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Патент USA US2411040

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NW- 12, 1946-
H. B. HOLTHOUSE, JR
2,411,040
LIQUID FUEL PREPARING APPARATUS
Filed April 7, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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NOV. 12, 1946-
H. B. HOLTHOUSE, JR
2,411,040
LIQUIDVFUEL PREPARING APPARATUS
Filed Apfil 'r, 1943
' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2
"10
W
030M
7
01%
Patented Nov. 12,‘ 1946
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘
2,411,040
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LIQUID FUEL PREPARING APPARATUS
Harry B. Holthouse, Jr., Chicago,'Ill., assignor to
Galvin Manufacturing Corporation, Chicago,
111., a corporation of Illinois
Application April 7, 1943, Serial No. 482,l00
5 Claims. ‘(01. 158-28)
lv
.
2
This invention relates generally to means for
is passed through the tube at all times of coil op
treating a liquid fuel for burning and in particeration to prevent the passage into~the tubeof
ular to such means for preparing a liquid fuel
any liquid or heated fuel for contact with the
for burning in a heater of combustion type.
coil.
Many types of liquid fuel burners use elec- 5
Further objects, features, and advantages of
tric heating systems having an electrical heater
this invention will become apparent from the
of resistance type for heating the fuel to be
following description when taken in connection
burned or for igniting the fuel for burning. These
with the accompanying drawings in which:
electric heaters are generally of coil type and in
Fig. 1 is a sectional view of a combustion type
their operation the fuel is usually passed into 10 heater embodying the fuel treating mean» of this
direct contact'with the coil. The fuel contacting
invention, with the combustion chamber of the
the coil cools the same and also covers it-with a
heater being shown in development for the pur
?lm of soot so as to appreciably reduce its el?-
pose of clarity;
.
ciency for heating purposes. Further the fuel
Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional detailed view 0
contacting the coil sets up a corroding action 15 the invention, which is indicated generally in
which gradually destroys the coil. As a result
Fig. 1 to show its relative assembly with the re
the heat generated by the coil is retained within
mainder of the heater;
>
the coil so that the coil operates at temperatures
Fig. 3 is a sectional view as seen along the line
in excess of those for which it is designed and
3—3 in Fig. 1; and
soon burns out. Another factor which appreci- 20 Fig. 4 is a view in perspective of an insulat
ably impairs the life and operation of these prior
art heating coils arises by .virtue of the location
ing supporting member for a heating coil in the
fuel treating means.
of the coil in a position where it is exposed to the
In practicing this invention there is provided ‘
?ames of combustion. When the coil is thus
an air heating system of internal combustion
exposed to the action of the ?ames it generally 25 type having an air and fuel mixing device in ?uid
becomes heated above its normal operating temconnection with‘ a combustion chamber. The
perature with such excess heat accelerating the
mixing device includes a combination electric
Corroding action of the fuel on the coil. All of
heater unit for conditioning the air and fuel to
these factors contribute materially to shortenbe burned and for igniting such air and fuel
ing the operating life of the coil and reducing 30 mixture for burning. The electric heater unit
the e?iciency of its operation over the span of
includes a heating element comprised of a single
its service life. .
resistance coil supported in a spaced relation
It is an object of this invention, therefore, to
within a heat conducting tube open at one end
provide animproved means for preparing a liquid
to the combustion chamber.
fuel for burning.
35
Air and fuel introduced into the mixing device
Yet another object of this invention is to proare heated while passing about the heat conduct
vide an electrical heater for preparing a liquid
ing tube to vaporize the fuel for mixing with the
fuel for burning in which the liquid fuel is preair. The vaporous air and fuel mixture is direct
vented from contacting the coil.
ed into the effective igniting zone of the coil at
Another object of this invention is to provide 40 the open end of the tube for ignition. In order
a liquid fuel conditioning means which is simple
to eliminate any portion of the vaporous mixture
and inexpensive in construction, en‘lcient in opfrom contacting the coil, with the deleterious re
eration to' prepare a combustible air and fuel
sults mentioned above, air is forced through the
mixture of uniform characteristics, and in which
tube in a direction towards the open end, heated
an Electric 0011 for Preparing the fuel for mixing 45 to a temperature above the ignition temperature of
with the air functions as a combination heating
the vaporous mixture, and then moves into the
and igniting unit without at any time coming into
combustion chamber where it ignites the vapor
contact with the air and fuel mixture or being
ous mixture. At no time, therefore, is the coil
exposed to the ?ames of combustion.
contacted by the fuel during either the heating
A feature of this invention is found in the 50 or igniting of the fuel so that all difficulties aris
provision of a liquid fuel treating means in which
ing from the fuel contacting the coil are entirely
an electric resistance for treating and igniting
eliminated. To further prolong the life of the
the fuel is supported in a spaced relation within
heating coil the vaporous mixture on being ig
a heat conducting tube having one end open to
nited is immediately projected away from the
the ?ow of the treated fuel. Air under pressure 55 coil for burning at some point away from the
2,411,040
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coil. The coil is thus entirely out of the flames
of combustion and not subjected to the intense
heat of the burning mixture.‘
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to the air passages 3| and in turn to the space
to be heated.
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The air and fuel mixing means 24 includes a
’
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings a-heatlng
., unit embodying ,the liquid- fuel- conditioning
tubular housing member 43 which is closed at one
end and opened at an opposite end 5| with the
passage Ila (Figs. 1v and 2). A mi'xingchamber
52 is locatedat the closed end of the housing 43
means of this invention is seen-to include aghous
ing l0 which is divided longitudinally over. sub
stantially its entire length by’
ertically extend- @
I and is separated from an‘ equalizing chamber 53
ing partition member || to'
a mechanical
by a perforated plate 34. The equalizing chamber
compartment l2 and a heating oompartmentfor "10 63 in turn is both de?ned and separated from the
a combustion chamber l3.
-
The combustion
_ combustion‘ chamber passage Ila by a perforated
chamber, shown‘in development in Fig. 1- for the
purpose of clarity, is closed at one end by a cover - .
heat insulating plate ll. Extended substantially
axially through the housing 43 and supported in
plate I4 and at its-opposite end'by theibettom
the‘ perforated plates 34 and 53 and'proiected
l3 of a substantially cup shaped member -| ‘I which
de?nes inpart an air supply, chamber I! in axial
‘is a combination electric heating andigniting
alignment with the combustion chamber 13.‘ r The
'unit' 51.
outwardly from the closed end of the casing.“
combustion chamber I3 is divided longitudinally
The combination unit 51 includes a tubular
into ‘four axially extending but connected pas
> copper sleeve 33 having an enlarged portion sup
”sagesJSa-Hd by a partition‘ member 2| of sub 20 ported in the plates 54 and 53 for receiving in
stantially X-shape (Figs. 1 and 3). An inlet 22
a spaced relation a resistance coil 59. The end
64 of the enlarged tube portion projects outwardly
and an outlet 23 for the‘ combustion chamber are
formed in the bottom l6 of the cup shape member _ from the equalizing chamber 53 through the plate ‘_
II in communication with the passages Ila and
53 and is open to the outlet end SI of the mixing
|3d, respectively. The liquid fuel treating means 25 means, 24. A reduced section of the sleeve 53
24 of this invention, is located-in the inlet 22 and
.extends outwardly from the closed end of the
extended within the air supply chamber IS.‘ A tail ' _ casing 43 and into the air supply chamber I3.
pipe assembly 26 for carrying exhaust gases from
The end 63 of the reduced tube‘portion is closed
the combustion chamberv I3 is extended from the
by an insulated member 65 which carries a coil
outlet 23 through the air supply chamber I8 and 30 lead 13 electrically connected with one end of
outwardly from the heater at-the housing‘ endv 21. .the coil 53.‘ The opposite end of the coil is
The outer wall or body portion of the‘combus-_
grounded to- the tube 53 as indicated at 15; The
tion‘ chamber l3 carriesangularly spaced axially
extending ?ns 28. The ?ns 23 have asleeve 29
coil 59 is wound on a mica tube 3| which has both
heat and electrical insulating characteristics. In
positioned about their outer ends to form annular 35 one commercial embodiment of the invention the
passages 3| about the combustion chamber l3 for
resistance coil 53 is composed of a #20 wire capa
air to be heated. The air to be heated is admitted ' ble ofbeing heated to about 1600 degrees Fahren
into the passages 3| through an annular chamber v
heit with 12 volts at 6 amperes which temperature ,
32 connecting these passages with the mechanical
is capable of preparing and igniting one kind of '
compartment l2 and is circulated about'the com 40 fuel to be burned. The coil' 59 is thus rather
bustion chamber through the passages 3| by a
fan 33 located within. the compartment l2 and
delicate and of a small size and sensitive to both
' that the airsupply chamber I3 is de?ned by the
_ remainder of the coil will either destroy the coil
operating currents and temperatures. In other
mounted on a shaft 34 of an electrical motor 36. words any intense heating of the coil by the ?a‘mes
The compartment l2, chamber 32 and passages
of- combustion, by accumulated generated heat
3| are separated from the air Supply chamber l8 45 within the coil due to the cor'roding of a portion
by a partition member 31 extended transversely
thereof, or by a shorting out of part of the coil
of the housing Ill. Thus from Fig.- 1 it is seen
so that an overload current is applied on the
cup member “II, the partition member 31 and the
or materially reduce its heating' e?lciency and
end 21 of the housing l3. Air circulated by the 50
fan 33 is thus con?ned for travel within the com-, '
In the operation of the air and fuel mixing
.partment l2 and passages“ and is discharged‘ 1.; ,means 24 the fuel delivered to the injection nozzle
from the passages 3| through an outlet 38 which "
41 by the pump 42 is introduced into the mixing
service life.-
is connected to a space to be heated.
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' ' ' ‘ chamber I2,~the fuel nozzle being located within
The airsupply chamber l8 receives air from a 55
fan 33 mounted on the motor shaft 34 which is
ioumaled in the partition plate .31, with an inlet
4| ‘for the fan 33 being formed in the housing end
21. It is seen, therefore, that the fans 33 and 39
‘are operated by the motor ‘33 and mounted di-. 60
rectly on the motor shaft 34., The. motor 3 is
also used in the operation of’ a fuel pump 42
which is illustrated as being of a solenoid type.
A breaker assembly 43 for controlling the ener
gization of the pump 42 is operatively associated 65
with“ the motor shaft 34. Fuel for the pump 42
is supplied from a suitable source (not shown)
through a pipe 44 and is delivered through a pipe
43 to a fuel injection nozzle" formed as a part 70
of the air and fuel mixing or treating means 24.
I 3 The pump '42,,motor‘ 33 and fan 33 are thus all '-‘
' located within the mechanical compartment H
which has an inlet opening 43 for supplying either
the air supply chamber l3 and mounted directly
on the casing 43 at the mixing chamber 52 (Fig.
2). A portion of the air for mixing with the
fuel enters the nozzle 41 through ports 62 and.
travels with the fuel into the mixing chamber
52. ‘Additional air to be mixed with the fuel in
the mixing chamber 52 is admitted directly into
the mixing chamber through apertures 33 formed
in the casing 43 about the fuel injection nozzle 41. r
The fuel within the mixing chamber 32 is heated
by
with
thethe
heating
air in the
unitmixing
51 'andchamber.
vaporized The
for casing
43 and the partition plate 54 are composed of a
heat conducting material and are in thermal con
nection with the combination'heating and ignit
ing unit 51 so as to readily receive heat radiated
to the tube 53 from the coil I3. The vaporcus
air and fuel mixture passes from the mixing
_ chamber 52 into the equalizing chamber 53'
through the perforated plate 54. The equalizing
fresh or recirculated air to the fan 33 for delivery 75 chamber 33 in cooperation with the heat insulat
2,411,040
5
ing plate 58 actsto reduce the turbulence in'the
mixture and to distribute the mixture substan- '
tially uniformly over the entire cross section of
the casingv 49 so that a mixture of substantially
uniform fuel characteristics passes through the
perforated heat insulating plate 56 into the effec
tive igniting zone of the combination unit 51.
The air and fuel introduced into the mixing
chamber 52 passes about the combination unit 51
in a direction generally toward the outlet 5| of
the fuel preparing means 24. After traveling
through the apertured plate 56 the mixture is
free to ?ow across the open end 64 of the tube
58 and into the effective igniting zone of the
combination unit 51 adjacent the tube end 54
where it is ignited by the heated air projected
from the combination unit 51, which functions in
the manner explained below to discharge heated
air into the fuel and air mixture. In other words,
the air traversing the tube 58 is heated by the
coil 59 to a temperature exceeding the ignition
temperature of the fuel mixture and when pro
jected outwardly from the end 64 of the tube 58
effects ignition of the fuel mixture.
As was previously mentioned it is desirable
that any liquid or vaporous mixture be prevented
from contacting the coil 58 because of the re
cool the coil 59 but is sufficient to maintain an
air pressure within the coil which is at least
' equal to ‘the pressure acting on the air and fuel
mixture at the open tube end 84. This air mixes
with the vaporous air and fuel mixture adjacent
the tube end 64 and is burned with the mixture
in the combustion chamber l3. The ?ow of air
through the tube 58 and the‘?ow of the mixture
through the mixing means 24 in a direction to
10 ward the outlet 5| carries the ignited mixture into
the combustion chamber l3 and out of the mix
ing means 24 so that the coil is not exposed to
the ?ames of combustion.
From a consideration of the above description
15 it is seen that the invention provides an appara
tus for preparing and igniting a liquid fuel for
burning in which an electrical heating element,
used for heating the liquid fuel to at least a
vaporizing temperature for mixing with air and
20 for igniting the vaporous mixture for combustion,
is always out of contact with any portion of the
liquid fuel and air and fuel mixture. The heat
ing element is located in a tube having an air
?ow therethrough and operates at all times in an
25 air space so as to be entirely free of any cor
roding action by the fuel. The heating element
is thus able to operate over a prolonged service
sultant injury to the coil. It is apparent, of
life with maximum e?iciency.
course, that by virtue of the coil 58 being fully
Although the invention has been described and
enclosed within the tube 58 in the mixing and 30 illustrated with respect to a preferred embodi
equalizing chambers 52 and 53, respectively, that
ment it is to be understood that it is not to be
the mixture in these chambers only contacts the
tube 58. Although the mixture about the open
so limited since modi?cations and changes can
be made which are within the fully intended
. end 64 of the tube 58 flows generally in a direction
scope of the invention as de?ned by the appended
away from the tube 58 and toward the open end 35 claims.
5| of the mixing means 24- any tendency of the
I claim:
vaporous mixture to pass through the open tube
1. In internal combustion heating apparatus
end 84 and into contact with the coil 59 is elimi
which is provided with means defining a com
nated in the following manner.
‘bustion chamber, a fuel and air mixing unit
The tube 58 at the junction of its enlarged and
opening into said combustion chamber and means
reduced sections carries an insulating supporting
operative to pass fuel and air through said unit
member 16 (Figs. 2 and 4) of substantially T
to said chamber, electrical heating means open
shape in cross section, with the stem portion 11
to said combustion chamber but removed from
of the T being fitted within the reduced tube
the combustion zone therewithin and positioned
section and the cross arm portion 18 located with 45 to preheat the fuel and air during its passage
in the enlarged tube section and against the
through said unit into said combustion cham
shoulder formed at the ‘junction of these two . her, and means for circulating air about said
heating means out of contact with said air and
sections. The member 15 has an axial bore 18
for receiving the coil lead‘ 10 and cooperates with
fuel mixture and for discharging the air into
the insulating member 85 to support the lead 50 the mixture adjacent the point of delivery of the
mixture to said combustion chamber whereby
18 in a spaced relation within the tube 58. A
the circulated air is heated to a temperature
slot 8i extending axially the full length of the
above the ignition temperature of the mixture
member 16 forms an air passage with the wall of
and effects ignition of the mixture upon contact
the tube 58, which passage ?uid connects the
two sections of the tube 58. That portion of the 55 ing said mixture at a point removed from said
heating means.
reduced section of the tube 58, which is positioned
2. In internal combustion heating apparatus
within the air supply chamber l8, has an aper
which includes means de?ning a combustion
ture 88 which permits air from the chamber I8
chamber and means de?ning an air pressure
to pass through the tube 58 and outwardly from
' the tube at its open end 64. Since the pressure 60 chamber adjacent one wall of said combustion
chamber; a fuel and air mixing unit disposed in
of the air in the supply chamber I8 is the only
said pressure chamber and provided with an outer
pressure which acts on the air and fuel within
tubular member communicating with said pres
the mixing means 24 and to the outside of the
sure chamber and having an outlet end opening
tube 58, it is seen that a like air pressure is pro
vided within the tube 58 which counteracts the 65 into said combustion chamber, an inner tubular
member disposed within said outer tubular mem
external air pressure at the open tube end 54.
beer to provide a space therebetween, means for
As a result any tendency of the vaporous air
moving fuel and air through said space into said
and fuel mixture to enter the tube 58 at its open
combustion chamber, said inner tubular member
end 64 is opposed by a like pressure within the
tube 58 which prevents the mixture from passing 70 having an end communicating with said com
bustion chamber adjacent the outlet end. of said
into the tube and into contact with the coil 58.
outer tubular member and an opposite end com
It is seen, therefore, that the coil operates at
municating with said pressure chamber, whereby
all times within an airspace free of any liquid
air may ?ow from said pressure chamber
or vaporized fuel. The quantity of air passing
through the tube 58 is such as not to appreciably 76 through said inner tubular member to mix with
9,411,040
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7
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the fuel and air mixture at the outlet end of said
outer tubular member. and means including an
electrical heating element disposed within said
inner tubular member to preheat the fuel andv '
low means, the heat developed by ‘said heating
element being radiated to said hollowlmeans to
heat and vaporize the fuel for mixing with the air
during passage of the air and fuel through said
air mixture during its passage through said space
chamber, means for transmitting air through
and to heat the air traversing said inner tubular
said hollow means in contact with said heatlnz
member to a temperature exceeding the ignition
element and for discharging the transmitted air
temperature of the fuel and air mixture travers
into the vaporous mixture adjacent said outlet,
ing the outlet end of said outer tubular member.
and means including said heating element for
3. Apparatus for preparing and igniting a com 10 heating the air transmitted through said hollow
bustible fuel for burning, including air and fuel
means to a temperature above the ignition tem
mixing means having an outlet, a combination
perature of the vaporous mixture, whereby igni
heating and ignition unit in said mixing means
tion of the vaporous mixture is produced by the
including a hollow member havng an open end
heated air upon intermixture thereof.
adjacent said outlet, an electrical heating ele 15
5. Apparatus for preparing and igniting a liq
ment within said hollow member having one end
uid fuel for burning, comprising air and fuel
adjacent the open end of said hollow member, a
mixing means having an outlet, a combination
portion of the heat from said heating element
heating and ignition unit in said mixing means
being radiated to said hollow member to preheat
including‘a tubular member extending through
the fuel and air in said mixing means, means 20 said mixing means and provided with one open
directing the ?ow of fuel and air mixture about
end adjacent said outlet and an opposite end open
the open end of said hollow member and in a
to the outside of said mixing means, means for
direction generally toward said outlet, means for
moving air and fuel through said mixing means
transmitting air through said hollow member
and about said tubular member in a direction
about said heating element and for discharging 26 from said opposite end of said tubular member
the air into the fuel and air mixture at the open
toward said outlet, a portion of the heat devel
end of said hollow member, and means including
oped by said heating element heating said air .
said heating element for heating the air to a tem
and fuel during passage of said fuel and air
perature above the ignition temperature of the
through saidmixing means and about said tubu
mixture as it passes through said hollow member,
lar member, means for transmitting air into said
whereby ignition of the‘ mixture at a point re 80
moved from said heating element is effected by
the heated air.
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4. Apparatus for preparing liquid fuel for burn
ing, including air and fuel mixing means pro-.
vided with an air and fuel mixing chamber hav
ing an outlet, a heating unit in said mixing means
including hollow heat conducting means open to
said outlet, means for moving air and fuel
through said chamber for discharge through said
outlet, an electrical heating element in said hol
tubular member at said opposite end for passage
into the vaporous mixture adjacent said outlet,
and meansvincludlng said heating element for
heating the transmitted air to a temperature -
above the ignition temperature of the mixture
during its passage throughv said tubular member, ’
thereby to e?'ect ignition of the mixture by con
tact of the heated air with the mixture at a
point removed from said heating element. 7‘
- HARRY B. HOL'I'HOUSE, Ja.
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