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Патент USA US2410970

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NOY- 12, 1946.
J. A. GUYER
oIL DEsApTING AND/OR
'
2,410,970
DEWATERING
Filed Jan.` 5, 1945
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Patented Nov. 12, 1946
'
2,410,970V
UNITED- s?rATEs PATENT orrics
OIL DESALTING AND/ OR DEWATERING
l ïlvl'eswse A. Guyer, Bartlesville, Okla., assignor to
:Phillips Petroleum Company, a corporation of
a’ ~
Delaware
Application January 5, 1945, Serial No. 571,525
isoiaims. (c1. 252-330)
2
» ' This invention relates to loil desalting and/or
heated in the heat exchanger 4 and then passes
dewatering. In one of its most speciñc aspects
it relates to removing the connate salt in crude
. oil. In another of its ¿most speciñc aspects it
, through pipe 5 to a mixer 6 which preferablyis
the usual lcentrifugal pump mixer.
relates to removing water `from crude oil`
Crude oil as it comes out of the well often con
tains microscopic crystalsY of connate salt and
vsmall particles of water. In order to utilize this
crude oil to obtain hydrocarbons such as gas
therefrom, it is necessary to separate out the salt 10
and'water that the oil may contain. This is often
~ complicated because the water may form an emul
1
'
Before passing into mixer 6 a suitable gas or
vapor is added to the crude oil through line 1.
Water is added through line 8 andpreferably
this water contains a suitable alkali material
such as caustic soda, soda ash, potash, sodium
bicarbonate, ammonium hydrate, borax, sodium
phosphate, aniline and pyridine,
k
_
„j
.
The centrifugal pump 6 mixes the oil- and
added materials together in a fairly fine mixture.
In some instances it is necessary when using cer
sion and the salt is not easy to separate.
tain crude oilsvto avoid too i'lne mixing as-.such
A number of methods have been proposed to
remove the salt and water but none of these 15 excessively intimate mixing may result in forming
methods are as efiicient as desired and many
an emulsion which is hard to break. It is `easy to
determine the degree of mixing that may take
crude oils resist these old methods.
I found that by adding"y water and a suitable
place with theoil to be treated and the usual
centri?ugal‘pump- mixer will not mix the usual
' »gas under pressure and then reducing the pres
sure that the expansion `ofthe gas and the pres 20 oil too intimately with the other materials.
’ ence of the water will cause a removal of the salt
The mixture flows frompump 6 through pipe
-from the oil along with a substantial part of any
water present in the oil. I also ñnd that the addi
tion of heat at suitable points and the use of a
suitable alkali aid in this new process.
> vOne object ofthe present invention is to pro
9 to heat exchanger IU where it is preferably
heated to a higher temperature. Centrifugal
pump 6 has increased the pressure over the pres
` vide an efficient method for the removal- of salt
from oil.
’
_
A sure created by pump 2.
It is possible to vary
the treatment slightly for certain crude oil by
varying the-amount of pressure rise at pump 2
and at pump 6 and in some cases it isnot neces
sary to havek any substantial rise at one or the
Another object is to provide a suitable method
30 other pumps but instead throw most of the load
for the removal of water from oil.
Another object is to provide a method Vfor re
von either pump 2 or pump 6. However, the load
may be equally divided.
Y moving salt and/or water from oil in which water
The mixture iiows from' a line 9 through heat
ì and gas are added under pressure to the oil and
exchanger I0 and line II to separating tank I2.
then the pressure is reduced.
' n Another object is 'to provide aV method in which 35 The separating -tank may be a region of reduced
pressure or of increased temperature. Either'of
water, alkali, gas, and heat are added to the oil
these physical characteristics will cause evolution
*and* the oil is placed under pressure _and then
of gas from the mixture coming through' pipe I I.
the pressure is released with a resulting reduction
of salt and water content of the oil, and neu
tralization of any acids therein.
'
'
A further object is to treat crude oil as set
’ forth> in the specification and claims.
Numerous other objects and advantages will
rbef -apparent to those skilled in the art upon read
However, it is preferable to have both a region
of reduced pressure and increased temperature
and heating coils I3 or other heating means may
be provided to increase the temperature'in sepa
ratcr
I2.
-
-
>
'
i“
While there are three possibilities, namely that
1 ing the accompanying specification and claims 45 the mixture be ejected into the gas phase I4, the
1 and looking at the drawing.
» The single ñgure shown in the drawing is a
ï Y conventionalized iiow diagram showing theprac
tice of an embodiment of the method* that con
>oil'phase I5 or the water phase IG, all with ad
vantageous results, I ñnd it preferable to eject
the mixture into the water phase I6 and while
' the ejection may be through a single pipe II, I
50 prefer to eject through -a plurality of> spaced spray
stitutes the present invention.
As shown in the drawing, crude oil containing
nozzlesv I'I of the usual type. '
'
‘ salt enters `the system through pipe I and prefer
- ably` is raised in pressure by means of pump 2.
' Theorude oil then iiows through pipe 3 and'
While the reduction of pressurev over a long
period of time will cause the evolution> of gas, I
preferl to suddenly eject the mixture from spray
u through Vheat exchangerA 4. The oil preferably is 55 nozzles I 'I so that a’relatively sudden reductionY
2,410,970
I
4
r
in pressure occurs.
economical to use 32 pounds of propane per 300
pounds of oil.
A suitable gas for practicing the present meth
od should be soluble in oil and not react with the
In the embodiment shown
in the drawing and employing such an oil as an
Oklahoma City crude oil containing salt and a
small amount of water in oil emulsion, the fol
lowing theory may be given for the operation of
method. The preliminary heating in 4 decreases
the viscosity of the oil and the water in the solu
oil, water, or alkali employed and should evolve
readily under the conditions in separator I2.
While many gases may be employed, the follow
ing gases are preferable. Hydrocarbon gases,
tion added through 8 will dissolve the ,Salt Ikupon
carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, ammonia,
contact and will not dissolve substantially any
of the crude oil. The propane added through 10 and mixtures of these gases. Such a mixture as
nitrogen and carbon dioxide is suitable.
line 'I will dissolve preferably in the oil. The
Such reactive gases as oxygen are considered
centrifugal pump Iì will generally invert theemul
undesirable because oxygen may oxidize the oil
sion that was in the oil so that-,the mixture in
and while air is not as reactive, it still contains
pipe 9 is now an easily breakable oil in 'war-ter
emulsion. An easy method of increasing >the 15 enough oxygen to often be inferior to the gases
preferred, although air or oxygen can be used in
vapor pressure of the gas without further addi
some instances.
tion of gas is to heat the mixture _and _this may
When using hydrocarbon gases, it is obvious
be done in either heat exchanger I0 or ,by means
kthat methane, ethane, propane, and butane in
of coil I 3, but preferably by both.
However, some results may be obtained with 20 the order named, willbe easier to dissolve and
harder to evolve again as gases. However, these
out any of the heating means 4, I0 .or I3, but
.are all more Suitable thansuch liquids aspentanc.
»preferably at least one of these heating means is
hexane, andheptane.
„
,
desirable and, Yas show-n, preferably all three are
While the present invention has ¿been described
employed.
In tank I2 the mixture coming Aout of nozzles 25 as a method of desalting _and/or dewateringoil
there are obviously other impurities, Asuch >as sub
I1, preferably into water phase I6, is preferably
stantially unbreakable emulsions, whicnmay be
rapidly decreased in pressure. The sprayed mix
removed by the present method, Vand when the
ture is in the form of small particles of oil which
present method is practiced on oil containing any
have a large surface in »contact with the water
bath I6.
The gas or vapor which was added
T30 such type impurity, the oil will be improved and
through pipe 'I expands vdue to .the reduced pres
sure and/or increased temperature and ruptures
the surface ñlm of the oil »particle lallowing the
occluded water and- vsalt to settle out of the mix
ture.
'
The separation of theY gas I4, oil I5, and water
I6 is an obvious well-known process and obvious
ly water may be drawn off >through pipe IB. Ob
viously the oil drawn off through pipe `I 9 may con
tain some of the gas which may be removed if I
it is intended that Ythe claims be commensurate
with the invention and cover such treatments.
Also desalting »should be regarded as inclusi-ve .of
the removal of any material soluble in the aque
35 ous phase employed from the oil, and dewatering
as inclusive of breaking of emulsions to thereby
dewater.
The illustrative embodiment shown in the
_ drawing and described above is recorded to illus
trate ythe advantages of my invention. Obviously
many other embodiments differing-in minor de
desired by suitable fractionating apparatus (not
tails bui-„within the scope-,of my invention maybe
shown).
made Without departing from the invention,
Similarly the gas or vapors in line >2l'l .may carry
which is deñned in the following claims.
lwith them some of the oil which also may >be
45 Having described my invention, I claim:
recovered by suitable >fractionating apparatus
1. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
(not shown).
,
anfyoil comprising the steps vof . placing the oil un
The amount of water that is added may vary
der pressure, adding water, alkali and gas, mix
‘between wide limitsbut it is preferable to add an
ing the oil, water, alkali _and gas together, heat
excess amount of water rather than too little. 50 ing the mixture, ejecting the mixture underwater
On the other hand there is ,an upper li'mitin the
into a region of sufñciently reduced ,pressure to
amount of water because of expense in handling.
permit formation >of gas bubbles, and separating
While the amount of water may vary consider
the oil from the water, alkali and gas.
ably, a .certain amount may be found .preferable
2. The method of desalting and/or dewater
with certain ,oils and With an oil .of _the `Oklahoma 5¿fingan oil ycomprising the steps .of placing _the oil
City type, mentioned ._above, equal _parts vof water
under pressure, adding vwater and gas, mixing the
and oil maybe employed. The amount of alkali
„ oil, water andgas, together, heating-the mixture,
ejectingthe mixture under water into a region
depends upon the characterof the oil, .and as the
alkali is an vitem .of considerable expense, .it ?is -de
„of Vsuiñcie-ntly reduced pressure to, permit» _forma
sirable to keepthe .amount added down. With 60 tion of gas bubbles, and separating the .oil from
usual oils one pound .of alkali to 16,000 pounds of
the Water and gas.
Y
- Y
'
f
oil is often suflicient although some .oils vmay. re
3. The method of desaltingand/or Ydewater
quire considerably more alkali and some may al
low the -employment'of much less.
The alkali is .proportionedV -to gneutra'lize -any
acids present and the waterl acts to dissolve'the
salts.
i
'
»
ing an oilcomprising the steps-of placing lthe oil ì
under pressure, .adding `water and gaa-mixing tghe
oil, water and gas together, heating `the» mixture,
ejecting the mixture into -‘a Iregion-.of~sufliciently
reduced. pressure- to permit >formation-.ofy gas
bubblesfand separating the -oil >from «the water
In the application of -the propane to the -usual
type of oil, improved results may ~be noted» over a
wide range extending from very little prepa-ne to
large amounts thereof. It »is .believed the bene
ficial results are more noticeable when the
Apropane is in the range-of from 5 >pounds-to v100
4. The method Aof'. .desalting and/ordewatering
an -,oil .comprising-the stepsrof placing»> the oil
under pressure, »adding water, alkali fandjgas, ¿mix
ing -theíoiL water, alkali and gas togethenieject
pounds of propane «per 300 pounds of oil.v With
' `ing the mixture underwater into a» region of
and gas.
'
~
f
an-oil of the Oklahoma »Cityty-pe »it maybe most 7:5 suiliciently reduced pressure to permit formation
2,410,970
5
6
of gas bubbles, and separating the oil from the
Water, alkali and gas.
5. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
mixture into a region of sufüciently reduced pres
sure as to cause the evolution of gas therefrom,
and separating the oil from the Water and gas.
13. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
under pressure, adding water, alkali and gas, mix
oil comprising the steps of placing the oil under
pressure, heating the oil, adding Water and gas,
mixing the oil, Water and gas, placing the mixture
ing the oil, Water, alkali and gas together, eject
ing the mixture into a region of sufficiently re
duced pressure to permit formation of gas bubbles,
and separating the c-il from the water, alkali
and gas.
6. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
under pressure, ejecting the mixture into a re
gion of suñiciently reduced pressure as to cause
10 the evolution of gas therefrom, and separating
the oil from the Water and gas.
under pressure, adding water and gas, mixing the
14. The method of desalting and/ or dewatering
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
under pressure, heating the oil, adding Water and
gas, mixing the oil, water and gas, ejecting the
mixture under water into a region of sufñciently
increased temperature as to cause the evolution
of gas therefrom, and separating the oil from the
oil, Water and gas together, ejecting the mixture
under water into a region of sufficiently reduced
pressure to permit formation of gas bubbles, and
separating the oil from the Water and gas.
7. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
water and gas.
under pressure, adding Water and gas, mixing the 20
15. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
oil, Water and gas together, ejecting the mixture
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
into a region of sufficiently reduced pressure to
under pressure, heating the oil, adding water and
permit formation of gas bubbles, and separating
gas, mixing the oil, water and gas, ejecting the
the oil from the Water and gas.
mixture into a region of sufficiently increased
8. The method of desalting and/or dewatering 25 temperature as to cause the evolution of gas
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
therefrom, and separating the oil from the water
under pressure, heating the oil, adding Water,
and gas.
alkali and gas, mixing the oil, Water, alkali and
16. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
gas, placing the mixture under pressure, heating
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
the mixture, ejecting the mixture under water 30 under pressure, heating the oil, adding Water,
into a region of sufficiently reduced pressure and
alkali and gas, mixing the oil, Water, alkali and
increased temperature as to cause the evolution
gas, ejecting the mixture into a region of suffi
of gas therefrom, and separating the oil from the
ciently reduced pressure as to cause the evolution
Water, alkali and gas.
`
of gas therefrom, and separating the oil from the
9. The method of desalting and/or dewatering 35 water, alkali and gas.
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
i7. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
under pressure, adding Water, alkali and gas,
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
mixing the oil, Water, alkali and gas, ejecting
under pressure, heating the oil, adding Water,
the mixture under Water into a region of
alkali and gas, mixing the oil, water, alkali and
suñìciently increased temperature as to cause 40 gas, ejecting the mixture into a region of suñi
the evolution of gas therefrom, and separating
ciently increased temperature as to cause the
the oil from the water, alkali and gas.
evolution of gas therefrom, and separating the
10. The method of desalting and/or dewatering
oil from the Water, alkali and gas.
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
18. The method of desalting and/ or dewatering
under pressure, adding Water and gas, mixing 45 an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
the oil, Water and gas, ejecting the mixture under
under pressure, adding Water and gas, mixing the
Water into a region of suiiiciently increased tem
oil, Water and gas, placing the mixture under
perature as to cause the evolution of gas there
pressure, ejecting the mixture into a region of
from, and separating the oil from the water and
suiñciently reduced pressure as to cause the evolu
50 tion oi gas therefrom, and separating the oil from
gas.
11. The method of desalting and/ or dewatering
the Water and gas.
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
19. The method of desalting and/ or dewatering
under pressure, adding water and gas, mixing the
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
oil, water and gas, ejecting the mixture into a
under pressure, adding water and gas, mixing the
region of sufficiently increased temperature as to 55 oil, Water and gas, heating the mixture, ejecting
cause the evolution of gas therefrom, and sep
the mixture into a region of suñiciently increased
arating the oil from the water and gas.
temperature as to cause the evolution of gas
12. The method of desalting and/0r dewatering
an oil comprising the steps of placing the oil
under pressure, heating the oil, adding water and 60
gas, mixing the oil, Water and gas, ejecting the
therefrom, and separating the oil from the water
and gas.
`JESSE A. GUYER.
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