close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2410913

код для вставки
‘Nov.
‘1946.
v E. WILDHABER ‘
2,410,913
METHOD AND TOOL FOR PRODUCING FACE CLUTCHES ’
'filéd igy‘ 1'8,’ 1942 "
' s Sheets-Sheet 1
Nov. 12, 1946. p‘
- '
E. WILDHABERO
2,410,913.
IIETHOD AND TOOL FOR PRODUCING FACE CLUTCHES
Filed lay a, 1942 '
a Sheets-Sheet 2
//2
‘O
Q‘
ERNEST
'
Snberitot
wan/maze ‘
8].
(Ittomgg
Nov. 12, 1946.»
_
E. WILDHABER
I '
2,410,913
METHOD .AND TOOL FOR monucme FACE‘ CLUTCH'ES f '
‘
/
‘
5
Filed May a, 1942; .
‘
1駧§§§§’
_
>
‘
~
‘
..
7
‘
'
—
I
.
I
_
8 Sheets-Sheet 3
.
‘
,7
"'
v,
M
8!
‘
géé é” ”
F510
v
15
'
'
I
Emvssr wu. 014055,?
Q
v
Nov. 12,1946.
'
E. WILDHABER
"
2,410,913
IIETHOD AND TOOL FOR PRODUCING FACE CLUTCHES
'
‘
Filed lay a. 1942
22
[9f
‘
a Sheets-Sheet 4,
.
I
3npéntor
ERNEST wan/mask
85
‘U -
attorney
Nov. 12, 1946.
-
E. WILDHABER
-
2,410,913' '
METHOD AND TOOL FOR PRODUCING FACE CLUTCHES
Filed May 8, 1942
‘
8 Sheets-Sheet 5
z
:27
II
‘
//
v
I
so
240
254'
l
Z35
256
233 1‘ 52
I;
2/6
'
242
,
Z,‘
24/
,
2”
Z5! 1‘
27 '
>
Z6
3nuentor
ERNES 7' WILD/m 55/:
8n
Nov. 12, 19467
_ , E. WILDHABER
2,410,913 ,7 '
METHQD AND TOOL FOR PRODUCING‘ FACE CLUTCHES
Filed May 8, 1942
-'
.
8 Sheets-Sheet 6
245
.
g5” :52 1
V
m.
245
zéa- 240' 245' 254
3110mm
Qe/vesr WILD/{885R
E554-
"
.
8-}
Nov. '12, 1946.
E. WILDHABER
‘
' ‘2,410,913
‘
METHOD AND TOOL FOR PRODUCING FACE CLUTCHES
"
Filed May 8, 1942
8 Sheets-Sheet '7
300
>
294
Z95
302,4
. _
337
33
540
\
334'
*4 my‘Summer
4}?
ERNEST W/LDH?BEK
I
‘Nov. 12, 1946.
'
'
,
E. WILDHABER
I
2,410,913
I
METHOD AND ‘TOOL FOR'PRODUCING 'FACE GLUTCHES
. Filed Maya, 1942
'8 Sheets-Sheet a >
.
2,410,913
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
UNITED. STATES v PATENT oFFica-_*
’ ‘METHOD AND TOOL FOR PRODUCING FACE
‘
CLUTCHES
Ernest Wiidhaber, Brighton, N. Y., assignor‘ to
‘ Gleason Works, Rochester, N. Y., a corporation
of New York
Application May 8, 1942, Serial No. 442,210
31 Claims. (c1. 90-9)
vide a cutter‘ for and method of cutting toothed
face clutch members whereby one side of a tooth
The present invention relates to face clutches
and particularly to those having longitudinally
straight teeth, and to methods and tools for pro
ducing face clutches.
space may be cut and the ‘opposite side ehamfered'
in a single revolution of the cutter.
A still further object of the invention is to pro
'vide face clutch members whose teeth are prop
erly chamfered at their tops, so that even when
the chamfered portions of the teeth only are in
-
Face clutches may be classi?ed or divided into
four different types, namely, ?xed face clutches
or couplings, where the two clutch members are
rigidly bolted together, axially adjustable face
engagement, contact will be made in the middle
clutches, whose members stay in enga_ - ment but
are not rigidly held together, releasable face 10 of the length of theteeth and not be concen
trated at the tooth ends.
clutches, which are repeatedly engaged and dis
‘
recital of the appended claims.
I
Face clutches can'be made with either straight 15
or longitudinally curved teeth.
‘
' hereinafter from the speci?cation and from the
are constructed to automatically disengage under
excessive loads.
_
Other-objects of the invention will be apparent
engaged, and load-releasing face clutches, which
The, processes
.
-
.
In cutting face clutches according to the pres
ent invention, a cutter is employed that is of the
disc type. Preferably the cutter has cutting
heretofore employed for cutting straight-toothed
blades arranged part way onlyaround its periph
face clutches have been relatively slow. ‘Face
ery with one or more gaps between blades. Pref
clutch members having longitudinally curved
erably the cutter is provided with both roughing
teeth of zero spiral angle can be out quite rapidly, 20' and ?nishing blades. ,A tooth space of the work
however. If it is desired to out both sides of a
may be roughed out during depthwise feed of
-tooth space of such] a clutch member simul
the cutter into the work, and the tooth space
taneously, though, it is necessary to adapt the
may be ?nished simply by rotating the cutter in
structure of the clutch‘ to the process of cutting.
engagement with the work after full depth is
25
For instance, the taper in depth of the tooth
reached. Alternatively, theroughing operation
spaces has to be increased, so that the tooth
spaces are cut deeper at their outer ends. Par
ticularly is this true of ?xed face clutches with
longitudinally curved teeth. This is, of course, a
disadvantage.
Y
>
>
may be effected during a combined lengthwise
and depthwise feed of the cutter in one direction
and ?nishing accomplished during a . return
30 lengthwise feed‘ in the opposite direction, after
-
One object of the present invention is to pro
vide a process for cutting the tooth spaces of
straight-toothed face clutch members which will
be substantially‘ as fast as the methods employed
for cutting curved-tooth face clutch members.
A further object of the'invention is to provide ,
a process for cutting ' straight-toothed face
clutch ‘members which will permit cutting two
the cutter has reached full depth position,
Where the cutter employed has its blades ar- '
ranged in two or more groups with a gap between
the last and ?rst blades of each group, each group
may consist of both roughing and ?nishing‘ blades.
Rough-cutting and ?nish-cutting of one side of
a tooth’ space may be accomplished with one
group of blades during depthwise feed of, this
‘ type of cutter into the blank. ‘ Then the cutter
sides of a tooth space of such clutch members
may be withdrawn from engagement with the
simultaneously without requiring. any increase in 40
depthwise taper of the tooth spaces.
A further object of the invention‘isto provide
a cutter for ‘and method of cutting straight
blank, and the blank indexed half va pitch to
bring the opposite side of the toothspace intov
cutting position. Then the cutter may again be ,
fed into the blankto rough and ?nish-cut this
toothed face clutch members which will permit
latter side of the tooth space with the second ‘
45
of successively roughing and ?nishing both sides
group of blades, and then the cutter may again
of a tooth space of such clutch members in a
be withdrawn from engagement with the blank
single revolution of a cutter.
and‘ the blank may be indexed again ‘through
Releasable face-clutch members ordinarily
half a pitch to bring one side of a new tooth space
have the tops of their teeth chamfered to facili
tate engagement and disengagement. Another 50 of the blank into cutting position.
object of this invention is to provide a cutter for '
and method of cutting releasable face clutch
members with proper chamfer at the tops of their
teeth.
Still another object of the invention is to pro- 55
One feature of the present invention is the '
provision of novel types of releasable and load
releasing clutches having teeth whose chamfered
top portions are helicoidal surfaces of varying
lead. with. this construction, the inclination of
2,410,913
4
the chamfered portions of the teeth with refer
ence to the clutch axis changes from the inner
to the outer ends of the clutch teeth and the
bers engage with less than full lengthwise tooth
contact;
Fig. 10 is a developed sectional view showing
how the cutter of Figs. 6 to 8 inclusive may be
modified to produce clutch members such as
clutches will have proper contact even when slid
ing into or out of engagement.
Like the sides of the teeth, the chamfered por
tions may be cut with a cutter having cutting
blades arranged part way only around. its periph~
shown in Fig. 9;
p
i
.
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary axial sectional view
of a ,still further modi?ed form of ?xed face
ery. The chamfer may be cut simultaneously
with the cutting of the sides of the clutch teeth 10 clutch;
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary elevational view show
by employing a cutter whose blades are so shaped
ing a pair of axially adjustable face clutch mem
as to cut one side of a tooth space and chamfer
v bers made according‘to this invention in engage
the top of the opposite side of the tooth space
ment;
'
simultaneously. Such a cutter may have its
Fig. 13 is a fragmentary axial sectional view
blades arranged in two groups; one group may 16
of one of the clutch members and illustrating
cut one side and chamfer the opposite side of
diagrammatically one method of cutting the
a tooth space and the second group may cut and
same;
.
‘
chamfer, respectively, the sides of the tooth space
Fig. 14 is a fragmentary elevational view fur
opposite to those operated on by the ?rst group
of blades. The work may be indexed through 20 ther illustrating the preferred method of cutting
this clutch member and showing in operation one
half a pitch between operationsof the two groups
blade
of a cutter, such as may be employed for
of cutting blades so that the whole of the tooth
cutting this clutch member;
space may be cut and chamfered in a single revo
' Fig.v 15 is a plan view and Fig. 16 an axial
lution of the cutter.
sectional
view of a preferred form of cutter for
It is preferred to make ?xed face clutches with 25
cutting this type of clutch member;
opposite side tooth surfaces which are inclined
Fig. 17 is a developed sectional view of this
to the clutch axis and converge in the clutch axis,
cutter;
but both axially adjustable and releasable face
Fig. 18 is a fragmentary view showing a pair
clutches are preferably made with side tooth sur
faces that extend in the direction of the clutch 30 of releasable clutch members made according to,
this invention about to be engaged with one an:
axis. For cutting the ?rst named type of clutch,
other;
‘
the cutter is provided with ?nishing blades which
Fig. 19 is a corresponding view showing the’
are inclined to the cutter axis at other than ‘right
two clutch members in engagement;
angles. For cutting the two last named types of
clutches, the cutter is provided with blades whose 35 Fig. 20 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
through the chamfered portions of the teeth of
sides are perpendicular to the cutter axis.
one of these clutch members‘and in a plane per
Clutches of the load-releasing type are prefer
pendicular'to the clutch axis‘;
‘
ably provided with helical side tooth surfaces of
Fig. .21 is a corresponding view, showing, for
constant lead. Such clutches may be cut with
cutters having blades of convex profile.
40 the purposes of comparison, the structure of a
pair of clutch members] chamfered by simply
The invention is capable of various other modi
rounding off the tops of the teeth;
?cations and embodiments as will be described .
hereinafter.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1'is an elevational view showing in en 45
gagement two members‘ of a ?xed face clutch
made according to this invention;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of one of the clutch
members, the section being taken in a mean
’
Fig.‘ 22 is an enlarged elevational view of a
releasable clutch member made according, to this .
invention;
_.
.
Fig. 23 is a fragmentary diagrammatic view
illustrating how the chamfer on the teeth of an
adjustable clutch member might be produced ac
cording to the present invention:
plane, hereinafter referred to as the pitch plane, 50 Fig. 24 is a diagrammatic view illustrating one
method of cutting ,the sides of the teeth of a
which is perpendicular to the clutch axis and in
releasable clutch member according to the pres
which the thickness of the teeth of the clutch
ent invention;
' a .,
member equals the width of its tooth spaces;
Fig. 25 is a diagrammatic view illustratingthe
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary elevational view on an
56 timed relation between the rotation of the cutter
enlarged scale of one of the clutch membersr
and the lengthwise feed of the cutter across the
Fig‘. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view of a pair ;
face of the blank in the method of Fig. 24;
of the clutch members in engagement, the section
Fig. 26 is a fragmentary view showing a blade
being taken on a line corresponding to the line
of a cutter made according to one embodiment
4—4 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic view, showing one ,of , 60 of this invention for cutting the side surfaces of
the teeth of a releasable clutch member, and illus
the clutch members fragmentarily in axial sec
tion. and illustrating diagrammatically one
method of cutting such a clutch member;
trating the side-cutting operation;
Fig. 274s a corresponding view showing a‘blade
Fig. 6 is a. plan view of one form of cutter for 66 of a cutter for chami'ering the teeth of such a
clutch member, and illustrating the chamfering
cutting face clutches of the type disclosed in Figs.
1 to 5 inclusive;
_
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the
shape of the finishing blades of this cutter;
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view, illustrating the
shape of the roughing blades of this cutter;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
in the pitch plane of a clutch of modi?ed form
operation;
Fig. 28 is a corresponding'view showing a blade‘
of a cutter which simultaneously cuts one side
and chamfers the opposite side of a tooth space
of such a clutch member, and illustrating'the
method of its operation;
‘
i
'
Fig. 29 is a diagrammatic view, illustrating one
method of cutting a load-releasing clutch mem
which has teeth so shaped longitudinally that
H
'
contacting tooth surfaces of the two clutch mem 75. ber according to this invention;
Fig. 30 is a fragmentary sectional view of a
I 2,410,918
clutch, member 6| appears, theretorain Fig. 5 as a
clutch member of this type taken vin a plane'pe'r- _
pendicular to the clutch axis;
line perpendicular to the line 10 and so
‘ -
other'normals to the plane of said side;
Fig. 31' is a fragmentary elevational view of such
a clutch member;
'
\
"
'
"
I
mentshown, four;
'
'
‘
‘Bots-a section in a plane perpendicular to 15'
the clutch. axisand Fig. 36 isa section in an axial .- '
.
plane oi’ a load-releasing-clutch member ‘con-'
.
.
.,
3‘? is a diagrammatic view, illustrating one
method of cutting this clutch member;
Figs.
. ‘i
.
and 39 are views corresponding to Figs.‘
35 and 35, respectively, and illustrating a'further
method of cutting load-releasing clutch members
according to this invention; '
.
~
'
'
"
'
bladesprecede the finishing blades'in the direc
tloncf'cutte‘r rotation.
“
v
‘
-
>
,
.
a The :roughlng blades maybe 0! the type shown
in Fig. 8. Here a roughing blade, such as might
be employed for cutting at the ‘top of axtooth
space of. the clutch member; is shown in full lines
at 83, and aroughlng blade, such as' would oper;
ate somewhat deeper in‘ the tooth space toward
the‘ bottom'thereof, is shown in dotted lines‘ at
structedsccording to a still further embodiment of 7
,
"
. roughing 'and'?nishinglbladesp The roughing
clutch constructed according to this invention;
~
‘
1 Preferably the cutter is- provided with ‘both,
'
Fig. as loan elevational view ore-releasable
this invention;
I
This cutter 80 is of disc type and has a, plurality
Fig. 33 is a fragmentary elevational view illus
.
,
of cutting segments 8! arranged part-way around‘
its-periphery with "a gap’ 82' between the last and
?rst segments. Each *0: the segments has a plu
rality of cutting blades or teeth; ‘in-the ‘embodi
’
tinting diagrammatically the action of a. load-j
releasing clutch constructed according to the pres;
ent invention; >
I
ting of the clutch'members 50 and 61 according
to this invention, is shown in Figs. 6 to 8 inclusive;
theoretically requlredpro?le ‘shape of such a
clutch member'may be approximated-by a ‘circular
’
do all
A ‘cutter, such as maybe employed in the‘ cut-f
Fig. .32 isa, diagrammatic ‘view showing howthe
arc;
"
83'.
The point-widths . of‘ successive» roughing
blades ivary. therefore," in accordance with the"
position in the tooth space at which the blade is
to cut. All the roughing blades have wide top
‘
Figs. so, (ii and 42 are diagrammatic views fur
ther illustrating the method. of'cuttlng load-re‘- '
cutting edges 86 and straight parallel sides 86‘
leasing face clutches according to this invention
and 81, that are ‘perpendicular to the axis 88 of
and showing, respectively, the shapes of the cut
ter blades'which cut at the large end, center, and 30' thecutter, and the sides .86 and; 8'! of these blades
are beveled .o? nearwthelr tops where they join
small and of the tooth. spaces of the clutch in this
the top-cuttingedges B5.
method;
,
~
'
-~.
'
'
form of cutter;
‘
35
‘
‘
'
'
The ?nishing blades of the } cutter. may be of i
Figs. a3, 4.4 and as are corresponding, views,
showing the shapes of-the blades of a modi?ed
the type shownin Fig.- '7, having, opposite side
edges 88 and “which-converge to their tip 80
so that the blades are of general V shape, The
point-widths of the finishing blades, like the
Fig. {it is a sectional view in aplane perpen- v
‘ dicular to the axis and Fig. 4’? 1s a fragmentary
point-widths of the roughingblades, vary. The ,
sectional view in an axial plane of one member
?nishing blade 91, which is adapted to cut at the
of a lced-peleasing type clutch constructed ac.
cording to a further modi?cation or this inven 40 outer ends of the tooth spaces of the clutch mem
ber, is shown in full lines in Fig. land a ?nish-‘
tion;
‘
'
Fig. ‘i8, a sectionalview'in a‘plane perpen
'dicular to the axis of the mating load-releasing
ing blade, which is intended to out further along ‘
the tooth space nearer tothe clutch axis, is shown
is dotted lines at 9|’.
clutch member;
.
_
.
.
..
Figs. ‘is, to and iii are views'of the blades,
which are adapted to operate at the outer end,"
center, and inner end oi’ a tooth space, respcc‘m 1‘
tively, in a cutter ccnstructedto cuts. clutch
member such as shown. in Fig. 46; and
‘
Figs.
53 and 5d- are corresponding views of
the blades of a cutter suitable for cutting the
mating member of
clutch.
?eierence will be had first to the fixed face
, , l
_
Preferably the roughlngj'and?nishing blades
are made all, of the same height so that the tip
cutting edges of ‘these blades lie-in the same -cy_-.,
lindrical surface 95 (Fig. 6) concentric of the
cutter axis 98. Preferably, also, the gashes 84
between. successive blades of the cutter are made
of uniform depth 50 that the bottoms 87 of these
sashes will all liein'the same cylindrical surface .
t8 concentric of the cutter axis 96.
All blades are relieved on their ‘tips back of .
clutch whose structure is illustrated-in Figs. 1 to
5» inclusive. "the two members Bil and Bi of this 55 their tlp¢cutting edges. In addition, the finish-,,
lng blades are relieved on their sides back of their
clutch. are preferably made identical with one‘ an
other, and in the interest of brevity, therefore, '
side-cutting edges.
In the preferred operation, the cut in the tooth V
the structure of oniycne member, the member as,
space
01 a~ clutch member ell starts with the ‘axis
will be described in detail. It has straight radial
teeth $52 and tooth. spaces 63. Its teeth 62. and“ 60 of the cutter at position 96' (Fig. 5). As the cut- ,
ter rotates on its axis, it is fed longitudinally of
tocthspaces $3 taper in width and height from‘
their enter to their inner‘ ends." The opposite / the tooth space and also depthwise into the tooth
space so that the axis ‘of the cutter travels along
sides be and fit’; of its teeth are planes‘ which con~
verge towards the tops of the teeth and intersect _' the'inclined line 99 (Fig. 5). During‘thls length
' wise and depthwise ‘feed movement, theroughing 7
in the clutch axis 66. Said plane's; therefore, inblades of the rotating cutter come successively
tersect the pitch plane M of the clutch member,
which is the sectional plane of Fig. 2, in'radial' ‘ into operation and rough out the tooth space.
straight lines 68 and to which intersect in‘ ‘the - When the cutter has been fed beyond the full"
length of the, tooth space, its ‘direction of length;
vclutcl'i axis $6. The planes voi’ opposite sides of a I
tooth space, moreover, it extended, intersect in a 70 wise feed is reversed. The cutter itself, however, ,
straight line to (Figs. 3 and 5) which lies in the" 7' continues to rotate on in the same direction. The
central plane of said tooth‘ space and intersects
the axis
of the clutch memberin the pitch
apex “ll of the clutch member. ‘ The normal ‘13
depthwise feed movement continues, moreover, .
until the cutter reaches full depth positlonwith '_ '
its axis at ‘8611., Thenthe depthwise‘leed move-_
at mean point ‘it in a side More. toothof the 75 ment‘ls' discontinued.’ 'It ‘is preferred, as illus
2,410,913’
7
8
trated, to have the reversal of the lengthwise.
feed take place before full depth position is
ing the point-widths of the ?nishing blades in a
similar manner.
. This construction is illustrated in Fig- 10.
reached so that all backlash may be taken up be
fore the ?nish-cut starts. The reverse length
wise feed movement continues, until the cutter
has been fed back across the full length of a tooth
space. of the clutch member and its axis has‘
Here the roughing blades of the cutter are denoted at-I'I to I26 inclusive and the ?nishing
blades at I21 to I32 inclusive.
‘
Since the tooth space of the clutch member'is
reached position 96"’, During this reverse
widest at its top and has sides which converge
lengthwise feed movement, the ?nishing blades
to the bottom of the tooth space, and since the
of the cutter operate and ?nish-cut the sides of‘ 10 _ roughing operation proceeds with a depthwise as
the tooth space. When the ?nishing cut is com
well as a lengthwise feed,‘and the blade Ill is
pleted, the cutter is quickly withdrawn in a
the
first to cut, this blade is the widest of the
depthwise direction, as indicated by the dotted
roughing blades. Ordinarily, the roughing bla'les
line 9I"'—96’ and returned to initial position
would then be progressively narrowed in point
with its axis at 96’. Thewithdrawal movement 15. width to the ?nal roughing blade I 26 which is
occurs while the gap 82 in the'cutter is abreast
intended to cut at full depth at the outer end of
of the blank, and the blank is indexed during the
a tooth space. The ?nishing blades cut at full
withdrawal movement.
depth, and ordinarily the ?nishing blade I21,
Thus in a revolution of the cutter, a tooth space
which cuts at the large end of a tooth space,
of the clutch member will be roughed out and 20 would be the widest of the ?nishing blades, the
?nished. The roughing blades of the cutter are
?nishing blade I32, which cuts at the small end
wide enough to reach across the full width of
of the tooth spaces, would be the narrowest of
the tooth space and leave on Just enough stock
the ?nishing blades; and the point-width of the
for the ?nishing blades to remove in‘the ?nishing
?nishing blades would progressively decrease
cut. Hence. the full width of a tooth space is 25 from the blade I21 to the blade I32.
cut at all times, even during the depth feed of
To produce the longitudinally crowned tooth
the cutter, The roughing blades cut principally
with their top cutting edges 85, while the ?nish
ing blades cut principally with their side edges
88 and ill. Both the roughing and ?nish cutting 30
operations are, therefore, very efficient.
v
The combined rotary motion and feed of the
cutter can be considered as a rolling motion
shape, the point-widths of the blades, which cut
at the two ends of the tooth spaces, are increased
over standard dimensions, that is, the opposite
side edges of the blades are gradually onset from
their conventional positions beginning with the
blade which is intended to cut midway the length
of a tooth space.
This o?'set increases progres
whose instantaneous axis is, for instance, at I"
sively from this middle blade toward the blades
when the axis of the cutter is at position 96" in 35 which cut at both ends of the tooth space. As
termediate the'ends of the ?nishing feed move
a result, theopposite side edges of the roughing
ment. The mean point ‘I4 in the side surface 84
of a tooth is ?nished when the normal 13 to the
side surface of the tooth at this point passes
through the instantaneous axis I00. ‘
95' (Fig. 5) denotes the position of the tip cut
- ting surface of the cutter at the beginning of the
cutting operation when the axis of the cutter is
at 96'. 95" denotes the position of the tip cut
ting surface of the cutter when the cutter is in
full depth and its axis is at N" in the middle of
the return ?nishing feed movement.
It will be understood, of ‘course, that instead of
imparting the lengthwise and depthwise feed
movements to the cutter, either or both of these
motions may be imparted to the work instead, ‘and
the cutter simply rotated on its axis.
I ‘
Preferably ?xed face clutches are made so that
the contacting teeth‘ will have less than full
length engagement or bearing. In this way the
ends of the teeth are relieved of pressure. Thus,
as illustrated in Fig. 9, each clutch member may
blades in the view of Fig. 10 lie in curved lines
I33 and I34 and the opposite side-cutting edges
of the ?nishing blades II’! to I32 lie in curved
40 lines I35 and I38.
Fig. 11 shows a modi?ed form of ?xed face
clutch in which each clutch member I“ has
teeth III of constant depth from end to end.
The sides of the teeth of this clutch member will,
however, otherwise be of the same shape as the
clutch previously described.’ If the clutch mem
-bers are to engage with full length contact, then,
the sides of the teeth Ill will be plane and will
converge in the clutch axis I12. If the clutch
50 member I" is to have localized tooth bearing,
then these teeth will be of the shape shown in
Fig. 9.
The same cutting cycle, as previously described,
may be employed in the production of the clutch
member I40; the only difference is that the ?nish
ing feed stroke will be parallel to the pitch plane
I43 of the clutch member rather than inclined
thereto as in the instance of the clutch vmembers
illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive and 9.
be provided with teeth whose sides are longitudi
nally convex so that the mating tooth sides will
engage with localized contact or bearing. Here 60 “The principles of the present invention are not
limited to the production of ?xed face clutches
IIII denotes teeth of one clutch member and III
but, as shown in Figs. 12 to 17 inclusive. may also
denotes the teeth of the other. The axis of the
be applied to face clutches of the axially adjusts
clutch is at II2. Opposite sides of the teeth of
able type. Here again the tooth sides of the
both members are longitudinally convex, as
clutches are planes which converge at the clutch
shown, so that mating tooth surfaces have a con
axisin the same way as the clutch of Fig. 2. In
tact which is heaviest at their longitudinal cen
ters and which fades away toward both ends of
the teeth,
.
the embodiment illustrated, however, the sides of
the teeth of the axially adjustable clutch extend
in the direction of the clutch axis instead of being
Such clutch members can readily be produced
inclined thereto as is the case with the ?xed
by gradually increasing, over standard propor 70 clutch
of Figs. 1 to 5.
I
tions, the point-widths of the roughing blades
A
pair
of
engaging
axially
adjustable clutch
from the bladewhich cuts at the center of the
members are shown at I 50 and III in Fig. 12.
tooth length to the blades which cut at the two
ends of the tooth space and
by gradually widen
The teeth of each clutch member have sides In
76 which are, as stated. plane and parallel to the
2,410,918
ishing blade or blades I65.
of the teeth are also plane and are perpendicular
to the clutch axis I54.
_
I
10
length of the tooth surface is taken by the ?n- ~
clutch axis I54. Preferably the top surfaces I55
,
,,
_
I
,
The cutter is then withdrawn to starting posi-y
tion. During this withdrawal movement the gap
I63 in the cutter comes. abreast of the work and
the work is indexed half'a pitch. In this way the
opposite side I52 of the tooth space is moved into
the, cutter plane I10. The depthwise feed then 1
‘
Preferably the two sides of a tooth space of
each clutch member are cut successively in a
single revolution of a rotary disc cutter. A cutter
suitable for this purpose is'shown at I60 in Figs.
15 to 17 inclusive. This cutter has its cutting
starts anew and proceeds in the same manner as
blades arranged in two groups, one group being,
intended to rough-cut and ?nish successively one‘ 10 before so, that the roughing blades I68of the
group I62' rough out the opposite side of the
side of a tooth space and the other group being ,
tooth space. After full depth position has been
intended to rough-cut and ?nish successively the
opposite side of the‘tooth space.
reached,'the feed'again stops and the ?nishing
blade I66 ?nishes thatside of the tooth space.
I
The cutter may again be of the segmental type.
The cutting segments for cutting one .side of a 15 Then the cutter is withdrawn ‘again from en
gagement with the .work, and the work is again
tooth space are denoted at I6I and the cutting
indexed through half a pitch to bring aside
I53 of the next "tooth space into position to be
space are denoted, at I62. In the'form shown,
cut. Thus the operationv proceeds until all of
each segment comprises four cutting blades or
teeth, and the two groups of segments are sep 20 the tooth spaces have been completed.
segments for cutting the opposite side of‘a tooth
arated byperipheral gaps I63 and I66.
In the operation as described, then, there are
two complete depthwise feed cycles per cutter
revolution, and the work is indexed twice per cut
_
In the preferred construction, the ?nal cutting
tooth or blade of each group is a ?nishing blade
ter revolution, each time through half a. pitch.
and all of the preceding blades of the group are
roughing blades. The ?nishing blades of the two 25 In other words, a clutch having n teeth is indexed
through an angle of 360°/2n at every half turn
groups are denoted at I65 and I66, respectively,
(Figs. 15 and 1'1), while the roughing blades of
‘
of the cutter.
‘
'
"
'
For the‘ purposes of clearer illustration, the.
one ‘group are denoted at I61 and of the other
number of rough ng blades shown in the de
30
veloped view of Fig. 17 isless than that shown,
The opposite sides I12 and I13 of eachblade
in the?cutter of Fig; 15. All of the blades'of
are parallel and perpendicular to the axis I1I '
the cutter I60 ‘are relieved on their sides as well
of the cutter. 'The tip edges I14 of allvof the
as their tip surfaces back of their front faces to
blades are preferably disposed at the same radial
insure
good cutting action especially by the ?n
distance from the axis "I of the cutter so as to
group at I68.
_.
_
I
v
'
lie in a cylindrical surface I16 concentric with
the axis of the cutter. The twogroups of blades
are‘ disposed, respectively, at opposite sides of a
The relieved side _surfaces are
, denoted at,‘l1'1 and I16 (Fig. 17) and the relieved
top surfaces at I16 (Fig. 15) ‘.
_
Because of the side relief, the side edges of the
35 ishing ‘ blades.‘
plane I10, hereinafter-called the, cutter plane,
blades will be axially displaced each time the
that is perpendicular to the axis I1I of the cut-'
ter. The roughing blades are intended to cut 40 blades'are sharpened. Axial adjustment of the
two groups, I6I and,I62,- of the blades is re.
primarily with their tip cutting edges. The fin
quired, therefore, after each sharpening of the
ishing blades I65 and I66, respectively, of the
cutter. Thej cutter itself can be adjusted‘ bodily
two groups have side-cutting- edges, and these
to
line up the ?nishing blade I66 of group I62
edges are offset laterally with reference to the ‘I with
the cutting plane‘ I10, and this automatically
corresponding side edges of the preceding rough
ca
‘is
Preferably the ?nishing blades are so. arranged
disposes‘the' roughing blades of that group inthe
same offsetrelationto" the cutter plane as'when“
that their opposite side-cutting edges“ I82 and
I83, , respectively, coincide with the plane- I10
50 cutting Plane I10, after sharpening, by thinning
ing blades of that group.
I
'
"
‘ g
.
perpendicular to the'cutter‘ axis I1I. Thus " thev
roughing edges of the two groups are offset at .
opposite sides of the plane I10 while the ?nish:
ing edges of blades I65 and I66preferably lie in
the cutter isnew; The blades of group, I6! can be
brought back' into, the properjrelation tothe ’
up the spacer or shim I19 which is interposed
between the-inside surfaces of the segments I 6|
and'the adjacent side face‘of the head of the
, cutter‘ I60. Alternatively,‘ the segments I6I
.u themselves can be thinned'up'by grinding of! the
In cutting a face clutch with the cutter I60,
inside surfaces I00 after each sharpening. The
the cutter is so positioned relative to the 'work
amount‘ of stock'that has to be removed from
that the cutter plane I10 passes through and ' the
shims or ‘from the segments is quite. small
that plane.
,
,
. contains the clutch axis I54.
'
‘
'
One side surface
I53 of a tooth‘ space of the clutch is then roughed
and can be controlled accurately.
‘’
'
with the-‘cutting method described, the’bot-‘f ‘
out by feeding the rotating cutter depthwise into 60 toms
of the tooth spaces of the clutch members .
the work until the cutter reaches full depth po
' ‘I50 and I5I will be curved, but the curvature of
sition. ,Inthis feed movement, thecutter axis
the tooth spacebottomswill be hardly visible and , '
will move from the position I1 I’ (Figs. 13 and 14)
certainly no ‘drawback, whereas the cutting
to the position I1 I ”, and the outside cutting 'sur-_
itself is fast and e?icient. Furthermore,
face of the cutter will move from, position, I15’ 55 process
the ?nish and accuracy of the sides of the clutch .
to position I15". In this depthwise feed move-4
ment, the roughing blades I61 of one group of " teeth is of a very high order because the prin
cipal amount of stock is removed from the tooth,
blades of the cutter will cut with their tip cut
spacesin th'e roughing operation during the,
ting edges only, and a slight amount of stock
70
depthwise feed, and the ?nishing blades of the
will be left on the side of the tooth space to be
cutter have only tov remove the slight amount of
removed by the ?nishing blade.
‘
_
stock left after full depth position is reached.
Fig. 14, is a view showing the cutter at full
Hence the shape and position of the ?nished side depth position. After full depth position has
surfaces of the clutch teeth are unaffected by any
been reached, the depthwise feed movement
stops, and- the ?nishing out along the vwhole 75 possible inaccuracies in the depthwise movement.
2,410,913
»
11
Face clutches, whose teeth have plane sides
extending in the direction of the clutch axis and
converging in the clutch axis, can‘ be used con
veniently as releasable clutches if the tops of the
teeth are suitably chamfered to facilitate en
gagement and disengagement of the clutch mem
bers. The chamfer' is required since one or both
of the shafts or other parts, to which the clutch‘
members are secured, may be rotating at high
speed when the clutch members are being moved
into or out of engagement. Since, at the start
of their engagement, a sudden and heavy crash
load may be exerted on the chamfered ends‘ of
the clutch teeth, the chamfer, moreover, should
be such as to enable the teeth to bear in their
middle or along their whole lengths'even when
only the chamfered parts of theteeth are in con- _
tact.
‘
Fig. 18 shows a pair of releasable clutch mem
i2
'
I
on its axis and moved in the direction of its axis
at a varying rate as compared with its rotary
motion as the tool 2" moves across the face of
the clutch. This helicoidal movement will cause
the clutch to move from the full line position in
dicated at 208 in Fig, 23 to the dotted line posi
tion shown at 208', while‘ the cutting tool is being
reciprocated radially of the clutch axis.
When the teeth of a clutch member are cham
fered in the described fashion, the elements or
Beneratrices of the helicoidal chami'ered surfaces
in any plane perpendicular to the clutch axis will
extend radially of the clutch axis as do the lines
III and III in Fig. 20.‘ When the teeth of two
clutch members are provided'with such helicoidal‘
chamfers, they bear along their full length even‘
when they are coming into engagement and the
contact is still only on the chamfered portions of
the teeth. Thus such clutch members can carry
bers about to be engaged and Fig. 19 shows these .20 much heavier loads at all times than the conven
same members in fully engaged position. Where
tionaltype of clutch.
the chamfer consists of an ordinary round extend
A portion'of a clutch member, whose‘teeth ill
~ ing along the sides of the teeth at their tops, as
illustrated clearly in Fig. 21, thechamfered por
have a helicoidal chamfer, is shown on an en
larged scale in Fig. 22. It will be noted that the
tions of the teeth will bear only at their ends .25 inclination of the chamfered portion III of the
when in contact. In ‘Fig. 21, the teethof one
tooth surfaces to'the clutch axis increases with
clutch member are denoted at “3; the teeth of
increasing radial distance from the clutch axis.
the other clutch member at I94. Where‘ the ,
Thus the pro?le curve 2| 5 of the chamfered sur
chamfer consists of a round at the tops ofthe
face at the outer end of a clutch tooth has a
teeth, the chamfered surfaces willbe parts of 30 greater inclination to the tooth side Ill than the
cylindrical surfaces extending lengthwise ‘of the
teeth. Planes perpendicular to the clutch axis
I95 then intersect the cylindrical‘chamfer of the
opposite sides of the teeth along straight lines
I“ and I 91, respectively, which are parallel to
the plane side surfaces I98 and I 89, respectively,
of the teeth. Since the plane sides I98 and I9!
of the teeth are radial and pass through the
clutch axis I95, the lines I96 and ililwlil be
parallel to said sides and offset at opposite‘ sides
of the clutch axis I95, and will cross one another.
Because of this, when the chamfered portions
only of the mating clutch elements are in contact,
they will contact at the, 'outer ends only of the
pro?le curve ill at the inner end of the cham
fered portionof the tooth. In other words, the
pro?le curve 2l5 ofthe chamfered portion at the
outer end of the tooth has a smaller radius than
the pro?le curve 2H of the inside of the tooth.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 22, the cham
fered portions of the teeth join the side surfaces
of the teeth smoothly without break. Thejunc
ture may be at an angle, however, but, if so, this
40 is, preferably kept‘as small as possible.
To produce the ‘desired chamfered surfaces, the '
cutting tool maybe fed either depthwise or longi
tudinallyiacross the face of the clutch blank.
The‘ plane sides of the teeth may be cut by a
chamfered portions of their,’ teeth, as denoted at 45 simple depthwise feed of a tool according to the‘
200 in Fig. 21, andthe outer ends of the cham
process described with‘reference to Figs. 13 and
fered portions of the teeth will have to carry the
14. If tooth spaces having straight bottoms are
whole of the load when the clutch members are
desired, though, a lengthwise feed movement
being moved into or out of engagement. This
must be produced between cutter and work.’
means that the chamfered portions ofthe clutch 50 Whether in the cutting of the ‘sides of the teeth
members will not be able to carry heavy loads
pure depthwise feed is employed or a lengthwise
and, as a consequence, that the clutch members
feed,'it is‘preferred to employ a cutter of the type
themselves will be unable to stand heavy loads;
shown in Figs. 15 to 1'7 inclusive, that is, a cutter
I have discovered that engagement at .the
having two separate groups of blades for cutting,
middle of the teeth or also engagement along the 55 respectively and successively, opposite‘ sides of the
whole length of the chamfered surfaces of re- ., ~ teeth. The two plane sides 216 and M8 of a tooth
- leasable clutch‘ members can be obtained when
space are then'vcut, as before, in succession, and
the chamfered surfaces are made helicoidal sur
the work is indexed‘ half a pitch after each ‘half
faces‘of varying lead. For clutch members hav
' turn of the cutter. ing radial teeth, the helicoidal surfaces giving,
Fig. 24_illustrates diagrammatically a preferred,
full length contact should be such ,,that their
method or cutting the sides of the tooth spaces
generatrices are straight lines, which extend lon
in such way as to produce tooth spaces with
gitudinally of the teeth and radially of the clutch: ' straight bottoms. The cut may start with the
axis in any plane through the chamfered surfaces
axis of the cutter at "in. As the cutter rotates
perpendicular to the clutch axis.
65 on its axis, it is ?rst fed both in the direction of
In principle, the proposed chamfer may be de
scribed or produced by a point 205 (ll'ig. 23) of a
tool Ill which reciprocates radially of the clutch
axis 201, while a relative helicoidal movementis
depth and in the direction of the length of the
tooth space until the cutter reaches full depth
position with its axis at I'Hb. During this move
ment, the ‘cutter will have rotated about its‘axis
produced between the cuttin‘g'tool and the clutch 70 throng
an angle 2ZIa-i1l-2Zlb. After reach
about the clutch axis. The radial reciprocation
ing f depth position, the cutter is moved in the
of the ‘tool will cause the point of the tool to
direction of the pitch surface 222 of the clutch
describe a‘ straight line perpendicular to and in
member until its axis reaches position I‘Hc. Dur
tersecting the clutch axis. In the relative heli
ing this movement, the cutter will have rotated
coidal movement, the work may be turned slowly 75
about its axis _ through an angle equal to
‘2,410,918
13
,
,
22Ib¢-l1|-22lc. Then the cutter is withdrawn
.
chamfering the opposite side of the tooth-space.
-
from‘- engagement ‘with the clutch until its axis
The‘ cutter may again be of-the general type
reaches the position llld; moving along the
illustrated in Figs. 15 to 1'1 inclusive, having two
dotted line Hie-Hid and'through an angle
separate groups of cutting blades separated by
22|c--l'Ii--22ld. During this withdrawal, the 5 peripheral gaps. The blades of the ?rst group
gap I68 in the cutter will be abreast of the work
and the work will be indexed through half a pitch.
The cut is then started on the other side of the
tooth space, the cutter being fed depthwise and
lengthwise along the full'lirie 224 until the cutter 10
may be shaped as shown in Fig. 28 to cut the sides
2|6 of the clutch teeth and chamfer the opposite
sides MS of the teeth. The blades of the second
group of blades of the cutter will then be shaped ;
to cut the sides 2" of ‘the clutch teeth and ‘
axis again reaches the position File, with the‘
cutter at full depth position. Then the cutter is
chamfer the sides 2l6 thereof.
The cutting and chamfering of the clutch teeth
fed along the full length of the tooth space with-
may be- effected with or without lengthwise feed
out depth feed until its axis again reaches posi-
of the cutter, preferably without ‘lengthwise feed.
tion illb. The two sides of the‘tooth space will 15 In this case, the procedure may be simller to
then have been completed and the cutter is again‘
that described with reference to the ‘process illus
withdrawn from engagement with the work so
trated in Figs. 13 and ldeexcept that ‘the cutter,
that its axis will travel along‘the dotted line 225
will be so disposed that its axis will be at a Bree-tel‘
until it returns to initial position "1a. In this
distance from the clutch axis than is shown in.
withdrawal, the work is again ‘indexed through 20 Fig. 13. This results in cutting tooth spaces hav
half a pitch. This completes the cycle and'the
ing somewhat rinclined tooth bottoms. In this
cycle begins anew to cut a new toothspace ofthe
manner, the chamfered surfaces can becorrectly
work,
formed. Theplane side surfaces of the clutch
During the feed from position 11 Id to lllc, the
teeth may also be colfl‘eciily formed in this'rmsi- cutter will rotate through the‘ angle
‘
22' d__n|__n| e ‘
'
’
v
25 tion because plane side surfaces areperpendicularv
‘
‘
to the‘, cutter axisand independent of the loca
‘
tion of the cutter axis radially of ‘the clutch.
while during the reverse travelat full depth position, the cutter will rotate through the angle‘
With the type of cutter illustrated ‘in Fig. 28,
therefore, a very efficient method of producing
i
22le--l‘|l--22If, and during the ?nal withdrawal, so a releasable face clutch member is ‘provided,
the cutter will rotate through an angle
‘ 22"’
l.“
“I a
_
‘ '
'
whereby both‘ sides of a tooth space can be cut
and chamfered in a single revolution of the cut
The dotted line 221 denotes the position of the
Releasable face clutches of' the type described
tip cutting surface of the cutter when the axis of- ‘35 are superior to the. clash-type clutches‘ conven
the cutter is at H lb.
tionally employed, ‘where one clutch member has
As already stated, the chamfer may be applied,
to the teeth in an operation separate from thecperation of cutting the tooth sides. Both sidesof
a tooth space may be ‘channeled simultaneously 40
with a rotary cutting tOOl having blades 230 (Fig.
2'!) whose opposite side edges 232 and 233" are of
concave curved pro?le, preferably circular arcsSuccessive blades of this cutter may have their
corresponding‘side cutting edges differently in- 14
ciined to a plane 23i perpendicular to the axis of
external teeth and‘ the mating clutch member
has internal teeth. clutch members constructed
according to the present invention may be made
quite rapidly and both members may be cut alike
and in identical cutting operations. Moreover, ’
the chamfer can be produced on the teeth simul
taneousiy with the cutting thereof, whereas with
the conventional external and internal type of
clutch, vthe 'engaging ends of'the teeth have to
be chamfered in aseparate operation from the
the cutter so as to produce a close approximation
of the desired helicoidal chamfer surface. Thus,
tooth cutting operation. ’ Further than this,1for
clutches for use in the aeroplane field, the re;
the centers of curvature of ‘the. corresponding
leasable face clutch of the present invention has
sides of successiveblades of the cutter may be dis- '50 the advantage of reduced weight as compared
placed axially and radially of, the cutter in a di-
with an external-intemal typeof clutch.
rection inclined to the plane 23! in accordance
with the inclination of a tangent to the helicoidal‘
surface at a mean point in the tooth length. The
Figs. 29 to 32 inclusive demonstrate how the
desired helicoidal surface‘ of varying lead may be
approximated by a surface of revolution and
’
line 234 (Fig. 2'?) denotes the line of centers‘ of ‘ ‘ 55 these‘?gures hence show how arotary cutter, such
different cutting edges at one side of the cutter,
'as'described just above, may be used‘to"produce
and 235, 236 and 231, denote, respectively,'the ‘ the- desired type of chamfer on'the clutch teeth
centers of the blade pro?les for the blades which
in a. depthwise feed operation. These ?gures also
cut at the outer end, a mean point, and the inner
demonstrate how a load-releasing type of clutch
end of a tooth space, respectively. The cutter 50 can be‘ cut withiside tooth surfaces that are sur
may have its blades -_ arranged part way only
around its periphery with a gap between the last
and the first blades for indexing. It‘ can be fed
faces of revolution but which approximate
helicoidal surfaces of varying ‘lead to accomplish
the purposes of the present invention. ‘In fact,
across the face of the blank in one direction to
it is specifically with reference to the latter type
chamfer both sides of a tooth space, and may bev c5 of clutch that these ?gures deal. "These ?gures
returned to initial position while the indexing‘is
demonstrate that a varying lead helicoidal side
beingjeifected.
,
'
surface of a'vtooth.v can be approximated by a
Instead of producing the chamfer in'a separate
surface of revolution, and it is obvious therefore
operation from the side-cutting operation, one
that, they demonstrate also that a chamfered
side of a tooth space may be cut and the opposite 7'0 helicoidal portion ofv varying lead can also be
side chamfered simultaneously. ‘Here a cutter
will be employed that has cutting blades such as
shown- at 240 (Fig. 28). The blade 240 has a
straight side 24! for cutting one side of the tooth‘
approximated by a surface of revolution.
'
‘ Let us consider a‘ mean point 245 (Fig.30) in
the length of a side surface 246 of ‘a clutch mem
her 248 whose side surfaces 248 are radialof the
space and a curved side cutting edge 242 for ‘v5 clutch axis 250. 'The tangent to a helix 'at point
2,410,913
.
15
.
24! appears as a line 2“ perpendicular to'the
16
tooth surfaces of varying lead as described, may
be used as a load releasing clutch. The action of
central of the tooth space in a point 2“. The
such a clutch is shown in Fig. 33. The two mem
inclination of this tangent to the drawing plane
bers of the clutch are shown in full lines at 2“
of Fig. 30 is given or known from the given in
stantaneous lead of the helicoidal surface. It 5 and 215 in completely engaged position. A fur
ther position of the clutch member 21! when
equals the lead angle of the helicoidal surface at
nearly disengaged is shown in dotted lines at
point 245. We can therefore determine the posi
215'.
tion of the point 254 axially of the clutch, and
On this type of clutch, the pressure angle or
locate point 254 in Fig. 29. This point and the
vpitch cone apex 2" of the clutch are points in 10 inclination of the tooth pro?les increases in the
direction of tooth height. At the tops of the
the plane tangent to the helicoidal surface at
teeth, namely, in the dotted line position shown
point 2“, and their connecting line 255-2"
at 215’, the higher pressure angle portions of the
(Fig. 29) is the line of intersection of said
radial line252 and intersecting the plane 253
tangential plane with the central plane. 253, which
is the plane of the drawing of Fig. 29. A normal
to the helicoidal surface at point 2“ appears,
therefore, as a line 250, perpendicular to the line
255-254 in Fig. 29.
-
By projecting point 2" to the line 255-2",
point 245' is obtained. Then a line 2" is drawn
through the point 245' perpendicular to the
clutch axis 259. If we repeat the procedure given
for mean point 2" at other points 260 and 2H,
at the ends. respectively, of the tooth surface,
which all have the same axial position, we ?nd
that points 260' and 2M’, which correspond to
point 245', all have the same axial position and
that these latter points all lie on the line 2".
This enables us quickly to draw the tooth normal
at any point in the line 252, such as at the
point 269.
‘
‘
To determine point 269' on line 259, draw line .
260-290’ parallel to the clutch ‘axis 2", and
draw a normal 262 through point 269 perpendicu
lar to the line 255-289’. If the normals 2", 262,
and 264 at the points 245, 2" and 2", respec
tively, are determined as above, or individually,
asdescribed for the point 245, we ?nd that in the
tooth surfaces are in engagement with the result
that the separating force is
transmitted torque. This is often desirable where
the clutch is to be thrown out of engagement when
an excessive load comes on.
If the pro?les of the clutch become more curved
than is desirable, as is likely when the number of
teeth in the clutch members is large, then the
two sides
a tooth
space of the clutch are then cut successively by
the method illustrated in Figs. 13 and 14 where
‘the blank is indexed half a pitch for each half
revolution of the cutter and each side surface of
the clutch lies in the cutter plane during the cut
ting of that side surface.
The same procedure, as has been describedfor
cutting the sides of the teeth of the load releasing
clutch member 248, may be applied in cutting a
chamfer at the tops of the teeth of an adjustable
clutch member. Such a member may have side
tooth surfaces which are planes parallel to the
clutch axis, like the clutch members shown in
Figs. 12 to 14 inclusive. A clutch of this type is
shown in Fig. 34. The members of this clutch are
denoted at 2“ and 2", respectively. Each clutch
view of Fig. 29 they intersect'substantially in a
point 265. More exactly, they envelop a curve 40 member has teeth 292 whose opposite sides 2"
and 284 are planes and, parallel to the clutch axis,
whose mean point is at 265. In any case, the
and each clutch member has the upper ends of its
desired shape of the surface area along the line
teeth chamfered to form helicoidal surfaces 2"
252 can be closely approximated by a surface of
varying lead. One side 2“ of the
revolution whose axis is at 2" and is perpendicu
lar to the plane of the drawing of Fig. '29, and a tooth space and the chamfered portion!" at the
opposite side of the tooth space may be cut simul
whose normals seemingly intersect at 2". This
taneously with one group of the blades of a cutter
surface can be described or swept over by rotat
such as shown in Figs. 15,16 and 28 and after the
ing the straight line 252 about the axis 2". Its
work has been indexed half a pitch, the opposite
nature is well known. It is a hyperboloid of
revolution whose pro?le in an axial section is a “side 283 of the tooth space and the chamfered
hyper-bola 2“. (Fig. 32). It may be approxi
matedin the region used by, a circle 20'! whose.
portion 2" may be cut simultaneously by the
other group of blades of the cutter. Since the
cutter has no lengthwise feed along the tooth
center is at 208. 7
space, the chamfered portions 2" and 286 of the
To obtain the localized bearing and relief at
the ends of the teeth, the radius of this circle may 55 tooth surfaces are surfaces of revolution approxi
mating helicoids of varying lead, and the plane
be made somewhat smaller than the curvature ra
sides 2|! and 284 of the tooth spaces are, of
dius of the hyperbola at its mean point.
course, also surfaces of revolution.
The different inclinations of the pro?le tangents
The chamfer may, of course, be applied in a
at different points along the lengthof thetooth
surface are clearly shown in Fig. 31 which shows .0 separate operation. In this case constant tooth,
depth may be attained.
fragmentarily a load-releasing clutch member
In a further modi?cation of the present inven
made according to this invention. 210 and 2?“,
tion, load-releasing clutches having helical tooth
respectively, denote the tangents to a tooth sur
surfaces of constant lead may be produced. Such.
faee'2l2 of this clutch member at the inner and
as clutches may be provided with straight radial
‘outer ends of the tooth surface, respectively.
teeth, which taper in width and height from end
In the cutting of ‘a tooth space of the clutch
to end as illustrated in Figs. 35 and 36. Here a
member 248, the rotating cutter is preferably fed
clutch member 29l is shown which has radial
depthwise into the work until the cutter axis
teeth 292 whose sides are helical surfaces of con
reaches position 265 where the feed movement
stops. 'The ?nal shape of the tooth sides is pro " stant lead. In any plane 293 perpendicular to the
duced in this position by the ?nishing blade or
blades of the cutter. The depthwise feed motion
may be in the direction of the clutch axis 289.
The clutch, whose members have helieoidal side
2,410,918
1s
17*
tion of the clutch axis I“. ate constant rate with
a constant ratio between the rotary and trans
latory movements. All points-in the line "I or
other.
a
'
‘
Y
'
~
'
'
»
when media a tooth space-has been out.
2“ will describe, thereforeyhelicesof the same
the cutter is rapidlyreturned tov starting position
lead which appear as the pro?le curves'of the
_ and the clutch is indexed through half apitch.
clutch. 'The pro?le curves are practically straight, .
I
'
other. This change in inclinationia-‘of course,
gradual from: one end of
tooth space to the
but have inclinations or pressure ‘angles which
vary along the length of‘ the teeth." The pressure
Then the cutter isiagain fed across the face .of
angles or inclinationincrease with increasein dis-1
10 starting position while the work is being indexed
through half the pitch. There are therefore two
tance from the clutch axis.
the‘ blank to cut the opposite side .of the tooth
~
I have found that-such clutch'members-can-be
space. _ Then the cutter is again returned to
produced with disc type cutters having‘cutting’
edges of convex pro?le. A cutterof the required
type is shown diagrammatically in section at 3".”
in Fig. 37.‘ This cutter has blades Illl whose op-‘
posite side cutting edges are of convex shape; be;
identical feed strokes and two'indexes per cutter
revolution.
.
1
.~
'
,<
~
'
'
' Figs. 43 to~45 inclusive illustrate diagrammati
cally a modi?ed form of cutter'which will'pro
duce a still better approximation of the desired
helical tooth shape. Here three blades "I, “I
and 332 are shown which are adapted to cut, re
other suitable curves. Corresponding side cut
spectively, at the-router end, the center,- and the
ting edges of successive blades of this cutter’ have
inner end of one side of ' a tooth space. . The cut
varying inclinations to produce the" required varia-v 20 ting-pro?le
in the case of these blades is no longer ' ’
tion in pressure angle along . the length of the
ing curved along circular arcs 302 or along any
clutch teeth ‘from one end thereof‘ to the other. Both sides of a tooth space are simultaneously cut
in a'feed motion lengthwise of the tooth space. ,
Another way of cutting‘ a clutch member of the
a circular‘ arc, but a line mo: changing cum-'
ture, being most‘ curved at: the points of, least
inclination, that. is, its'radills ‘of curvaturegis
' reduced withreduced inclination of, the sides of
described type is illustrated diagrammaticallyiin
theclutch teeth. The radius oicurvature 338' of
Figs. 38 to 42 inclusive. Here one side'of a tooth
space of the clutch is cut in a half a revolution of
the cutter and the opposite side of the tooth space
thanthe radius of curvature 331 of the side-cut
is cut in the remaining half revolution.
,
the side-cuttingledge I35 ‘of the‘blade m, which
cuts at thelarge endof the gear tooth, is greater
ting edge 338 of the blade "I which‘cuts at the
' 80
A cutter of the general type shown in’Fig's. 15
vand 16 is employed.‘ This cutter has the cutting
blades of each group of its blades so constructed
that the corresponding sides of successive blades‘
center of the gear tooth, and this in turn is larger
than the radius of. curvature 338 of theside cut
ting edge 3" of theblade "twhich cuts‘ at the
inner end :of the tooth space.
.
‘
‘
' 5'
'
‘
A satisfactory curve of this character is‘an in
have varying inclination to the axis of the cutter" 85 volute‘oi’ a circle whose’center hat "2 in Fig. 43.
In the cutting of a tooth space ofthe cutter,
Di?erent positions of the involute curveare ob
the cutter is fed in the direction of the pitch
tainedby moving the curve through a point 343‘
plane illl of the clutch member ill so that the
turning it. Positions 342, 342' and 34,2" ‘
axis of the cutter will move‘ from position)“ to 40 without
of
the
center
of the circle 34! are'thenobtained.
position 3H’. A mean position of the cutter axis
It is to be noted that the line‘ "8 connecting the
and
the
position
of
the'tip
is denoted at 3H2",
center‘ as: with the'starting point ?'I-of the in
,surface of- the cutter for this mean position is
volute has a bodily displacement so that the lines
denoted as shown in dotted‘lines at‘ill. In the
342-441, 342'4-341 and “2"4" are all paral
cutting of one side surface 3“ of a tooth' space.
The curve "334 also'has a bodily translation
the cutter will move along a line 3lI’radial of‘ the 45 lei.
so that the center “2 describes a curve ?liFig.
clutch axis 3l6, and in the cutting ofthe opposite
44) which is identical with the, curve ill.»
side 3|‘! of the tooth space, the cutter will move
Figs. 46 to 54 show a modi?ed form of clutch.
along a radial line‘ 3l8; The work is indexed-half
and
method of cutting same. Here one clutch
a pitch for each half revolution-of thecutter
tomember'
m has‘tooth spaces ‘352 of uniform
when a gap in thecutter is abreast of the‘ work.
width from end to end; and teeth "3 which ‘taper
Figs. 40"to‘ 42 inclusive show the shapes of the
in width from end to end, while the other clutch
blades used for cutting the outer end, center'and
member "I has teeth "lief uniform width from
the inner end, respectively, of a tooth surface at
end to end and‘ tooth spaces 355 which taper in
one side of atooth space. The opposite ‘side of
from end to end. Preferably the teeth and
the tooth space is cut in an exactly symmetrical 65 width
tooth sl'aacesv of both ‘members are'made of uni
manner. ‘The pro?les of the cutting blades are
form depth from end to end. The clutch member
circular arcs ?ll-having a radius 32L;
till readily lends itself-to production ingan opera
For cutting at the outer end 1-of ‘the clutch
tion wherelboth sides ofa tooth‘space arecut
tooth, the center of the circularyarc will ,be at so simultaneously, while the clutch member 3H can t
322 so that the blade pro?le‘ 323 will have great
' have both sidesof its teeth cut simultaneously.
est‘ inclination‘ to a, plane 324‘ containing the‘
clutch axis. The center of the cutting edge 32'
' of the blade 326‘for cutting at the center of the
toothv length is at 322' displaced from ‘position
322. The blade 321, which cuts at the inner end
of thetooth space, has the ‘centerof‘ curvature of
For producing the two members 350 and ill of
the clutch, in operations where two tooth sides
are-'to be out simultaneously, a pair of male and
65 female‘ cutters are required. ‘ Thestructure of the
its side cutting edge 12! still further displaced to‘;
male cutter for cutting the clutch ‘member 350 is
illustrated diagrammatically inFigs. 49 to ‘51 in
clusive. 3" denotes a blade which is to cut at the
a position 322" so that the inclination of the pro
large end of a tooth space 352. i "I is a-bladev
file of the tooth space to the plane 324 will be still .70. which cuts midway the length of the tooth space,
further‘ reduced. Thus while the cutting edges
and "I is the blade which cuts at the innerend
328 and 328 have the same radius of" curvature
of. the tooth space. It is to be noted that the in-‘
Ml as the cutting edge‘ 323, their inclinations;
clination- of the corresponding side cutting edges‘
progressively reduced so as to out, as" desired, a
808,384 and 365 of the blades to-the-mean cut‘-v
tooth surface having side pro?les that progres
tingplane It‘ decreases from the blade I80,
sively decrease in inclination from one end to the ‘. 75
2,410,911;
19
which is adapted to cut at the outer-end of the
tooth space, to the blade "I which cuts at the
inner end of the tooth space, and that, similarly,
the inclination of the opposite side cutting edges
"1,1", and "I decreases from the blade, which
is adapted to cut at theouter end of the toothv
space, to the blade which is adapted tocut at the
inner end of the space. '
20
agonally across :the tooth - surfaces,~ ordinarily
more in a longitudinal direction than in‘the di
rection of the tooth pro?le. This line can be
determined mathematically by the requirement
that the tooth normals at all points in the line
must pass through the instantaneous axis of rela—
tive motion. The-instantaneous axis depends on
the rate of vfeed as compared with the cutter ro
The cutter for producing ‘the clutch, member
tation and is parallel to and not far from the
III has its cutting blades arranged in pairs to 10 cutter axis.
.
straddle a tooth of the clutch member and cut
On account of the inclination of the line of
opposite sides of the tooth simultaneously. I'll
instantaneous contact, the cutting pro?les and
denotes the blade which is adapted to cut at the‘
the tooth pro?les do not fully match one another
outer end of the teeth, III the blade which is
in an axial plane of the cutter, but they do con
adapted to cut midway ofthe tooth length, and
tact with one another at the pitch point. While
31! the blade which is adapted to cut at the inner
the tooth pro?le of thehelicoid is, substantially
end of the teeth. The opposite side-cutting edges
straight, the cutting pro?le must be convex. Its
of the blade "I are denoted at 813 and 8'", re
curvature can be determined mathematically with
spectively. The ‘opposite side-cutting edges of the
the directions given. It can also be determined
blade 3-‘! l are denoted at I'll and I'll, respectively,
experimentally by ?rst making the helical clutch
while the opposite side-cutting edges of the blade
surface of constant lead, ‘for instance by the
812 are denoted at “land 3'", respectively. It
method illustrated in Fig. 23, and thenusing that
will be noted that the inclination of the corre
surface to produce therequired cutting edge on
sponding side-cutting edges of the blades to the '
a dummy blade of soft material which is rotated
mean cutting plane III of the cutter decreases
and fed across the face of the blank at the same
progressively from the blade which cutsat the
rate as the cutter which is to be used to cut the
outer end of the teeth to the blade which cuts at
clutch members.
,
the inner end of the teeth. Preferably; at the
While several diiferent embodiments of the in
common pitch line I” of the clutch members, the
vention have been described, it will be understood
inclinations oi’ the side cutting edges 3" and 301, 30 that it is capable of further modi?cation, and
which cut ‘at the outer ends of the tooth spaces
this application is intended to cover any adapta
of the clutch member ?l,.equals_the inclination
tions, uses, or modi?cations of the invention fol
of the edges 3'" and 311 of the blade ill which
lowing, in general, the principles of the invention
cuts at the outer ends of the engaging sides of
and including such departures from the present
the teeth of the mating clutch member 3". 85 disclosure as come within known or customary
Likewise, cutting edges "1, "I, III have, respec
practice in the gear art and as may be applied to
tlvely, the same inclination at the pitch line as
the essential features hereinbefore set forth and
the cutting edges 3'", I'll and 81!, respectively,
which cut corresponding points along the opposite
matingtooth sides.
7
'
'
r
'
The opposite side cutting edges of both cutters
as fall within the scope of theinvention or the
limits of the appended claims.
40
.Havingthus described my invention, what I,
claim is:
l. The method of cutting the tooth surfaces
are of conv'expro?le shape. The pro?les may be
circular arcs, or they may be lines of varying
of a face clutch- member which comprises em
curvature whose curvature radius increases from
ploying a rotary disc cutter having a plurality
the bottom of the cutting pro?le to the outside 45 of cutting blades arranged in two groups around
thereof.
~
its periphery with a gap between the last and
The side’ surfaces to be cut on the clutch mem
first blades of each group, the two groups con
bers are hellcoids of opposite hand and of con
taining, blades which are shaped to cut opposite
stant lead whose generatrices 392, 383 and "4
sides
of the tooth spaces of the work, rotating
and I" inany plane perpendicular to the clutch
said
cutter
in engagement with the work and ef
axis "I are straight lines extending ‘longitudi
fecting a relative feed movement between the
nally of the teeth but oifset from the clutch axis.
cutter and the work in time with the cutter ro
For cutting either member of the pair, the re
tation while each group of blades is in operation,
quired cutter is rotated on its axis "1 or I" while
and indexing the work half a pitch each time
a straight line feed movement is produced be 65 after
a group of blades has taken its cut.
,
tween the cutter and the work across the face of
2. The method of cutting the tooth surfaces of
the work in time with the cutter rotation.
a face clutch member which comprisesv employ
Depthwise feed may be employed to move the
ing a rotary disc cutter having a plurality of cut
cutter into full depth, but when full depth posi
ting blades arranged in'two groups around its
tion is reached, the lengthwise feed movement
periphery with a gap between the last and first
will preferably be in the direction of the pitch
blades of each group. each group comprising a
line III.
plurality of roughing blades followed by one or
In Fig. 47, the position, at a mean point in the
more ?nishing'blades, the ?nishing blades of the
longitudinal feed movement, of the tip cutting
two groups, being shaped to cut opposite side
surface of the ‘cutter, which is used for cutting
tooth surfaces of the work, respectively, rotating
the clutch member "I, is denoted at I", while
said cutter in engagement with the work, e?'ect
3"’ denotes the position of the axis of the cutter
ing. a-relative feed movement between the cut
for this mean position. As either cutter is fed
ter and work intime with the cutter rotation
along the pitch line of the clutch blank, the vary
ing inclination of the cutting pro?les continu v70 while each group of blades is in operation, with
drawing the cutter from engagement with the
. ously matches the known varying inclination of
work after each group of blades has taken its
the helical tooth sides which it is desired to ap
cut, and indexing the work half a pitch on'each
proximate. Contact between the cutting edges
withdrawal
while a gap in the cutter is abreast
of the cutter and thetooth surface being pro
of the work.
.
7 duced on the work is along a line extending di 76
3. The method of cutting the tooth surfaces of
' 2,410,012
‘22 '
21
‘group. the blades having sides perpendicular to
a face clutch member which comprises employinl , , the cutter axis and tip cutting edges concentric
a rotary disc cutter having a plurality of. cutting
blades arranged in two,groups' aroundits pe
riphery with a gap between the last and ?rst
blades or each group, each group having a plug
,0! said‘ axis, each group of blades having a plu
rality or roughing blades followed by one or more
?nisbingblades. the ?nishing blades oi the two
groups being shaped to cut opposite tooth sides
rality of roughing blades followed by one or more i. ~
of the work, respectively, rotating
?nishing blades, thei?nishing blades ofvthe two
groups being shaped to. cut'opposite side tooth
surfaces oi’ the. work,-respecti_vely, and rotating
said cutter in engagement with the work, e?ect
said cutter in _
engagement with the work, feeding the cutter
depthwise into the work while roughing blades
of each group are cutting until full depth posi
tion isvreached, allowing the cutterfto' remain
at full depth whilethe ?nishing blades of each
ing a depthwise feed movement between the cut-_
ter and work in time with the cutter rotation
while each group of blades‘ is cutting, and with
group are cutting, and withdrawing the cutter
from engagement withthe work while each gap
in the cutter is abreast of the work, and index-.
throughhali.’ a pitch during each ~
dexing the work half a pitch during each With- . ing the work
.8. The method of producing an approximately
4. The method of cutting aface clutch mem
helicoidal
tooth surface of varying'leadon a
berv which comprises employing a rotary disc cut
or a tooth or a toothed ,iace clutch member,
ter having a plurality of cuttingtblades arranged 20 side
which ‘comprises employing a rotary disc cut
in two groups around itsperiphery with a gap
ter that has a plurality of cutting blades of curved
between the last and ?rst blades of each group.
pro?le shape‘ and progressively varying point- "
the blades of the two groups being shaped to cut
width,
and that has the centers-oi curvature of
opposite side tooth surfaces of the work, respec
corresponding side pro?les of successive blades
tively, and effecting a relative lengthwise reed
progressively displaced from one another. posi
movement between the cutter and ~work in time
tioning said cutter so that its axis is disposed at
with the cutter rotation in one ‘direction while
a greater radial distance -from the clutch axis
each group of blades is cutting and in‘ the oppo
than the meanradius of, the clutch, rotating said
site direction while each gapeis abreast of the
cutter in'engagement with the work while ef
work, and indexing the work half a' pitcheach 30 fecting’a
relative depthwise teed motion between
time a gap in the cutter is abreast of the work.
thecutter
and the work in time with the cutter
5. The method of cutting the tooth surfaces of
rotation
while
maintaining the cutter axis at said
a face clutch member which comprises employ
greater radial distance, and periodically indexing
drawing the cutter from the work whileeach
gap in the, cutter is abreast of the work, endin
withdrawal.
drawal.
,
,
_,
_
>
g
,
,
a.
ing a rotary disc cutter that has a plurality of
peripherally arrangedcutting blades which are 35 9. a The method of’ producing a face clutch
dispwed in two groups with a gap between the
member which comprises employing a rotary disc
last blade of each groupand the ?rst blade of
cutter having a plurality .of cutting blades ar
the other group, the blades of each group being
ranged‘tin
two groups around its periphery with
of progressively ‘varying point-width, and ro
agap
between
the last and ?rst, blades of each
40
tating said cutter in engagement with the work
group,'the blades of one‘ group being adapted to
while producing a relative lengthwise feed move- .
cut one side ofa tooth space ot the work and
ment between the cutter and work in timewith I chamfer
thev opposite side of said tooth space at
‘the rotation or the cutter ‘and in a direction ra
the
top
thereof,
and the blades of the other, group
dial 0! the clutch axis so that different blades oi’
adapted to cut and chamfer the sides of
‘the cutter cut at di?erent points along the length ‘ being
the tooth space opposite to those out and cham- ,
of a tooth surface during a revolution of the cut
fered, respectively, by the ?rst group of blades, ‘
ter, and indexing the work. halt a pitch each ' and rotating said cutter in‘engagement with the
time a gap in the cutter is abreast of the work. ,
work, producing a relative‘ feed movement be
6. The method of cutting the tooth surtacesot;
tween the'cutter and'work while each group of
60
a face clutch member which comprises employ
blades is cutting, withdrawing the cutter from
ing a rotary disc cutter'that has a plurality of
engagementwith the workeach time a‘ gap in _ '
peripherally arranged'cutting blades disposed'in
the cutter is abreast of the work, and indexing
two groups with a gap between‘ the last blade
is vgrk through half a pitch on each with
oi ‘each group and the ?rst blade. of ‘the other
group, the blades of each group being or pro-_ 55 ‘ 10. A. rotary disc cutter having a plurality of I
gressively varying point-width, and rotating said,
radially disposed cutting blades arranged in two
cutter in engagement with the work‘ while pro’-.
groups around the periphery of the cutter with ..
ducing a ‘simultaneous relative depthwise and
a gap between thelast blade or each group and
lengthwise feed movement between the cutter
the ?rst blade oithe other group, the blades of
60
and work in time with the cutter rotation until
the two groups lying, respectively, at opposite
the cutter reaches full depth position,v and then
sides of a plane of rotation perpendicular tothe
eiiecting'relative lengthwise feed movement be
axis
oi.’ the cutter.
'
tween the cutter and the work also in‘ time with
v 11. A rotary disc cutterhaving a plurality: of the cutter'rotation so that different blades of .the 65 radially disposed cutting blades arranged in two
cutter cut at progressively different points along
groups around the periphery of the cutter with
the length 01 a tooth'surface of the work from
a gap between the last blade of each group and
one end thereof to the other as the cutter rotates
the ?rst blade of the’ other group, each group off _
in engagementwith the work, and indexing the . blades comprising a plurality of roughing blades ,
the work.
aw
work halt a pitch each time a. gapin, the cutter
is abreast of the work.
a
‘
'
‘
I
~
.
,
~
70 and one 'or more?nishing blades, the two groups
'7. The method of cutting tooth surfaces oia .
face clutch member which comprises employing,
a rotary disc cutter that has a plurality of blades
arranged’ in two groups around its axis-with a
.
gapvbetween the last and ?rst blades or each‘. gs
of blades lying, respectively, at opposite sides of
a plane of rotation perpendicular to the axis of
the cutter, and the ?nishing blades or the two
groups having opposite side-cutting edges-lying
in said plane.
_
.
'
-
.
I 2,410,918
12. A rotary disc cutter having a plurality of
radially disposed ‘cutting blades arrangedv in two ‘
groups around the periphery of the cutter with
a gap between the last blade of each group and
.
_
24.
,
v
,
time with the cutter rotation to cut one side oi a
- tooth space of the work, then withdrawing the
. cutter‘ from engagement with the work and in
" dexing the’ workthrough hall a pitch while one
the ?rst blade of the other,group'..the blades ofvv of the gaps in the cutter is abreast of the work,
one group having cutting edges ‘for cutting one 6 . ‘and
repeating the cycle of feed, withdrawal and
side and chami'ering the opposite side of a tooth
space. and the blades or the other group having
cutting edges for cutting and 'chamiering, re
spectively, the sides or the. tooth “space opposite
to thou cut and chami’ered by the ?rst group of
‘indexing until the work is completed.
17. The method of cutting a toothed face
clutch member which comprises employing a
rotary disc cutter having a plurality of cutting
blades arranged in two groups around its pe
riphery with a‘ gap between the last blade of
13. A rotary disc cutter having a plurality of
each group and the ?rst blade of the other group,
radially disposed cutting blades arranged in- two
groups around the periphery of the cutter with 15 each group having a plurality oi’ roughing blades
followed by one or more ?nishing blades, the
a gap between the last blade of each group and
blades or the two groups being sharpened to cut
the ?rst blade of the ‘other group, the blades of
opposite tooth sides,‘ respectively, the ?nishing
one group having cutting edges for cutting one
blades
of the two groups being of curved pro?le
side and 'chamfering the opposite side oi’ a tooth
shape and the roughing blades of each group be
space, and the blades of the other group having 20I ing
of progressively varying point‘ width, posi
cutting edges for cutting and chamfering,- re
tioning said cutter so that its axis is disposed at
spectively, the sides or the tooth space opposite
a greater distance ‘from the clutch axis than the
those out and chami’ered, respectively, by the ?rst ‘
mean radius or the clutch,‘ and rotating said cut
group of blades. the cutting edges for cutting a
ter in engagement with the work while e?’ecting
given side of the tooth space having the same in
a
relative depthwise i'eed movement between the
clination to the axis or the cutter, and the cut
cutter and work in time with the cutter rotation
ting edges for chami'ering a given side or the
blades.
_
'
-
'
‘
tooth space ‘having progressively varying inclina
tion to the axis of the cutter.
‘
Y
-
I"
14. A rotary disc cutter having a plurality oi’
radially disposed cutting blades arranged-in two
groups with a gap between the last blade or each
group and‘ the ?rst blade of the other group; the
blades 01' each group having straight side-cut
ting edges or constant inclination with respect
to a plane 01' rotation perpendicular to the axis
of the cutter and having tip cutting edges oi.‘
varying point-widtharranged at a uniform dis
tance from the cutter axis, the side-cutting edges
at the same side ‘of the blades of each group hav
to cut one side 0! a tooth space of the work, then
withdrawing the cutter i'rom engagement with
the work and indexing the work half a pitch
while one of the gaps in the cutter is abreast oi
the work, and repeating the cycle oi’ feed, with
drawal and indexing until the work is completed.
18. Themethod oi’ cutting a toothed face clutch
memberwhich comprises employing a rotary disc
cutterhaving a plurality 0! cutting blades ar
ranged in two groups around its periphery with
a gap between the last blade or each group and
the ?rst blade of the'other group, each group
having a plurality of blades of progressively vary
ing point width, and ‘rotating said cutter in en
gagement with the work while effecting arelatlve
lengthwise feed movement between the cutter
opposite sides 01' a plane of rotation perpendicu~
and work in time with the cutter rotation, then
lar to the axis of the cutter. .
withdrawing the cutter from engagement with
15. A rotary disc cutter having’ a plurality of
radially disposed cutting blades arranged in two 45 the work and indexing the work half a pitch
ing varying positions along said axis,‘ and the
blades of the two groupsjlying,v respectively, at
groups around its periphery with a gap between
the last blade 01' each group and the ?rst blade
oi the other group, the blades of each group hav
while one of the gaps in the cutter is abreast 01'
to a plane of rotation perpendicular to the cut
- ter axis,’ the curvature of successive side cutting
blades arranged in two groups around its periph
ery with a gap between the last blade of each
group and the ?rst blade of the other, corre
the work; and repeating the cycle of feed, with
drawal, and indexing until the work is completed.
19. The method of producing a toothed face
ing curved side cuttingedges, successive side cut
ting edges at the same side 01' the blades oi’ each so clutch member which comprises employing s ro
tary disc cutter having a plurality oi cutting
group having progressively varying inclination
edges oi’ each group increasing with decreasing
inclination of the side-cutting edges to said plane. ss spondnig side cutting edges of successive blades
of each group having progressively varying in
16. The method of cutting, a toothed i'ace
clutch‘ member which comprises employing av clination‘ to a plane of rotation perpendicular to
the axis of the cutter. and rotating the cutter
rotary disc cutter having a plurality of cutting
in engagement with the work while e?'ecting a
blades arranged in two groups around its‘ pe
riphery with a gap between the last blade or each go relative teed movement between the cutter and
group and the ?rst blade or the other group, each _ work longitudinally oi’ a tooth oi the work in time
with the cutter rotation, and periodically with
group having a plurality of roughing blades fol
drawing the clltter from ‘engagement with the
lowed ‘by one or more ?nishing blades, the blades
work and indexing the work halt a pitch during
01' the two groups being sharpened to cut oppo
withdrawal and while a gap in the cutter is
site tooth sides, respectively, the ?nish cutting
abreast of the work. 7
edges or the ?nishing blades oi the two groups
20. The method of producing a toothed face
being oi’ straight pro?le‘ shape and lying in‘a
clutch member which comprises employing a ro
common plane perpendicular to the axis or the
tary disc cutter having a plurality of cutting
cutter and the roughing blades of the two groups
being of progressively varying point width and 70 blades arranged in two groups around its periph
cry with a gap between the last blade of each
being o?set at oppositesides of said plane, re
group and the ?rst blade of the other group, the
spectively, rotating said cutter in engagement
blades or each group being oi’ progressively vary:
with the work while e?ecting a relative depthwise
ing point width and having straight side cutting
iced movement between the cutter and work in
76 edges at one side for cutting one side of a tooth
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
2 888 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа