Патент USA US2410917код для вставки
Nov. 12, 1946; _ 1.. CHlA-LIU YUAN ETAL 2,410,917 SHORT WAVE DIRECTION FINDER Fiied Oct. ,51, 1941 Mm.m u Patented Nov. 12, 1946 2,410,917 :i-UNITED‘. STATES harem" OFFICE '“ W-Luke Cilia-Linw Yuan,‘ Pasadena, and Charles E. ~ ' Miller, Glendale, Cali?, assignors to California 7 _ Institute Research =3 Foundation, Pasadena, Calif, a corporation of California ' ' Application'?ctober a1, 1941, Serial No. 417,280 g 4 Claims. . V . c , (01. 250-11) 2 . L , " This invention relates to a radio antenna ap of‘both the horizontal and vertical components paratus especially adapted; for the determination of the incoming radio wave,fwhich determina tions should be necessarily simultaneously made, of the directional receptionof short wave‘ radio signals, particularlyradio signals of frequencies or at least made within an ‘interval of time of a few seconds. It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide a simple antenna structure capable of rapid operation and opera tive to determine simultaneously or substantially and the transmitter of a radio wave, said direc simultaneously both the horizontal and vertical tion being de?ned in two dimensions‘, namely, its 10 components of the direction of an incoming ra in .the region of about 50 to 500 megacycles. It is a general objectof the present invention to provide‘ an antenna system cap-able of deter~ mining the direction between the antenna, system projection on both horizontal and vertical planes. dio wave. In order that an antenna "system can measure The apparatus of the present invention, to ‘the true direction between a transmitter and a gether with various additional objects and ad receiving antenna ‘system, it is necessary that the vantages of the invention, will be more readily receiving antenna system shall be affected‘ only 15 understood from a description of a preferred form or example of an apparatus embodying‘th'e by the direct radiation between the transmitter and receiving antenna'system and be unaffected by other re?ected or refracted radiations.v __.Itv is, therefore, an object of the present inven invention, and for this purpose we have here‘ after described, in connection with the accom panying drawing, such preferred form or exam tion toprovide'an antenna'system for measuring '20 the direction of an incidentv radio wave in'it'wo ple of the invention. , In the drawing the ?gure is a simpli?ed per-_ dimensions, whichantenna system ‘is responsive spective’ view of the direction ?nder. Referring to the drawing, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the accuracy of to re?ected or refracted. rays. ‘ ‘ 25 the results to be attained’ will be dependent upon ‘ _Oneiof the principal ?elds of utility of the am the correct alignment of the various elements of tenna system of the present invention is in de the antenna system, and that the value of the system depends upon good mechanical design re termining the direction between the receiving quiring the various elements to possess high antenna system and a radio transmitter carried by a balloon. In the determination of weather 30 mechanical rigidity and stability. In the draw ing, the antenna system is illustrated as com conditions ‘it is customary. to liberate balloons only to ‘the directfradiation between the ‘trans mitter and receiving antenna andlis unresponsive carrying temperature and pressure indicating in prising a directive antenna H designed for the purpose of determining the horizontal angle of incidence or azimuth of the incoming wave and perature and pressure measurements .made" by 7 c: Cu a directive antenna V for determining the vertical struments which are connected to a radiotrans mitter for transmitting continuously‘ the tem ,the instruments carried bythe balloon. For these temperature and pressure measurements to be angle of incidence ‘of the incoming wave. The ‘directional antenna H is preferably ofthe Adcock type. It is shown as consisting of'two spaced of value it is necessary that the absolute position apart‘ vertical antennas, each comprising an ele of the ballon in space be known at all times. Frequently, it is desirable to make such deter-' 40 ment l and an element I’. The elements l and I’ are preferably each one-quarter wave length minations under conditions where a direct visual determination of the position of the balloon is in length, and for mechanical rigidity are formed _impossible._ By means of the apparatus of. the of silver supporting rods, of Duralumin, or present invention, it is possible to continuously other suitable material. In each of the vertical determine the direction between the radio trans- ‘ 45 antenna components of the ,Adcock system the mitter carried by such a ‘balloon and the receiv ing ‘antenna of the present invention, after which ‘the absolute positionof'the'balloon in space may be readily calculated ‘from’ the altitudeof the balloon as knownjfrom the transmittedsignalsi ifromthe balloon. r r r In. order to carry out the objects of the pres rods‘ l4 and I’ are coaxially supported with their adjacent ends spaced about I centimeter apart by insulatingsupports 2, which are in turn sup ported by a tubular spacer 3 sov as to maintain 50 vthe rods 1 and I’ in’ a plane normal to the axis -X—X' with the rods l and I’ of the" two vertical ent. invention, it is essentialto provide an an antenna components parallel to each other'and preferably spaced one-half wave length'apart. ft'enna receiving system of‘simple design and The'rods l and I’ of the vertical antenna com :capable‘ of rapid manipulation for determination: ponents of thesys-tem are connected together, ’ 2,410,917 4 3 and similarly the rods I and l' are connected to may be added for controlling the rotation, if de gether by the line 4. Thereby the voltages intro sired. duced in the horizontal line 4 balance out each other’s effect, so that horizontally polarized downcoming waves do not a?ect the system. The directional antenna V includes rods 5, each one quarter wave length in length and coaxially sup ported by the insulator 6. The rods? 5 together constitute a dipole antenna which feeds the line 1. The dipole 5——5 is provided with a shield 8 in order that said antenna may be vusedv for de termining the vertical angle of incidence of the incoming wave. While the shield 8 may be (of ‘ Indicating means are provided for indicating the extent of rotation of the system with respect to both the Y-Y' axis and the Z—Z' axis. For . this purpose, the block I6 is indicated as having a graduated quadrant- cooperating with- a ?xed pointer I‘! carried by the bracket‘23, and the tube 24 is indicated as mounted below the tripod, a 10. pointer l9 cooperating with the graduated circle 7 l8 a?ixed to the tripod 25. The receiver I3 is indicated as supported by the rod 24 so as to be likewise rotated therewith. The receiver l3 may be of any usual or pre various types, sizes, ‘or con?gurations,’ it should shield the dipole from re?ected waves without 15 impairing the receptive and directional char-. acteristics of the dipole in its reception of the direct wave from the transmitter. We have discovered that a shield of the type known as the corner reflection type is suited 20 to my purpose. Such a shield is preferably con ferred design, preferably being designed for suit able null point reception of signals of the desired frequency. Thus, for example, a superheterodyne receiver with a meter in the output circuit to in— dicate the signal intensity is satisfactory for the purpose intended. The receiver should be well shielded to eliminate stray pick-up. By mount ing the receiver I3 on the tubular support 24 con structed using’ rods or wires 9, each approxi mately 0.6 wavelength in length, and supported nected to rotate with the assembly, de?nite ad vantages result, since it makes better shielding ‘so as to be mutually parallel and at the same The rods 25 possible and eliminates the possibility of the characteristics of the transmission line l2 being altered by rotation of the assembly. The re ceiver may be powered by batteries self-con A, B, C between the planes is approximately 60°. time parallel with the dipole 5—5. or wires 5 are arranged in two planes whose intersection is the line D—D'. The inclined angle tained within the receiver case. The dipole 5—-5 lies in a plane which bisects the angle A, B, C‘ at a distance preferably slightly 30 ' In the operation of the apparatus of the pres ent invention the assembly is ?rst rotated with greater than one-half wave length from the line respect to the Y-—Y’ axis with the Adcock an D—D' and parallel thereto. The rods 9 should be spaced not more than about 0.1 wave length, tenna H connected to the receiver until a null but the spacing used is not very critical. The point indication is obtained, at which time the two antennas H and V are connected, respectively, 35 X-X’ axis of the antenna system will be in the with feed lines It] and l to a double pole double vertical plane connecting the transmitter and re ceiving antenna assembly. The assembly is then throw switch H of suitable design for the fre quencies employed, permitting connection at will rotated by the ‘hand-wheel l5 with respect to the Z—Z' axis to secure a null point reading, at of either antenna to the line l2 which feeds a receiver 13. The line It should be connected to 40 which timethe axis of the dipole 5--5 is in the vertical ‘plane passing through the transmitter theelectrical midpoint, which will also be the geometrical midpoint if the system is carefully constructed, of the line 4.’ ,The lines 4, 1, l0 and I2 may be of any typeand construction dictated by good engineering practice. We have found lines constructed as follows tobe suitable: The lines are formed from a and is receiving antenna. , V ' . With the apparatus of the present invention it has been found possible in practice to accurate ly follow the ?ight of a balloon carrying a radio transmitter so as to determine in connection with the height of said balloon its absolute position in twisted pair of ?ber glass insulated No. 18 ?exible wires threaded through ceramic beads While the particular form of the apparatus and enclosed within 1/2” copper tubing, which herein described is well adapted to carry out the tubing shields the lines from stray signal pick objects of the present invention, it is to be under up. The tubing should be thoroughly bonded at stood that various modi?cations may be made all joints. and the invention includes all such modi?cations The two antenna systems Hand V are so and changes as comewithin the scope of the ap pended claims. mounted as to be rigidly held in ?xed positions 55 relative to each other and together constitute a We claim: ' ' . single combined directional antenna assembly. 1.~‘A directional antenna system effective for The axes X—X’, Y-—Y', and Z—Z' intersect at the determination of’ both the horizontal‘ and ver angles of 90° each with the other. The dipole tical angles of incidence of an incomingwave, 5-5 is maintained always parallel to the'axis comprising an Adcock antenna arranged for the determination of the horizontal angle of in X_—X’. Thev lines '3, l0, and I2. each preferably space. a . . multiple thereof. The antenna systems H and V are suitably supported by the block IE to be cap able of being rotated. together about the axis cidence, a tube for rigidly supporting said Adcock antenna and» housing and shielding feed lines thereto, a vertically extending tube rigidly sup ported at a right angle to said ?rst-mentioned For this purpose, the block i8 is indicated I as mounted upon a shaft 22 rotatably supported tube, a ‘dipole antenna supported by said second, have a length of one wave length or suitable mentioned tube and having a feed line housed in a bracket 23 and connected by gearing l4 to therein and shielded thereby, said dipole an a hand wheel l5. tenna having ‘its axis parallel to the axisof said For rotation of the assembly about the axis 70 ?rst-mentioned tube. a corner re?ection shield Y-Y' the bracket 23 is indicated as mounted 'on the tube 24, which is rotatably supported by ‘a tripod 25, so that the entire assembly may be rotated with respect to the supporting tripod. for said dipole antenna with the elements of said shield parallel to‘ said dipole antenna, means for mounting both’ antennae for simultaneous. rota tion abouta vertical axis, means for mounting said lft is obvious that “mechanical means, not shown, 75 antennae for simiiltaneousrotation, about an axis 2,410,917 5 perpendicular with both said tubes, and means for indicating said angles of rotation. 2. A directional antenna system, comprising two tubular supporting members mounted at right angles to each other and connected to a common point for rotation of the tubes simulta neously about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the axis of both tubes, means for rotating the tioned antenna rigidly held at right angles with respect to said ?rst-mentioned supporting mem ber and housing the feed lines to said second mentioned directive antenna, a corner re?ection shield for said second-mentioned antenna, means for simultaneously rotating both directive an tennae with respect to either a vertical axis or a horizontal axis, and means for indicating the two tubes about a vertical axis, means for indi angle of rotation. ' ' cating both angles of rotation, a directive an 10 4. A directional antenna system, comprising tenna connected with one tube for the determina-, two supporting members extending at right tion of the horizontal angle of incidence, a direc angles to each other and connected to a common tive antenna connected with the other tube for point for rotation of the members simultaneous determination of the vertical angle of incidence, 1y about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the a corner re?ection shield for said last-mentioned 15 axes of said members, means for rotating the antenna with its elements parallel to the an two members about a vertical axis, means for tenna elements of said second-mentioned direc indicating both angles of rotation, a directive tive antenna and also parallel with said ?rst antenna connected with one member for the de mentioned tube, and feed lines for said antennae termination of the horizontal angle of incidence, passing through said respective supporting tubes. 20 and a directive antenna connected with the other 3. A directional antenna system, comprising a member for the determination of the vertical directive antenna of the Adcock type, a support , angle of incidence, a re?ectionashield for said. ing member for said Adcock antenna housing the last-mentioned antenna, and feed lines for said feed lines thereto, a directive antenna for the de antennae passing through said respective sup termination of the vertical angle of incidence 25 porting members. ' » having its elements parallel to said supporting LUKE CHIA-LIU YUAN. member, a supporting member for said last-men CHARLES‘ E. MILLER.