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Патент USA US2410974

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NOV. 12, 1946.,
ç, HUE-[TEN
¿4&09974
VIBRATOR CIRCUIT
Filed may 7, 1945
W1l/w@f
flamme HMJÍÍW@
WM, .f @@¿m
2,410,974
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
¢UNITED STATES PATENT `OFFICE '
f 2,410,974
VIBRATOR CIRCUIT
Clarence Huetten, Indianapolis, Ind., assigner to
P. R. Mallory & Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Ind., a
corporation of Delaware
Application May 7, 1943, Serial No. `485,976
13 Claims. (Cl. lTil-_97)
1
i
,
This invention relates to vibratory interrupter
circuits.
'
Y.
-
An object vof the invention is to improve vi
brator circuits.
Other objects of the invention will be apparent
from the description' and claims.
In the drawing:
,
Figure 1 is a diagram 4of a vibrator circuit em
‘ bodying features of the present invention;
side contacts 2i and 22 cooperating with the reed
on opposite sides. 'I'his vibrator may, for exam
ple, be of the type shown and described in Slater
Patent No. 2,190,685 or Brown Patent No. 2,197,
607.
.A transformer 23 is associated with vibrator I0
and a transformer 24 with vibrator II. Each'
transformer comprises a primary winding hav
ing a. center tap, both the center taps being con
10 nected to the same terminal of battery I2. The
ends of the primary of transformer 23 are con
ance of a vibrator.
' '
_
nected
respectively to contacts I‘I and I8 of vi
Vibrator circuits are often used to convert
brator I Ii and the ends of the primary 0f trans
`> electric current from
_
a low voltage source such
as a battery to high4 voltage alternating current 15 former 24 to contacts 2I and 22 of vibrator II.
One terminal of the'secondary winding of each
which may, .if desired, be rectiiied to produce
transformer is connected to common output ter
high voltage direct current for radio sets, elec
minal'ISa. 'I'he other terminal of transformer
tronic apparatus, and variousy applications.
. 23 secondary is connected tooutput terminal I3
Heretofore, the vibrator-circuits have generally
of transformer 24 secondary to terminal
>been used t0 provide only relatively small high 20, and’that
Ilb.'
Figure 2 illustrates another circuit; and'
Figure 3 is a graph illustrating the perform
voltage currents.
_
j
x
It is vdesirable in some cases, however, to obtain
Driver contact I6 of vibrator I0 is connected to
one end of the windings of both vibrator electro
magnets I5 and 20, the other ends of said magnet
heavier currents and some eiIorts have been made
to produce “heavy duty” vibrator circuits to sup
windings being connected through conductor 9 to
ply this need. In the past such arrangements 25 the terminal of battery I2 to which the center
have generally been based upon the use of a split
taps of the primary windings are connected. 'I'he
reed arrangement or mechanical coupling of elec
other terminal oi' battery I2 is connected to reeds
tric contacts driven by an electromagnet. Such
I4 and I9. A resistance 25 is shunted across
assemblies are diflicult to manufacture and main
contacts I4. I6 as an arc suppressor.
tainin adjustment and have not proven entirely 30 It is obvious that vibrator magnet windings I5
satisfactory.
and 20 can be connected in series, if desired.V
The present invention contemplates two or
In the operation of the circuit, when the bat
more mechanically independent vibrator units
tei-y is first connected current from the battery
connected together in an electric circuit whereby
passes through reed i 4 and normally-closed driv
operation of one of the units will control opera 35 er contact I8 to electromagnets l5 and 20 and
tion of the remainder.
returns to the battery through lead 9, thereby
Referring to the drawing, Figure 1 illustrates
energizing the electromagnets. This initiates vi
one embodiment of the invention utilizing two
bration of the reeds drawing the reeds to the left
vibrators for producing a, two-phase alternating
as shown in Figure 1. Reed I4 closes with con
current output in a three wire output circuit.
40 tact I1 to connect battery current through the
The circuit comprises a driving vibrator I0 and
left hand half of transformer 23 primary wind
a driven vibrator II for converting low voltage
ing. The swing of reed I4 to the left opens driver
direct current from battery I2 into two-phase
contact I6 thereby (ie-energizing the electromag
high voltage alternating current in three wire
nets and permitting the reeds to swing back when
_ output circuit I3, I3a, I3b. Vibrator I0 com
their energy has been spent.
prises a vibratcry reed I4> driven by electromag
On its return reed III closes with contact I8 to
net I5 and having a, cooperating driver contact
connect the battery to the opposite end of the
I6 cooperating with it as well as two opposite side
primary transformer winding thereby reversing
contacts I1 and I8. The reed structure may be
the current in the transformer. 'After spending
similar to that shown and described in Musser 50 its energy reed I4 swings again to the left and
Patent No. 2,207,300, or any other suitable struc
the cycle is repeated, the continued repetition
ture.
generating an alternating voltage across the sec
Vibrator II comprises a vibratory reed I9 driv
ondary winding.v
.
en by electromagnet 20 which is connected in
During the operation of vibrator I0 the electro
parallel with magnet 'I5 oi.' vibrator `I0 and has 55 magnet 20 of vibrator II is energized in synchro
andere ~
3
nism with electromagnet l5 of vibrator im How-`
ever, reed l@ is found to operate 90° out of phase
with. reed lll so as to close contact 2i one fourth
. run at 105 cycles per second under these condi- '
cycle before reed lß has closed contact l‘l and
similarly for contact 22 with respect to contact
it. This renders the output of transformer 2d
90° out of phase withthat of transformer 2S and
provides the two phase output from the circuit.
The 90° phase difference between the vibrators
may be explained as follows:
The driving vibrator being self-actuated, main
tions but with a 90° phase shift.
Figure aillustrates a modified circuit wherein
a plurality of driven vibrators 3l, 32, 33, etc., are
controlled by a single driving vibrator 30. Inthis
Vcircuit driver contact 3d of vibrator 3@ controls
only electromagnet ¿lû of this vibrator. The elec
tromagnets all, ft2, £33, etc., of vibrators 3l, 32, 33,
etc., are all connected in parallel to side contact
tains a reed motion in a fixed relationship with
the coil voltage. However the driven yvibrator
35 of vibrator 30 which is closed periodically dur
ing the vibration of the reed. Vibrators 3l, 32
and 33 will operate in synchronism. The figure
shows one circuit arrangement in which they
may be utilized. _In this circuit a step-up trans
having a resonant frequency greatern than the
coil voltage frequency has a reed motion which »
leads this coil voltage just as a current in an
LC circuit will lead the applied voltage when the
resonant frequency or the circuit is greater than
that'of the applied voltage. Since non-sinusoidal
and discontinuous waves are involved, a mathe
4
when self-actuated can be satisfactorily driven by
a driving vibrator operating at a natural period
of 105 cycles per second. The driven vibrator will
former ¿le has a center-tapped primary ¿l5 and a
center-tapped secondary llt, The center of pri
20 mary d5 is connected to a terminal of battery i2
and the two ends of this winding are connected
respectively to opposite side contacts on vibrators
Si, 32, and 33 in parallel. The ends of secondary
In order to obtain satisfactory operation the
¿it are connected respectively to a second set of
natural period of the vibrators must be taken into
consideration. If driven vibrator li was to be 25 opposite side contacts on the vibrators while the
center tap is connected to the high voltage output
driven at various frequencies by energizing its
terminal (il. Parallel operation of the threevi
magnet 2t with pulsating current of varied fre
brators is thereby effected to obtain high current
quericies, the amplitude of the reed would in
matical and quantitative analysis is for practical
purposes impossible.
capacity.
crease as the frequency is increased up to a cer
-
While specific embodiments of the invention
tain point, after which it would rapidly drop ofi 30
have been described, it is intended to cover the
as illustrated in the curve of Figure 3 wherein
invention broadly within the spirit and scope of
reed amplitude is plotted versus exciting fre
the appended claims.
quency. The asymmetrical shape of the curve is
What is claimed is:
due to the presence of non-linear compliances,
l. A vibrator system comprising a driving .vi
magnetic forces and other factors in the struc 35
brator, a driven vibrator, and a source of electric
y ture of the vibrator.
current, said driving vibrator comprising a vibra
tory reed and an electromagnet for driving said
natural frequency, but this frequency will vary » reed, contact means operated by said reed to con
somewhat with variations in voltage, tempera 40 trol the energization of said electromagnet from
said current source, whereby said electromagnet
ture, and other factors. Moreover, in the quan
In operation of the circuits of the present in
vention the driving vibrator will operate at its
tity production of vibrators certain variations in
frequency will be encountered with different
units of the same design. Therefore, the fre
quency of the driving vibrator lil will be subject
to some variation. Where the curve of Figure 3
. is periodically energized at the frequency of reed
vibration to maintain said reed in vibration, said
driven vibrator comprising a vibratory reed and
' an electromagnet for driving said reed,_said con
represents the characteristics of the driven vibra- v
tor il, the use of a driving vibrator lil having a
tact means of said driving vibrator also control
ling the energization of said driven vibrator elec
tromagnet, the natural frequencies of said driv
ing and driven vibrators each varying over a
frequency in range A or range D is impracticable
due to the excessive input currents required in 50 range of values, the maximum natural frequency
the electromagnet winding 20 in order to obtain
sufficient reed amplitude in the driven vibrator.
Operation in frequency range C produces un
stable or unsteady operation due to the extreme
variation in amplitude of the driven vibrator reed 55
with slight variations in frequency which may
of said driving vibrator being less than the mini
mum natural frequency of said driven vibrator
but greater than the frequency at which the
driven vibrator has an amplitude of response just
sumcient to eiîect periodic contact closure.
2. A vibrator system comprising a driving vi
brator, a driven vibrator having a higher natural
frequency than said driving vibrator, a source
‘of electric current and a first and second trans
60 former, said driving vibrator comprising a reed,
driving or driven vibrator.
an electromagnet for driving said reed and con
It is proposed, therefore, to operate in range B.
occur thus resulting in what may be termed
“motor boating” eñect in the operation of the vi
brator due to slight shifts in the frequency of the
tacts co-operating with said reed for periodically
In other words, the highest natural frequency of
energizing said electromagnet in synchronism
the driving vibrator under varying conditions of
with the vibrations of said reed and for periodi
voltage, temperature and vibrator adjustment
must be less than the lowest natural frequency 65 cally reversing the connection of said current
source to the primary of said first transformer
which the driven vibrator will have under any
for generating an alternating voltage across said
conditions. The .frequency of the driving vibra.s
tor should, however, be greater than the fre- -
transformer’s secondary,
said - driven vibrator
comprising a reed, an electromagnet for’driving
quency at which the driven vibrator amplitude is
so low as to give erratic operation of the vibrator 70 said reed energized periodically by said driving
vibrator contacts in synchronism with vibrations
contacts, The amplitude of the driven vibrator
of said driving vibrator reed, and contacts co
must exceed that which is just sufficient to e?'ect
operating with said reed for periodically reversing
the connection of said current source to the pri
By Vway of example, a driven vibrator having a>
natural frequency of 112 to 116 cycles per second 75 mary of said second transformer for generating
periodici/contact closure.
an alternating voltage across said transformer’s
secondary.
.
3. The system of claim 2 wherein said driven
vibrator operates 90 degrees out of phase with
said driving vibrator and one terminal of each
transformer secondary winding is connected to
a common output terminal, the other terminals
being connected to separate output terminals, to
provide a two-phase output circuit.
4. A vibrator system which comprises in com
bination a driving and a driven vibrator each
including a vibratory reed and a driver electro
magnet. and contact means operable by the reed .
of said driving vibrator to periodically and simul- f
Vtaneously energize both electromagnets from a
source of current substantially at the frequency of
vibration of said reed and thereby maintaining
both reeds in vibration, a transformer for each
of said vibrators, a set of interrupter contacts for
_ each of said vibrators operable by the reed there
of to alternately pass current from said source in
opposite directions through the primary winding
of the corresponding transformer, said driving vi
brator having a' lower natural frequency than said
driven vibrator whereby said sets of interrupter
contacts will be operated at identical frequencies
of said driving vibrator to periodically and sub
stantially simultaneously energize said electro 15 but with a phase difference of about 90 degrees,
and a two-phase three-terminal output circuit
magnets from a source of current thereby to
having two of its terminals respectively connected
maintain said reeds in vibration, said driving
to one end or the secondary winding of said trans
vibrator having a lower natural _frequency than
formers
and having its third terminal connected
that of said driven vibrator whereby said reeds
Will vibrate at identical frequencies but in out 20 to the other end of the secondary windings of
said transformers.
.
oi-phase relation.
9.
A
vibratory
system
which
comprises
in
com
5. A vibrator system which comprises in com
bination a drivingl vibrator and a plurality of
bination a driving and a driven vibrator each
driven vibrators each including a vibratory reed
including a vibratory reed and a driver electro
f
magnet, and contact means operable by the reed 25 and a driver electromagnet, driver contact means
operable by the reed of said driving- vibrator1 to
of said driving vibrator to periodically and simul
periodically and simultaneously energize said elec
taneously energize both electromagnets from a
tromagnets from a source of current thereby to
source of current substantially at the frequency
maintain said reed in vibration, interrupter con
of vibration of said reed and thereby maintain
means for each of said driven vibrators syn
ing both reeds in vibration, said driving vibrator 30 tact
chronously
operable loy the reeds thereof, and con
having a lower natural frequency than said driven
ductors
for
connecting said interrupter contact
vibrator whereby said reeds will vibrate at iden
tical frequencies but with a phase difference of
y about 90 degrees.
means in parallel thereby to control currents of
increased intensity in a single circuit.
Y
lll. lA. vibrator system which comprises in com
6. A vibrator system which comprises in com 35
bination a driving vibrator and a plurality of
bination a driving and a driven vibrator the natu
driven vibrators each including a vibratory reed
ral frequencies of which may vary over a range .
and
a driver electromagnet, contact means oper
of values, each including a vibratory reed and
able by the reed of said driving vibrato1` to pe
a driver electromagnet, and driver contact means
riodically and simultaneously energize the electro
under the control of the reed of said driving 40
magnets
of said driven vibrators from a source
vibrator to periodically and simultaneously ener
of
current
thereby to maintain said reeds in vi
gize both electromagnets from a source of current
bration, the natural frequency of said driving vi
substantially at the frequency of vibration of said
brator being lower than that of said driven vi
reed thereby maintaining both. reeds in continu
brators whereby the reeds of said driven vibrators
ous vibration, said driving vibrator having a
will vibrate synchronously with each other but in
lower maximum natural frequency than the min
out-of-phase relation with respect to the reed of
imum natural frequency of said driven vibrator
whereby said reeds will vibrate at identical fre
i said driving vibrator, interrupter contact means
for each of said drivenv vibrators, and connections
quencies and the vibrations of the reed of the
for electrically connecting said interrupter con
driven vibrator will lead those of the ‘reed of the 50 tact means in parallel thereby to permit control
driving vibrator by about 90 degrees.
7. A vibrator system which comprises in com
bination a driving and a driven vibrator each
including a vibratory reed and a driver electro
ling substantial amounts of current in a single
circuit.
. l1. A vibrator system which comprises in com
magnet, driver contact means operable by the 55 bination a driving vibrator and a, plurality of
driven vibrators each including a vibratory reed
reed of said driving vibrator to periodically and
and a driver electromagnet, contact means oper
simultaneously energize both electromagnets from
able by the reed of said driving vibratorto pe
a source of current substantially at the frequency
riodically and simultaneously energize the elec
of vibration of said reed and thereby maintaining
tromagnets of said driven vibrators from a source
both reeds in vibration, said driving vibrator 60 of current thereby to maintain their reeds in vi
having a lower natural frequency vthan said
bration, interrupter and rectifier contacts for each
driven vibrator whereby said reeds will vibrate at
of said driven vibrators synchronously operable
identical frequencies but with a phase difference
by the reeds thereof and respectively connected in
of about 90 degrees, a transformer for each of
parallel to constitute contact groups, and a trans
said vibrators, interrupter contact means for each- 65 former in common for said driven vibrators having
of said vibrators to control the current flowing
its primary circuit energized from said source un
through the primary winding of the correspond
der the control of said group of interrupter con
ing transformer, and connections between the
tacts and having its secondary circuit controlled
secondary windings of said transformers to With
by said group of rectifier contacts.
draw two-phase alternating current from the 70 12. A vibrator system which comprises in com
system.
bination a plurality of controlled vibrators of the
8. A vibratory system which comprises in com
‘ self-rectifying type; each including a vibratory
bination a, driving and a driven vibrator each in
reed, interrupter and rectifier contacts for said
cluding a vibratory reed and a driver electromag
reed, and a driver electromagnet; the interruptor
n'et, driver contact means operable by the reed 75 Aand rectifier contacts of said vibrators being re
eerdere
spectively connected in parallel to constitute con
tact groups; e step-up transformer in common for
seid groups having its primary winding electrical»
ly associated with 'e source of low-voltage direct
current and with said group oi’ interrupter con
tects und having its secondary winding electrically
associated with said group of rectifier contacts end
~ en output circuit; end mesns including e. control
ling Vibrator-y lnterrupter for periodically ener
gifting seid driver electromagnets end
«s
ing seid reeds in synchronous vibration thereby
producing meh-voltage direct current of substan
tial. intensity in said output circuit.
13. The system of claim l2 wherein the con
trolling vibretory interrupterhes e naturel fre
quency ‘_ower than that of the controlled self
rectifyixig vibrators.
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