15, the inner'end of the screw being the several rows and‘ conforming to said de?ned adapted to engage the pin H to» secure the latter composite shape, the pin ends projecting from a against axial movement. , 'moldingsurface of the matrix. While‘ I'have'described'the forming of a plastic 3. In a support‘for a molding matrix, a frame matrix, myapparatus may be'used .to form veneer 60 having sides, a removable cross member having'a matrices. In Figs. 16-18 Ishow a modi?ed type‘ planiform side support portion, said cross'mem eliminates the necessity of the clamp collar l8 of contour-de?ning pin 92 axially adjustably dis her being supported at its respective ends by the posed in frame members l5, [5a as before de respective? sides, a plurality of upright pins ax.. scribed. Here,.however, the pin is tubularand ially adjustably carried by and spaced‘ apart frustum shaped at its top end. First a hole is 55 along? the cross member, said pins presenting up drilled in the veneer V by vinsertinga drill 93 per tip portions collectively de?ning a contour, through the-frustum of the'pin' and rotating the locking means carried by the cross‘member for drill‘asby a ?exible shaft 94. The drill has a locking'engagement with‘ the pins, and a matrix stop shoulder 95 to limit the depth of the drilled support element adjacent the upper end‘ of each hole. After each hole is drilled, the vdrill is re 60 pin whereby the cross member is adapted'to'be moved and’ a tip member 96 is inserted in the removed from the frame and supported on its - axial vholethrough the frustum,-which tip mem side support parallel to a planiform drawing of ‘a ber. engages‘ in the hole in the'ven'eer previously contour line, and the pins adjusted to'have an made“ by the drill. . ' . end portion of each positioned directly above a In Fig. 19'I show a further modi?ed form of 65 point of the contour line‘. thereby collectively to pin lllilwhich is like thatxof-Fig's. 16-18 except‘ de?ne a contour line similar to that of the draw that itrhasimoun'ted'thereon, as by a' bracket llll, an'auxiliary. pin “32 which is likewise adapted fo 4: Apparatus‘ for-forming shapes, comprising a mg. drillingand= to- receive a‘ tip member 96. > . . ' frame having sides, a cross member supported at In forming some shapesv it'may be desirablev 70 its‘lrespective ends by the 'respective'sides, a plu to allow, in the setting of the contour-de?ning rality‘of pins carried by and spaced apart along pin's,i'for."a springback of the shape after it is re the‘cross'member, said pins presenting end por-' moved from the matrix, or it may be desired to set the pins to de?ne a contour of a slightly dif tions collectively de?ning a contour, and a matrix mounted upon said end portions of the pins and ferent radius than that of the line of the drawing 75 shaped in conformance with said contour, said 2,410,888: 7 matrix being adaptedto receive an unset plastic‘ material} ' ‘ ‘bi-Apparatus for forming a shape, comprising a ‘frame having sides, a cross member supported 8 set'shape-forming plastic, indicia-forming means projecting through the matrix vsurface to form guide indicia on the shape, said means being ad justable whereby to be positioned coordinate with l at 'its‘respective ends'by the respective sides, a U! the contour lines of the drawing. ‘ 11. In shape-forming apparatus, a matrix plurality of pins carried by and spaced apart shaped coordinate with contour lines of a draw along‘the cross member, said pins presenting end ing, ‘said matrix being adapted to receive an unset shape-forming plastic, indicia-forming means shaped in conformance with said contour, said 10 projecting from the matrix surface to form guide depressions in the shape, said means being axially matrix'being retained by the pins in ?xed posi~ adjustable whereby to' be adapted to be positioned tion to‘ retain an unset plastic material until the portionscollectively de?ning a contour, a matrix mounted upon said end portions of the pins and material sets to produce a shape conforming to said contour, and means for retaining a base for coordinate with the contour lines of the drawing.‘ 12. The method of using pins and a matrix to the shape, consisting of a cross bar and means form a three-dimensional shape in conformance with a flat contour line drawing, which com supporting the cross bar in position spaced above the form. prises: assembling the pins with their tip ends coordinate with the contour line of the drawing, forming the matrix on and in conformance with pending longitudinal ?angev having a beveled 20 the contour de?ned by said tip ends of the pins and applying an unset plastic to the matrix. outerside surface, a cross member extending be 13. The method of using spikes and a matrix to tween the sides and having end portions resting 6. In apparatus for forming shapes, a frame having sides, one of said sides presenting a de on the top surface of the sides, an eccentric clamp rotatably carried by the cross member and hav ing a beveled inner side surface engageable with the beveled surface of the ?ange. '7. In a support‘for a molding matrix, 'a body having sides, a removable cross frame having spaced upper and lower bars, said cross frame normally being disposed transversely between the form a three-dimensional shape in conformance with‘a flat contour line drawing which comprises: assembling the spikes with their pointed ends co ordinate with the contour line of a drawing, plac ing the matrix onto and in conformance with the contour de?ned by the pointed ends of the spikes and applying an unset plastic to the matrix. - 14. The method of using spikes and a matrix sides and having a planiform side support por to form a three-dimensional shape in conform tion, aligned spaced pairs of registering openings ance with a ?at contour line drawing which com _ prises: assembling the spikes with their pointed ‘ends coordinate with the contour line of a draw through the upper and. lower bars, contour-de ?ning pins adjustably mounted in the respective pairs of openings, clamp means on the cross 35 ing, placing the matrix onto and in conformance with the contour de?ned by the pointed ends of the spikes until the pointed ends of the spikes project above the surface of the matrix and ap ?ning a contour, means for locking the cross plying an unset plastic tothe matrix. frame in adjusted position between the sides, and 15. Apparatus for forming shapes comprising a matrix support element carried by the pins in 40 aplurality of pins each having a longitudinal downwardly spaced'relation from the contoured bore adapted to pass a drill, means for adjustably tips thereof. frame releasably lockably engaging the pins, said pins having pointed upper ends collectively de 8."Apparatus for forming shapes, comprising, in combination, a plurality of bars, a plurality of securing the pins in relative axially adjusted posi tion de?ning a contour, a pointed tip member contour-de?ning pins carried by and disposed 45 carried by each of the pins, each of the tip mem bers having a shank portion engaging in the bore transversely of each bar, the pins of each bar of the pin by which it is carried, and a matrix being axially movable relative to said bar where supported on and retained by the tip members in by their tips may be moved into adjusted posi position conforming to the shape de?ned thereby. tions relative to the bar, means for locking the pins in such adjusted position, body means sup 50 16. In shape-forming apparatus a plurality of indicia-forming points arranged to de?ne a con porting the several bars in a common plane for toured shape, means supporting the points in horizontal adjustment relative to each other, and arranged position, and a matrix shaped substan a pliant shape-forming matrix supported on and tially coordinate with the contoured shape de conforming to the shape de?ned by the tip ends of the pins, the pin ends penetrating the matrix 55 ?ned by the points, at least some of the points projecting from a molding surface of the matrix, to locate a molding surface of the matrix with said matrix being adapted to receive and mold respect to the pin ends. an unset shape-forming plastic with the project 1 '9. Shape-forming apparatus comprising a base ing indicia-forming points extending into the providing spaced side members, bars supported in spaced parallel relationship between the side 60 plastic to form guide indicia in the molded shape. 17. The method of molding a shape by using members, a plurality of pins carried by and pins and a deformable molding matrix compris-V spacedapart longitudinally of each bar, said pins ing so assembling the pins that their tip ends are having tapering tip end portions collectively de relatively disposed to de?ne a contour, providing ?ning-a contour, and a shape-forming matrix mounted on the tapered end portions of the pins, 65 a matrix support below the contour de?ned by the pin tip‘ ends, deforming the matrix down the extreme tip end portions of the pins pro wardly with respect to the pin tip ends onto the jecting through the top surface of the matrix matrix support, with the pin tip ends projecting whereby to form guide recesses in a shape formed from a contour de?ned by a molding surface of 10. In shape-forming apparatus, a matrix 70 the matrix, and applying an unset moldable plas tic to the matrix. ‘ shaped coordinate with contour lines of a draw OTTO H. LUCY. ing, said matrix being adapted to receive an un on the matrix.