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NW- 12, 1946- H. B. HOLTHOUSE, JR 2,411,040 LIQUID FUEL PREPARING APPARATUS Filed April 7, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 M -| E2 .WW. 113/ ; d, a 03 NOV. 12, 1946- H. B. HOLTHOUSE, JR 2,411,040 LIQUIDVFUEL PREPARING APPARATUS Filed Apfil 'r, 1943 ' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 "10 W 030M 7 01% Patented Nov. 12,‘ 1946 _' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘ 2,411,040 I > " LIQUID FUEL PREPARING APPARATUS Harry B. Holthouse, Jr., Chicago,'Ill., assignor to Galvin Manufacturing Corporation, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application April 7, 1943, Serial No. 482,l00 5 Claims. ‘(01. 158-28) lv . 2 This invention relates generally to means for is passed through the tube at all times of coil op treating a liquid fuel for burning and in particeration to prevent the passage into~the tubeof ular to such means for preparing a liquid fuel any liquid or heated fuel for contact with the for burning in a heater of combustion type. coil. Many types of liquid fuel burners use elec- 5 Further objects, features, and advantages of tric heating systems having an electrical heater this invention will become apparent from the of resistance type for heating the fuel to be following description when taken in connection burned or for igniting the fuel for burning. These with the accompanying drawings in which: electric heaters are generally of coil type and in Fig. 1 is a sectional view of a combustion type their operation the fuel is usually passed into 10 heater embodying the fuel treating mean» of this direct contact'with the coil. The fuel contacting invention, with the combustion chamber of the the coil cools the same and also covers it-with a heater being shown in development for the pur ?lm of soot so as to appreciably reduce its el?- pose of clarity; . ciency for heating purposes. Further the fuel Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional detailed view 0 contacting the coil sets up a corroding action 15 the invention, which is indicated generally in which gradually destroys the coil. As a result Fig. 1 to show its relative assembly with the re the heat generated by the coil is retained within mainder of the heater; > the coil so that the coil operates at temperatures Fig. 3 is a sectional view as seen along the line in excess of those for which it is designed and 3—3 in Fig. 1; and soon burns out. Another factor which appreci- 20 Fig. 4 is a view in perspective of an insulat ably impairs the life and operation of these prior art heating coils arises by .virtue of the location ing supporting member for a heating coil in the fuel treating means. of the coil in a position where it is exposed to the In practicing this invention there is provided ‘ ?ames of combustion. When the coil is thus an air heating system of internal combustion exposed to the action of the ?ames it generally 25 type having an air and fuel mixing device in ?uid becomes heated above its normal operating temconnection with‘ a combustion chamber. The perature with such excess heat accelerating the mixing device includes a combination electric Corroding action of the fuel on the coil. All of heater unit for conditioning the air and fuel to these factors contribute materially to shortenbe burned and for igniting such air and fuel ing the operating life of the coil and reducing 30 mixture for burning. The electric heater unit the e?iciency of its operation over the span of includes a heating element comprised of a single its service life. . resistance coil supported in a spaced relation It is an object of this invention, therefore, to within a heat conducting tube open at one end provide animproved means for preparing a liquid to the combustion chamber. fuel for burning. 35 Air and fuel introduced into the mixing device Yet another object of this invention is to proare heated while passing about the heat conduct vide an electrical heater for preparing a liquid ing tube to vaporize the fuel for mixing with the fuel for burning in which the liquid fuel is preair. The vaporous air and fuel mixture is direct vented from contacting the coil. ed into the effective igniting zone of the coil at Another object of this invention is to provide 40 the open end of the tube for ignition. In order a liquid fuel conditioning means which is simple to eliminate any portion of the vaporous mixture and inexpensive in construction, en‘lcient in opfrom contacting the coil, with the deleterious re eration to' prepare a combustible air and fuel sults mentioned above, air is forced through the mixture of uniform characteristics, and in which tube in a direction towards the open end, heated an Electric 0011 for Preparing the fuel for mixing 45 to a temperature above the ignition temperature of with the air functions as a combination heating the vaporous mixture, and then moves into the and igniting unit without at any time coming into combustion chamber where it ignites the vapor contact with the air and fuel mixture or being ous mixture. At no time, therefore, is the coil exposed to the ?ames of combustion. contacted by the fuel during either the heating A feature of this invention is found in the 50 or igniting of the fuel so that all difficulties aris provision of a liquid fuel treating means in which ing from the fuel contacting the coil are entirely an electric resistance for treating and igniting eliminated. To further prolong the life of the the fuel is supported in a spaced relation within heating coil the vaporous mixture on being ig a heat conducting tube having one end open to nited is immediately projected away from the the ?ow of the treated fuel. Air under pressure 55 coil for burning at some point away from the 2,411,040 3 4 coil. The coil is thus entirely out of the flames of combustion and not subjected to the intense heat of the burning mixture.‘ \ _' to the air passages 3| and in turn to the space to be heated. _ > _ - The air and fuel mixing means 24 includes a ’ Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings a-heatlng ., unit embodying ,the liquid- fuel- conditioning tubular housing member 43 which is closed at one end and opened at an opposite end 5| with the passage Ila (Figs. 1v and 2). A mi'xingchamber 52 is locatedat the closed end of the housing 43 means of this invention is seen-to include aghous ing l0 which is divided longitudinally over. sub stantially its entire length by’ ertically extend- @ I and is separated from an‘ equalizing chamber 53 ing partition member || to' a mechanical by a perforated plate 34. The equalizing chamber compartment l2 and a heating oompartmentfor "10 63 in turn is both de?ned and separated from the a combustion chamber l3. - The combustion _ combustion‘ chamber passage Ila by a perforated chamber, shown‘in development in Fig. 1- for the purpose of clarity, is closed at one end by a cover - . heat insulating plate ll. Extended substantially axially through the housing 43 and supported in plate I4 and at its-opposite end'by theibettom the‘ perforated plates 34 and 53 and'proiected l3 of a substantially cup shaped member -| ‘I which de?nes inpart an air supply, chamber I! in axial ‘is a combination electric heating andigniting alignment with the combustion chamber 13.‘ r The 'unit' 51. outwardly from the closed end of the casing.“ combustion chamber I3 is divided longitudinally The combination unit 51 includes a tubular into ‘four axially extending but connected pas > copper sleeve 33 having an enlarged portion sup ”sagesJSa-Hd by a partition‘ member 2| of sub 20 ported in the plates 54 and 53 for receiving in stantially X-shape (Figs. 1 and 3). An inlet 22 a spaced relation a resistance coil 59. The end 64 of the enlarged tube portion projects outwardly and an outlet 23 for the‘ combustion chamber are formed in the bottom l6 of the cup shape member _ from the equalizing chamber 53 through the plate ‘_ II in communication with the passages Ila and 53 and is open to the outlet end SI of the mixing |3d, respectively. The liquid fuel treating means 25 means, 24. A reduced section of the sleeve 53 24 of this invention, is located-in the inlet 22 and .extends outwardly from the closed end of the extended within the air supply chamber IS.‘ A tail ' _ casing 43 and into the air supply chamber I3. pipe assembly 26 for carrying exhaust gases from The end 63 of the reduced tube‘portion is closed the combustion chamberv I3 is extended from the by an insulated member 65 which carries a coil outlet 23 through the air supply chamber I8 and 30 lead 13 electrically connected with one end of outwardly from the heater at-the housing‘ endv 21. .the coil 53.‘ The opposite end of the coil is The outer wall or body portion of the‘combus-_ grounded to- the tube 53 as indicated at 15; The tion‘ chamber l3 carriesangularly spaced axially extending ?ns 28. The ?ns 23 have asleeve 29 coil 59 is wound on a mica tube 3| which has both heat and electrical insulating characteristics. In positioned about their outer ends to form annular 35 one commercial embodiment of the invention the passages 3| about the combustion chamber l3 for resistance coil 53 is composed of a #20 wire capa air to be heated. The air to be heated is admitted ' ble ofbeing heated to about 1600 degrees Fahren into the passages 3| through an annular chamber v heit with 12 volts at 6 amperes which temperature , 32 connecting these passages with the mechanical is capable of preparing and igniting one kind of ' compartment l2 and is circulated about'the com 40 fuel to be burned. The coil' 59 is thus rather bustion chamber through the passages 3| by a fan 33 located within. the compartment l2 and delicate and of a small size and sensitive to both ' that the airsupply chamber I3 is de?ned by the _ remainder of the coil will either destroy the coil operating currents and temperatures. In other mounted on a shaft 34 of an electrical motor 36. words any intense heating of the coil by the ?a‘mes The compartment l2, chamber 32 and passages of- combustion, by accumulated generated heat 3| are separated from the air Supply chamber l8 45 within the coil due to the cor'roding of a portion by a partition member 31 extended transversely thereof, or by a shorting out of part of the coil of the housing Ill. Thus from Fig.- 1 it is seen so that an overload current is applied on the cup member “II, the partition member 31 and the or materially reduce its heating' e?lciency and end 21 of the housing l3. Air circulated by the 50 fan 33 is thus con?ned for travel within the com-, ' In the operation of the air and fuel mixing .partment l2 and passages“ and is discharged‘ 1.; ,means 24 the fuel delivered to the injection nozzle from the passages 3| through an outlet 38 which " 41 by the pump 42 is introduced into the mixing service life.- is connected to a space to be heated. - a _ - ' ' ' ' ‘ chamber I2,~the fuel nozzle being located within The airsupply chamber l8 receives air from a 55 fan 33 mounted on the motor shaft 34 which is ioumaled in the partition plate .31, with an inlet 4| ‘for the fan 33 being formed in the housing end 21. It is seen, therefore, that the fans 33 and 39 ‘are operated by the motor ‘33 and mounted di-. 60 rectly on the motor shaft 34., The. motor 3 is also used in the operation of’ a fuel pump 42 which is illustrated as being of a solenoid type. A breaker assembly 43 for controlling the ener gization of the pump 42 is operatively associated 65 with“ the motor shaft 34. Fuel for the pump 42 is supplied from a suitable source (not shown) through a pipe 44 and is delivered through a pipe 43 to a fuel injection nozzle" formed as a part 70 of the air and fuel mixing or treating means 24. I 3 The pump '42,,motor‘ 33 and fan 33 are thus all '-‘ ' located within the mechanical compartment H which has an inlet opening 43 for supplying either the air supply chamber l3 and mounted directly on the casing 43 at the mixing chamber 52 (Fig. 2). A portion of the air for mixing with the fuel enters the nozzle 41 through ports 62 and. travels with the fuel into the mixing chamber 52. ‘Additional air to be mixed with the fuel in the mixing chamber 52 is admitted directly into the mixing chamber through apertures 33 formed in the casing 43 about the fuel injection nozzle 41. r The fuel within the mixing chamber 32 is heated by with thethe heating air in the unitmixing 51 'andchamber. vaporized The for casing 43 and the partition plate 54 are composed of a heat conducting material and are in thermal con nection with the combination'heating and ignit ing unit 51 so as to readily receive heat radiated to the tube 53 from the coil I3. The vaporcus air and fuel mixture passes from the mixing _ chamber 52 into the equalizing chamber 53' through the perforated plate 54. The equalizing fresh or recirculated air to the fan 33 for delivery 75 chamber 33 in cooperation with the heat insulat 2,411,040 5 ing plate 58 actsto reduce the turbulence in'the mixture and to distribute the mixture substan- ' tially uniformly over the entire cross section of the casingv 49 so that a mixture of substantially uniform fuel characteristics passes through the perforated heat insulating plate 56 into the effec tive igniting zone of the combination unit 51. The air and fuel introduced into the mixing chamber 52 passes about the combination unit 51 in a direction generally toward the outlet 5| of the fuel preparing means 24. After traveling through the apertured plate 56 the mixture is free to ?ow across the open end 64 of the tube 58 and into the effective igniting zone of the combination unit 51 adjacent the tube end 54 where it is ignited by the heated air projected from the combination unit 51, which functions in the manner explained below to discharge heated air into the fuel and air mixture. In other words, the air traversing the tube 58 is heated by the coil 59 to a temperature exceeding the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture and when pro jected outwardly from the end 64 of the tube 58 effects ignition of the fuel mixture. As was previously mentioned it is desirable that any liquid or vaporous mixture be prevented from contacting the coil 58 because of the re cool the coil 59 but is sufficient to maintain an air pressure within the coil which is at least ' equal to ‘the pressure acting on the air and fuel mixture at the open tube end 84. This air mixes with the vaporous air and fuel mixture adjacent the tube end 64 and is burned with the mixture in the combustion chamber l3. The ?ow of air through the tube 58 and the‘?ow of the mixture through the mixing means 24 in a direction to 10 ward the outlet 5| carries the ignited mixture into the combustion chamber l3 and out of the mix ing means 24 so that the coil is not exposed to the ?ames of combustion. From a consideration of the above description 15 it is seen that the invention provides an appara tus for preparing and igniting a liquid fuel for burning in which an electrical heating element, used for heating the liquid fuel to at least a vaporizing temperature for mixing with air and 20 for igniting the vaporous mixture for combustion, is always out of contact with any portion of the liquid fuel and air and fuel mixture. The heat ing element is located in a tube having an air ?ow therethrough and operates at all times in an 25 air space so as to be entirely free of any cor roding action by the fuel. The heating element is thus able to operate over a prolonged service sultant injury to the coil. It is apparent, of life with maximum e?iciency. course, that by virtue of the coil 58 being fully Although the invention has been described and enclosed within the tube 58 in the mixing and 30 illustrated with respect to a preferred embodi equalizing chambers 52 and 53, respectively, that ment it is to be understood that it is not to be the mixture in these chambers only contacts the tube 58. Although the mixture about the open so limited since modi?cations and changes can be made which are within the fully intended . end 64 of the tube 58 flows generally in a direction scope of the invention as de?ned by the appended away from the tube 58 and toward the open end 35 claims. 5| of the mixing means 24- any tendency of the I claim: vaporous mixture to pass through the open tube 1. In internal combustion heating apparatus end 84 and into contact with the coil 59 is elimi which is provided with means defining a com nated in the following manner. ‘bustion chamber, a fuel and air mixing unit The tube 58 at the junction of its enlarged and opening into said combustion chamber and means reduced sections carries an insulating supporting operative to pass fuel and air through said unit member 16 (Figs. 2 and 4) of substantially T to said chamber, electrical heating means open shape in cross section, with the stem portion 11 to said combustion chamber but removed from of the T being fitted within the reduced tube the combustion zone therewithin and positioned section and the cross arm portion 18 located with 45 to preheat the fuel and air during its passage in the enlarged tube section and against the through said unit into said combustion cham shoulder formed at the ‘junction of these two . her, and means for circulating air about said heating means out of contact with said air and sections. The member 15 has an axial bore 18 for receiving the coil lead‘ 10 and cooperates with fuel mixture and for discharging the air into the insulating member 85 to support the lead 50 the mixture adjacent the point of delivery of the mixture to said combustion chamber whereby 18 in a spaced relation within the tube 58. A the circulated air is heated to a temperature slot 8i extending axially the full length of the above the ignition temperature of the mixture member 16 forms an air passage with the wall of and effects ignition of the mixture upon contact the tube 58, which passage ?uid connects the two sections of the tube 58. That portion of the 55 ing said mixture at a point removed from said heating means. reduced section of the tube 58, which is positioned 2. In internal combustion heating apparatus within the air supply chamber l8, has an aper which includes means de?ning a combustion ture 88 which permits air from the chamber I8 chamber and means de?ning an air pressure to pass through the tube 58 and outwardly from ' the tube at its open end 64. Since the pressure 60 chamber adjacent one wall of said combustion chamber; a fuel and air mixing unit disposed in of the air in the supply chamber I8 is the only said pressure chamber and provided with an outer pressure which acts on the air and fuel within tubular member communicating with said pres the mixing means 24 and to the outside of the sure chamber and having an outlet end opening tube 58, it is seen that a like air pressure is pro vided within the tube 58 which counteracts the 65 into said combustion chamber, an inner tubular member disposed within said outer tubular mem external air pressure at the open tube end 54. beer to provide a space therebetween, means for As a result any tendency of the vaporous air moving fuel and air through said space into said and fuel mixture to enter the tube 58 at its open combustion chamber, said inner tubular member end 64 is opposed by a like pressure within the tube 58 which prevents the mixture from passing 70 having an end communicating with said com bustion chamber adjacent the outlet end. of said into the tube and into contact with the coil 58. outer tubular member and an opposite end com It is seen, therefore, that the coil operates at municating with said pressure chamber, whereby all times within an airspace free of any liquid air may ?ow from said pressure chamber or vaporized fuel. The quantity of air passing through the tube 58 is such as not to appreciably 76 through said inner tubular member to mix with 9,411,040 . , 7 a the fuel and air mixture at the outlet end of said outer tubular member. and means including an electrical heating element disposed within said inner tubular member to preheat the fuel andv ' low means, the heat developed by ‘said heating element being radiated to said hollowlmeans to heat and vaporize the fuel for mixing with the air during passage of the air and fuel through said air mixture during its passage through said space chamber, means for transmitting air through and to heat the air traversing said inner tubular said hollow means in contact with said heatlnz member to a temperature exceeding the ignition element and for discharging the transmitted air temperature of the fuel and air mixture travers into the vaporous mixture adjacent said outlet, ing the outlet end of said outer tubular member. and means including said heating element for 3. Apparatus for preparing and igniting a com 10 heating the air transmitted through said hollow bustible fuel for burning, including air and fuel means to a temperature above the ignition tem mixing means having an outlet, a combination perature of the vaporous mixture, whereby igni heating and ignition unit in said mixing means tion of the vaporous mixture is produced by the including a hollow member havng an open end heated air upon intermixture thereof. adjacent said outlet, an electrical heating ele 15 5. Apparatus for preparing and igniting a liq ment within said hollow member having one end uid fuel for burning, comprising air and fuel adjacent the open end of said hollow member, a mixing means having an outlet, a combination portion of the heat from said heating element heating and ignition unit in said mixing means being radiated to said hollow member to preheat including‘a tubular member extending through the fuel and air in said mixing means, means 20 said mixing means and provided with one open directing the ?ow of fuel and air mixture about end adjacent said outlet and an opposite end open the open end of said hollow member and in a to the outside of said mixing means, means for direction generally toward said outlet, means for moving air and fuel through said mixing means transmitting air through said hollow member and about said tubular member in a direction about said heating element and for discharging 26 from said opposite end of said tubular member the air into the fuel and air mixture at the open toward said outlet, a portion of the heat devel end of said hollow member, and means including oped by said heating element heating said air . said heating element for heating the air to a tem and fuel during passage of said fuel and air perature above the ignition temperature of the through saidmixing means and about said tubu mixture as it passes through said hollow member, lar member, means for transmitting air into said whereby ignition of the‘ mixture at a point re 80 moved from said heating element is effected by the heated air. - ' 4. Apparatus for preparing liquid fuel for burn ing, including air and fuel mixing means pro-. vided with an air and fuel mixing chamber hav ing an outlet, a heating unit in said mixing means including hollow heat conducting means open to said outlet, means for moving air and fuel through said chamber for discharge through said outlet, an electrical heating element in said hol tubular member at said opposite end for passage into the vaporous mixture adjacent said outlet, and meansvincludlng said heating element for heating the transmitted air to a temperature - above the ignition temperature of the mixture during its passage throughv said tubular member, ’ thereby to e?'ect ignition of the mixture by con tact of the heated air with the mixture at a point removed from said heating element. 7‘ - HARRY B. HOL'I'HOUSE, Ja.