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Патент USA US2410944

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Nov. 12, 1946.
w. F. JOHNSON
2,410,944
SYSTEM FOR SINTERING
Filed May 13, 1943
IVENTOR.
BY
Val/a]? fo?mmn/
atented ov. 12, 1946'
STATES"2,410,944PATENT OFFICE
SYSTEM FOR SINTERING
Walter F. Johnson, Berkeley, Calif., assignor to
American Smelting and. Re?ning Company,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey ‘
Application May_13, 1943, Serial No. 486,798
6 Claims. (Cl. 266-21)
1
This invention relates to metallurgical opera
tions and more particularly to a system for auto
ing the usual structural frame members, “I, ll,
l2, cars l3 provided with wheels i4 riding on
suitable tracks IS in the upper part of the ma
chine and tracks iii in the lower part. The cars
or pallets l3 are engaged\by the rotatable bull
wheel I‘! at the feed end .of the machine which
causes them to be pushed in the direction of
arrow l8 on tracks i5 where they are turned
over and dumped at the discharge end. The
matically controlling the operation of sintering
machines.
‘
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'
In the process of roasting ores on a sintering
machine, and especially sulphide ores, it fre
quently is highly desirable to recover the S02
evolved in the reaction between the oxygen of
the combustion supporting air and the sulphur
pallets then travel upside down along the inclined
trackways Hi again to be engaged by the bull
wheel to continue their cyclic travel.
Mounted above the path of travel of the pal
of the ore. For reasons known in the art, it is
advantageous to produce a gas from the roast
ing or sintering operation which is uniform with
respect to volume and S02 concentration in addi
tion to producing a uniformly sintered product.
lets at the feed end is a charge hopper or chute
This is particularly so when the S02 containing 15 l9. Material to be sintered is fed into the hop
gas is to be used for the production of sulphuric
per l9 by a turntable 20 on to which the mate
acid or other products of sulphur dioxide.
rial is charged from a .bin 2i. A suitable plow
Heretofore the control of the operation of the
or scraper indicated at 22 de?ects a'predeter
machine has been left largely to the manual skill
mined amount of material from the surface of I
of the operator who, ‘among other things, may be‘. 20 the turntable in a manner-known in the art. It
charged with the duty of controlling the speed
will be understood, of course, that the material
of the machine as well as other factors by a sys
A will be augmented with such combustible as may
tem of rather hit or miss‘ tests and observations
be necessary to insure suf?cient heat for sinter
from which he manually changes the controls
ing in the event the sulphides in the ore are
,from time to time in his efforts to produce the 25 de?cient.
As the pallets pass‘ under the discharge end‘
desired uniformity both with respect to the sinter
23 of the chute i9 they are supplied with an ad
In accordance with this invention there is pro
iusted amount of material to be sintered, called
vided a system for automatically controlling the
the charge. An adjustable back plate 24 may
operation of a sintering machine whereby most, 80 be used to level off the surface of the charge in
if not all, of the personal equation involved in
the pallets Ill. The charge is then given an initial
prior conventional practice is eliminated with
ignition by means of a ?ame mu?‘le or igniter 25
consequent improved results with respect to uni
after which the pallets pass over a windbox and
formity of sinter and relatively high concentra
under a hood designated generally byv reference
tion S02 gas produced which, in turn, re?ects a 35 numbers 26 and Y27,‘ respectively.
higher over-all e?lciency of the entire sintering
In this machine the windbox is interiorly
operations.
divided by a, partition member 28 provided with
The invention is hereinafter more fully de- .
a baille 29 to provide in effect a first windbox 30
scribed in connection with the operation of that
and a second windbox 3! which preferably are
and S03 gas.
_
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. type of sintering machine which has come to be 40 of unequal size, the ?rst being larger. The hood
known in the art as a Dwight-Lloyd straight line
machine but it will be apparent as the descrip
tion proceeds that the invention will lend itself
extends over the top of the machine and com
pletely covers the second windbox 3| and all but
to other sintering machines.
a small portion of the ?rst .windbox. The sides
2‘! surrounding the discharge end of the machine
Although the novel features which are believed 45 of the hood extend downwardly around the
to be characteristic of this invention will be par
tracks and engage the windboxes in a manner
ticularly pointed out in the claims appended
to provide a substantially air-tight hood having
hereto, the invention itself, asto its objects and
an opening 32 through which atmospheric air
advantages, and the manner in which it may
is drawn into the hood chamber 83. Extending
be carried out, may be better understood by re 50 from the end of the hood 2'! nearest the igniter
ferring to the following description taken in con—
25~for a substantial distance over the ?rst wind
nection with the accompanying drawing forming
box 30 is an inner hood 84. There is a seal be
a part thereof in which Fig. 1 is a view in eleva
tween the windbox and the pallets and the ma
chine is provided with a dead plate beyond the
tion, partly in cross-section and partly diagram
matic, of a sintering machine of the Dwight 55 windbox as is known in machines of this type.
Lloyd type embodying the system of the inven
The second windbox is provided with a circu
tion, and Fig. 2 is a cross section taken on the
lating pipe 35 which leads from the second wind
line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
'
'
box 3l to a suction blower or fan 36 and thence
Referring to the drawing, there is shown a
into a pipe 38 which opens into the hood cham
sintering machine of the straight-line type hav
do
ber 21 over the first wind box 30. A discharge
2,410,944
ing through the charge'bears a proportional re
pipe 40 interconnects windbox 30 with ?ue 4i
lationship to the draft or suction in the hood.
To take advantage of this condition to auto
matically control the operation of the machine
there is provided a conduit 44 which connects
the interior of the hood chamber 33a above the
via suction blower or fan 42.
In operating a machine of this type in con
ventional manner, air for the‘ sintering opera
tion is drawn through the opening 32 through
the hood chamber and down through the sul
phide charge on the pallets into second windbox
3| by fan 36, the gases from the second windbox
first windbox with a controller (designated gen
, erally by reference character 50) which will
operate a speed reducer mechaism 5| in re
passing therefrom through circulating pipe 35
thence through circulating pipe 38 and thence 10 sponse to changes in pressure (suction) within
the hood; the speed reducer being driven by a
into the main hood above the ?rst windbox. A
bailie 3.5a in the hood 21 prevents the air ‘drawn
into the machine at the discharge end from ?ow
ing freely and directly over the charge above the
first windbox 30.
.
suitable prime mover 52 by a belt 53.
The controller is shown more or less diagram
matically and its mechanism per se may be of
_
various forms.
Such an instrument, now offered
for sale under the trade name “Bristol,” may be
By providing for recirculation of the gases a
used for the purpose.
higher concentration of S02 in the gas ultimately
As shown, the conduit 44 is connected to a
discharged from the machine is obtained than
recorder or indicator type of draft measuring
otherwise. However, due to variable, factors
entering into the sintering operation, it is dim 20 instrument 54. The controller instrument desig
nated :ifi has an arrangement or controlling de
cult, and sometimes impossible, to obtain a uni
vice vhich is operative, at a predetermined draft
formly sintered product and a uniform volume of
setting, to open a small valve when the draft
SO: gases of uniform, relatively high concentra
exceeds the setting, to allow air under pressure
tion.
.
to pass through conduit 55 which is connected
One very important factor in obtaining uni
to a suitable source of compressed air (not
formity is controlling the speed of travel of
shown). The valve arrangement is such that
the pallets so that the charge will be burned
the air pressure may thus be caused to ?ow into
through to the grate bars of the pallets when
conduit 58 when the draft exceeds a predeter
the pallets have passed over the last windbox.
It has not been uncommon practice for the 30 mined setting and to_?ow‘ out of conduit 56
when the draft falls below a predetermined
workmen to dig into the charge with a bar be
amount. Conduit 56 is connected to the inte
fore it is discharged from the machine to see
rior of a bellows 51 which is contractible and
if the product is sintered satisfactorily and then
expansible in response to the air pressure there
by hand adjust the mechanism which controls
the rate of travel of the pallets. Because the 35 in. The bellows 51 which is carried on a suit- '
ably mounted bracket 58 also mounts a rod 59
charge may vary, the rate of sintering also may
slidable in an aperture in the bracket. The
vary. An operator might dig into one or two '
outer end of the rod is linked to a lever 60 as by
pallets and believe the charge burned out too
a pin 6|. The lever is pivoted to the bracket
much; so, he would speed up the machine to
overcome this, only to ?nd the next pallets mov 40 at one end providing a fulcrum 62. The other
end of the lever is attached to a rack 63 by
ing along might not warrant the extra speed.
means of a pin 64' slidable in a slot 65' in the
In. accordance with the invention, these un
lever.
desirable drawbacks are eliminated by provid
The rack 63 meshes with a pinion 84 ?xed to
ing a controller responsive to the amount of air
a shaft 85 which is a part of the variable speed
passing through the charge and suitable mecha
reducer 5|. A rotation of pinion 84 will cause
nism operatively connected whereby the speed
of the pallets will automatically be adjusted to
produce uniform sintering. At the same time,
the volume of combustion gases produced may
be kept substantially constant, with a relatively‘
high concentration of 802.
When the charge passes under the igniter, it
is given an initial ignition and the combustible
material burns, thus eliminating the volatile
substances and driving off the water.- As this 55
progresses, as the pallets travel over the wind
a contraction or spreading of conventional cone
shaped driving pulleys fixed to shaft 65 in known
manner and thus control the linear speed of
driving belt 61 which in turn rotates the bull
wheel. I‘! through pulleys 68 and 8B and a train
of gears 68, 10, ll. Shaft 65 is driven, as indi
cated, by the drive shaft 12 to which is fixed
pulley 73 driven by belt 53. Also driven by the
speed reducer is a belt ‘I4 which rotates turntable
20 on its axis through a set of bevel gears and
shafts,"l5, 18. ll, 18, 19 and ‘80. Hence, it will
box, the charge becomes progressively more po
be observed that the speed of rotation of the
rous and more air is pulled through, consequently
turntable 20 is correlated with the speed of the
the porosity largely determines the amount of
air pulled through and therefore the rate of 60 bull wheel II. A speed indicator 8| connected by
a belt 82 to the speed control shaft 85 currently
burning of the combustible in the charge.
indicates the speed of travel of the pallets, the
Hence, under usual conditions of operation in
hand 83 being movable over a graduated dial 44.
order to obtain uniformity of sinter, the speed
In the operation of the machine, the rate of
of the machine should increase automatically
when the volume of air passing through the 65 feeding the charge from the turntable, through
the chute I9 is adjusted and also the speed of
charge increases beyond a predetermined
the pallets is regulated in accordance with the
amount, and the speed should automatically
draft in chamber 33a over the ?rst windbo'x
decrease when the volume decreases. Thus, the
ill to produce a desired amount of sintering when
volume of air passing through the charge may
be maintained substantially constant by regu 70 the sintered charge is dumped from the pallets
at the end of discharge end of the machine.
lating the speed to take care‘of such variations
The controller device 50 is adjusted for these
so that the charge will be burned to the grate
conditions and the setting to maintain the draft
bars by the time the pallets, reach the end of the
constant within narrow limits. The mechanism
last windbox.
The amount of air entering the hood and pass 75 is such that if the draft increases in the chem
2,410,944
ber 3311 over the. ?rst windbox the controller ' sintering machine 'having a train of pallets '
automatically operates the lever‘ 60 when the, ’ movable over a.windbox, means to cause said
draft exceeds the setting. This causes a corre
pallets to 'move in tandem over said windbox,
sponding movement of rack 63 to rotate pinion
a substantially enclosed hood over said windbox'
65 and thus causes the speed reducer mechanism
forming a chamber, an igniter to ignite the charge
to speed up the rotations of the bull wheel and
on the pallets, and a blower to ‘draw air into said
consequently the speed of travel of the pallets.
chamber through an ignited charge on the pallets
into said windbox to sinter the charge; a draft
This is desirable because an increased draft in
dicates too much burning before the pallets
measuring instrument connected to said cham
reach the end of the windbox. Speeding up the
rate of travel compensates this so that the charge
will be burned the. right amount just as the
pallets leave the windbox 3 I. On'the other hand.
if the draft decreases, that indicates not enough
ber; a controller mechanism connecting with
said instrument and operative in response to a
change in draft measured by said instrument;
and a variable speed reducer mechanism con
nected to ‘operate the pallet moving means, said
speed reducer mechanism and controller mecha
nism being operatively connected with each other
to change the driving speed of said speed re
:lucer mechanism in response to a change in draft
in said chamber to automatically control the
‘burning, as the porosity is insuiiicient to pass the
desired constant volume of air through. the
charge. When this condition exists,v the con
troller mechanism through the rack and pinion
83 and 65 operates to reverse the movement of
the rack to slow down the speed of the pallets a 20 speed of travel of said pallets over the windbox
in correlation with draft conditions in said cham
corresponding amount. Thus, a balance is main
ber.
'
tained and variations in the sinter and the SO:
4. Apparatus for’ producing uniform sinter
gas produced may be substantially eliminated by
from ores amenable to sintering which cornautomatic control.
While certain novel features of the invention‘ 25 prises a frame mounting upper and lower-track
\ ways, a train of pellets movable on said track“
have been shown and described and are pointed
out in the annexed claims, it will be understood
that various omissions, substitutions and changes
in the forms and details of the system of the in
vention illustrated and in its operation may be 3.0
made by those skilled in the art without depart
ing from the spirit of the invention.
“What is claimed is:
ways, a'wheel to move said pallets, means to
charge said pallets at one end of the upper track- >
ways, an igniter to ignite the charge in the pallets,
a hood beyond the igniter forming a hood cham
ber over the pallets in their path of travel, a " '
windbox below said vhood and beneath pallets
-
' travelling on said upper trackways, a blower
-
connected to said windbox to draw air into said
1. Apparatus for sintering ore which comprises,
in combination, a driven variable speed reducer 35 chamber, thence through the ignited charge into
said windbox, a speed ‘reducer r mechanism
having a driving means and a means to change
driven by a prime mover, said speed . reducer
the driving speed of the said driving means; a
sintering machine driven by said driving means,
said sintering machine having a substantially '
mechanism ‘being connected to rotate said wheel
to move said pallets, a controller connected to
closed hood, a windbox and a blower mechanism 40 said hood chamber and operative in response to
a change of a condition in said chamber to cause.
to draw air into the hood chamber, through the
said speed reducer to change its driving speed
charge and through the windbox of said machine;
and a controller‘ mechanism connected to said '
to change the speed of travel of said pallets under .
' said hood.
chamber and to said speed reducer, said con
5. Apparatus'for sintering ores comprising the
troller being operative in response to a change 45
combination with a sintering machine of the
of pressure in said chamber to increase the speed
down-draft type de?ning a path ‘of travel for,
of said driving means upon a predetermined in
the charge and having variable-speed driving
crease in the draft in said chamber and to de
means for conveying the charge along said path
crease the speed of said driving means upon a
of travel, of means for measuring the draft at a
predetermined decrease in the draft in said 60 selected
point in the system, and controller means
. chamber.
operative in response to signi?cant changes in
2. Apparatus for sintering ore which comprises,
said draft to automatically actuate said driving
in combination, a driven variable speed reducer
means to increase the rate at which the charge
having a driving means and a means to change
conveyed along said path of travel when the
the driving speed of the said driving means; a 55 is
draft
increases at said selected point and to de/-'
rotary charger tumtable' to feed the charge to be
crease
the rate at which the charge is conveyed
vsintered driven by said driving means; a sintering
along said path of travel when the draft de
machine driven by said driving means, said sinter
creases at said selected point.
- ing'machine having a substantially closed hood, '
6. Apparatus for uniformlysintering ore com- I
a windbox and a blower mechanism to draw air 60 prising the combination with a straight-line
into the hood chamber. through the charge and
sintering machine of the Dwight-Lloyd type hav
through the. windbox; and a controller mecha
ing pallets i for supporting the ore/and driving
nism connected to, said chamber and to- said
means for moving the. pallets through the ma
speed reducer, said controller being operative in‘
chine, ,of -a ‘ draft-measuringlinstrument for
response to a change of pressure in said chamber
measuring the draft under which the sintering , I
to increase the speed of said driving means upon
‘operation
is conducted, and controller mechanism
a predetermined increase in the draft, in said
responsive to material deviations in said draft
chamber and to de'crease the speed of said driving
means upon a predetermined decrease in the draft
in'said chamber.
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a 3, Apparatus fbr sintering ores- comprising: a
automatically effecting a compensating change ‘
in the speed of the pallet driving means.
70
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wan'mar'. JOHNSON.
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