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Патент USA US2410933

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Nov. 12, 1946.
1.. D. FREEMAN
1
2,410,933
CUSHIONING DEVICE
Filed Nov. 24, 1945
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H INVENTOR.
lewzs?'eeman
2,410,933
Patented Nov. 12, H1946
...._’"UNITED STATES PATIENT OFFICE-‘i
2,410,933
CUSHIONING DEVICE
7
‘Lewis D. Freeman, Richmond, Va.
Application November 24, 1943, Serial No. 511,569
10 Claims.
(Cl. 213-24)
1
21 .
This- invention relates to cushioning devices,
and more particularly to draft gears for railway
cars and the like.
One of the objects of the invention is the pro
vision of a new and improved cushioning device
having, novel means for‘ initially resiliently cush
ioning a compressive force applied to the device,
and for frictionally cushioning the final compres
sive movement thereof.
Another object of‘ the invention is the provi
sion of a new and improved draft gear having one
Fig. 2. The outer walls may, if desired, be sim-'
ilarly'formed.
‘Preferably, though not necessarily, the walls
are hexagonal. The upper and bottom walls of
the casing are flat, as shown at l5 and. I6. Suit
able reinforcing members are provided for the
sides ‘of the casing, and these members, as shown
at I‘! and I8, are T-shape and integral with or
rigidly attached to the vertex of the side angle
10 formed by the sides, and extend laterally there
from. The inner and outer ends of the rein
forcing members [1, l8, and the casing are pro
vided with strengthening ?anges or webs 19, 2|,
of the gear during a portion of its compressive
and 22, 23, at each end of the casing. The inner
movement, and a different type during the re
maining portion of its compressive movement, - 16 walls of the open end of the casing are prefer
ably thickened, as at- 24, which constitutes a
the construction being such that the one move
reinforcement against bursting strains for this
ment gradually and imperceptibly merges into
portion of the casing within which the wedge
the other.
<
mechanism operates, as will presently appear.
Another object of the invention is the provi
sion of a new and improved cushioning device or .20 a >Mounted within the casing II is the wedge
mechanism, which comprises friction shoes 25
shock absorber that is simple and rugged in con
each-of which is provided with outer angular
struction, e?icient in operation, composed of few
friction faces 20 and 30, Fig. 2, that engage two
moving parts, and that may be manufactured
type of means for cushioning the compression
and assembled at a minimum of cost.
of the inner faces 14 of the casing.
There are
the invention will appear from the following de
scription, taken in connection» with the accom
they are alike only one need be described.
Other and further objects and advantages of 25 three of these wedges arranged 120° apart. Since
panying drawing in which
>
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the device
on the broken line l--| of Fig. 2;
1 “ -
Fig. 2 is a section on the line 2—2 of Fig; 1;
‘ Fig. 3 is an end view of the wedge member; and
Fig. 4 is a sectionlon the line 4—4 of Fig. 1. ‘ »
Draft gears or cushioning devices for railway
cars and the like must have the capacity for ab
sorbing shocks incident to maximum loads, and
'hence for light loads, or partial loads, these cush
ioning devices are often not suf?ciently resilient
‘to prevent‘ more or less injury'to the lading in
rough handling of the cars. ' v
The present invention seeks to remedy this dif
?culty by the provision of _ resilient mechanism
7
These shoes are each provided at their outer
ends with'a single inclined friction face 26, and
at their inner ends with an inclined friction face
21. Mounted inwardly‘of the wedge members 25
is a spring seat 23, having "three outer inclined
or ‘wedge faces 29, one for each of the wedge
v‘faces 2'! of the wedge members 25. One or more
resilient elements, such as the springs 31,32,
are adapted to engage the inner face of the spring
'seat 28, as shown more clearly in Fig. 1 of the
drawing.
A wedge member 33, having three
wedging faces 34', Fig. 3, engaging the wedging
faces 26 of the‘ corresponding wedge members
v25, is provided. This wedge member extends
outwardly beyond the open end of the casing l I,
Fig. 1, and is adapted to be engaged by a fol
lower 35 during the ?nal compressive movement
‘that is so constructed that during initial'move
of the draft gear or cushioning device.
ment of the cushioning device or shock absorber, 45
Means are provided for holding the springs 3|,
the shocks incident to switching and sudden stop
32, under initial compression. As shown, a bolt
ping and starting of the car will be resisted
36, having its head engaging in a depression 31
initially by resilient means alone, and the ?nal
in the end wall [3, and extending axially through
movement willbe resisted by friction mechanism.
the springs and through the. spring seat 28, and
Referring now to the drawing, the reference 50 having a~nut 38 engaging in a depression in the
character In "designates thecushioning device or
draft gear, comprising a casing I I which is hollow
and open at one end, as at l2, and closed at the
other, as at 13. ’ The interior walls of the casing
‘are angular in cross-section, as shown at M in
body portion 39 of a holding or spring abutment
‘member 4|, is employed for this purpose. These
depressions are of sufficient depth to accommo
date the bolt 36 during the compression of the
gear. The spring abutment member 4|,
its
2,410,933
3
wedges 25, and is provided at its outer end with
1. In a cushioning device, a casing having in
terior angular walls in cross-section and having
a ?anged head 42 against which a spring 43
abuts. This spring has its outer end seated in a
gaging two of said interior walls, each shoe having
recess 44 in the follower 35, which positions said
spring. The wedge 33 is hollow at its outer end
an inclined wedging face at its inner and at its
outer end, a spring plate having inclined faces en
for receiving the head 42 and the inner end of
the spring 43, as clearly shown in Fig. 1 of the
gaging the inclined inner faces of said shoes, re
silient means under initial compression between
body portion 39 extending inwardly between the
an open and closed end, friction shoes each en
drawing.
said spring plate and the closed end of said cas
In order to properly hold the wedge member 10 ing, a wedge member having wedging faces en
33 in engagement with the friction shoes 25 when
gaging the outer wedging faces of said shoes and
extending outward beyond the open end of said
the spring is in release position,v a resilient mem
ber, such as a rubber ring 45, is mounted on the
casing, a follower, and means including a resil
inwardly extending circular body portion 39 of
ient element between said follower and said spring
the spring abutment member 4|, and in engage 15 plate whereby said last-named means initially re
ment with the inner end of the wedge member
sists the compression of said device.
2. In a cushioning device, a casing, shoes posi
33 and with the head and flange portion 42 of
tioned within said casing for inward travel in con
the abutment member 4|.
tact with the casing, means including spring
The follower 35 is limited in its outer move
ment and held in position by bolts 41, 48. The 20 means for resisting said inward travel of the
shoes, wedge means cooperative with said spring
bolt 41 extends through the web l9 on one side
means for engaging said shoes to press the shoes
of the rib of the T member I1, and the bolt 48
against said casing during said travel, a follower
at the opposite side of the casing extends on the
for movement against said wedge means to com
opposite side of the web portion of the T mem
ber I8, so as to properly position the follower 35 25 press said spring means only in response to the
and prevent it from tilting. It is apparent that
?nal compressive movement only of said device,
and additional spring means for resisting the
initial compression of said device prior to said
mally spaced members that are movable toward
?nal compressive movement.
each other in response to the forces that are to
3. In a draft gear, a casing, a Wedge mechanism
be cushioned.
30
for resisting the ?nal compressive movement of
In assembling the device just sufficient tension
said gear, spring means to apply pressure to said
is put on the spring 43 by the bolts 41, 48, to
hold the parts in set-up position. The springs
wedge mechanism, means to prevent said spring
means and said wedge mechanism from resisting
3|, 32, of the wedging mechanism are placed
the casing II and the follower 35 are two nor
under initial tension, which is approximately 35 the initial compressive movement of said gear,
and resilient means cooperating with said spring
equal to the tension of the spring 43 when the
means for resisting the initial compressive move
applied to the follower 35
ment of said gear.
I y
the gearthe spring 43 will
4. In a draft gear, a casing having an open
to approach the wedge 33 40 and a closed end, friction shoes frictionally en
gaging the inner surface of said casing, springs
without moving it inwardly until the follower
engages the end of the‘ Wedge‘ 33. During the
for resisting the movement of said shoes toward
further compression or" the gear the follower 35
the closed end of the casing, a wedge member en
will force the wedge member 33 inwardly, and
gaging said shoes, a follower, and spring means
the springs 3|, 32, operating through the wedg 45 for resisting the movement of said follower to
ward said casing, said spring means cooperating
ing faces of the spring seat 28, will force the
wedges into frictional contact with the inner
with all of said springs constituting the sole
means for resisting the inward movement of said
sides of the casing, whereby the inner movement
of the wedge 33 will be frictionally resisted by
follower until said follower seats on said wedge
the friction shoes, as well as by the compressive 50
resistance of the springs 3|, 32.
5. In a cushioning device, a, casing,_ friction
It will thus be seen that by placing the springs
shoes engaging said casing, means including a
3| and 32 under initial compression substantially
plurality of springs for resisting the inward move
equal to that of the spring 43, when the follower
ment ‘of said shoes, a wedge member engaging
seats on the Wedge member 33, that the shocks 55 said shoes for forcing the same radially outward
of pull and buff will be resisted and partially ab
ly, said wedge member extending outwardly of
sorbed entirely by the spring 43, and consequently
said casing, a spring abutment member extend
the shocks will be greatly cushioned for all loads.
ing through said wedge member and held against
After the follower seats on the wedge member
inward movement by said springs, a follower, re
33, as a result of the more severe shocks, the 60 silient means between said follower and abut
?nal compressive movement of the gear will ab
ment member for normally holding said follower
sorb these shocks by the friction devices plus
spaced from said abutment member, and means
the resistance to compression of the springs 3|
for holding said ?rst-named means under such
and 32. It will also be appreciated that the
compression that upon the compression of said
transition from the initial resilient resistance to 65 cushioning device the pressure of said ?rst=named
‘compression to the ?nal frictional resistance to
means will be approximately equalized on oppo
same is compressed
that when force is
tending to compress
permit the follower
to its maximum extent, so
member.
compression will be gradual and imperceptible.
It is thought from, the foregoing, taken in
connection with the accompanying drawing, that
the construction and operation of my device will
be apparent to those skilled in the art, and that
changes in size, shape, proportion and detail may
be made without departing from the spirit and
scope of the appended claims
I claim as my invention:
>
i
site ends of said abutment member approximately
at the time saidv follower engages said wedge
member, whereby the initial compressive move
ment of said cushioning device will be yielding
ly resisted solely by said last-named resilient
means.
_
'
i
6. A cushioning device comprising frictionyan
w'edging mechanism and cooperating springs and
75 spring resistance means in series, and‘ means "for
2,410,933
5
6
causing said spring resistance alone to yield dur
ing the initial compression of said gear, and said
of said two members over said initial range, and
Wedge means to transmit said forces to said rela
friction and wedging mechanism and said springs
alone to yield during the ?nal compressive move
ment of said device.
tively strong yielding means when the relative
7. In a device of the character described to
cushion forces, two normally spaced members
movement of said two members enters said addi
tional range of movement and to frictionally re
sist the relative movement in said additional
range in response to the resistance of the relative
ly strong yielding means.
9. A device of the character described to cush
forces, relatively weak yielding means positioned
between said members to resist relative movement 10 ion forces as set forth in claim 7, in which the
movable toward each other in response to said
of the two members toward each other over an
maximum resistance to relative movement of the
initial range of movement, relatively strong yield
two members offered by said relatively weak Yield
ing means is on the same order of magnitude as
ing means positioned between said two members
the minimum resistance to the relative move
to resist relative movement of the two members
toward each other over an additional range of 15 ment offered by said relatively strong yielding
means.
movement, means responsive to relative move
10. In a device of the character described to
ment of the two members toward each other to
cushion forces, two normally spaced ‘members to
prevent yield of said relative weak means over
receive said forces for relative movement toward
said additional range of movement, means to
con?ne said relatively Strong yielding means un 20 each other in response to the forces, a ?rst spring
means, a spring seat cooperative with one of said
der compression thereby to prevent said relative
members to con?ne said spring means, means
ly strong means from resisting relative movement
acting between said spring seat and said one
of said two members over said initial range, and
member to limit the spacing therebetween there
friction means adapted to receive pressure from
by to hold said spring means under compression
said relatively strong yielding means to resist rel
and to prevent said spring means from resisting
ative movement of said two means toward each
relative movement of said members toward each I
other over said additional range.
other over an initial range of relative movement,
8. In a device of the character described to
a second spring means acting between said spring
cushion forces, two normally spaced members
movable toward each other in response to said 30 ‘seat and the‘ other of said members to resist rela
tive movement of said ‘two members toward each
forces, relatively weak yielding means positioned
other over an additional range of movement, said
between said members to resist relative move
second spring means being limited in yielding
ment of the two members toward each other over
movement substantially to said initial range of
an initial range of movement, relatively strong
movement, and a wedge mechanism acting be
yielding means positioned between said two mem
tween said spring seat and said other member in
bers to resist relative movement of the‘two mem
response to relative movement of the two mem
bers toward each other over an additional range
bers in said additional range, said wedge mech
of movement, means responsive to relative move
anism being adapted to transmit a portion of said
ment of the two members toward each other to
prevent yield of said relative weak means over 40 forces to said ?rst spring means and to friction
ally resist said forces in said additional range of
said additional range of movement, means to con
?ne said relatively strong yielding means under
compression thereby to prevent said relatively
strong means from resisting relative movement
movement.
LEWIS D, FREEMAN,
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