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Nmh 129 1946' A. G. SILVESTER 2,411,065 SPEED GOVERNING MECHANISM Filed Aug. '7, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l Inventor‘: ‘ Austin G. Silvester 9 b3 7% a M - His AttoT-‘n'eg. Nqv. 12, 1946.. ' A. G. SILVESTER 2,411,065 SPEED GOVERNING MECHANISM Filed Aug.‘ 7, 1944 3 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 45 45 44 my 63 m$3” nah "1'. Patented Nov. 12, 1946 2,411,065 UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE 2,411,065 SPEED GOVERNING MECHANISM Austin G. Silvester, Muroc, Calif., assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application August 7, 1944, Serial No. 548,441 5 Claims. (Cl. 137-140) 1 2 The present invention relates to speed govem the combustion gases over that required to drive the compressor rotor may be used in any suitable manner. For example, it may be used .to drive a‘ load such as an electric generator. All the energy of the gases-may be extracted from them in tur ing mechanisms wherein a ?yball governor regu lates the position of a control valve which in turn controls the speed of a prime mover. The inven tion is well adapted for use in gas turbine power plants and it is this application 0! my invention which I have elected to illustrate and describe. _ It is to be understood, however‘, that this is only by way of example and that the invention may be . bine- wheel "I, the useful load being then driven . from the turbine shaft, or the exhaust gases may be used in a separate turbine or other device for generating power. The arrangement illustrated utilized wherever found applicable. is diagrammatic and is intended to be representa- - One object of the invention is to provide a goV-_ erning mechanism which is very compact in structure and which may be attached to and de- tive of any gas turbine power plant and in con-. nection with which a governing mechanism may berequired. ‘ 1 ' In the present instance, a governing mecha . tached from a prime mover as a unit. Another object of the invention is to provide a 15 nismiindicated generally by the reference char governing mechanism which is simple in struc acter H, is utilized to control a by-pass ‘valve which by-passes fuel from» the discharge side of ture, capable of being manufactured at lowcost, » and in which the parts'are readily accessible for the pump back to the inlet side. It comprises a inspection, readjustment or replacement. speed governor which regulates a suitable valve, Another object of the invention is to provide a 20 the valve regulating ?ow from pipe line II to governing mechanism which is made in parts, _ pipe line 13-. -In actual practice, the governing each part of which may be individually assembled mechanism is bolted ‘directly to a part of the and tested before the mechanism as a whole is ' , ‘power plant casing- and is driven by the power assembled. , V . I Further objects of the invention and its ad vantages will appear from .the following speci? cation. ' . In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a power plant with the improved speed govem plant at a speed proportional to that of the power plant. In the present instance, the gov erning mechanism is in the nature of an over speed or emergency governing means, it ‘coming into action only to prevent the speed of the prime mover from exceeding a predetermined high - ing mechanism shown associated therewith; Fig. 30 value. The load on they prime mover may be reg 2 is a diagrammatic view of the speed governing mechanism with the Parts separated so that their functioning is readily apparent; Fig. 3 is a longi ~ tudinal sectional view of the governing mecha ulated by other means, not shown. " > It is to be understood that the governor may also be used for speed control of the prime mover at‘ other speeds than overspeed. nism, the section being taken on line 3-4, Fig. 4, 36 Fig. 2 shows‘diagrammatically, and with parts separated, the moving parts of the speed govern and certain parts being broken away; Fig. 4 is a ing mechanism. It will be described ?rst since sectional view taken generally on line 4-4, Fig. 3, certain parts not in the section being indicated an understanding of the functioning of the mech anism will assist in understanding the speci?c to more clearly illustrate the structure, and Fig. 5 ' 40 mechanical construction shown in Figs. 3, 4 and is a sectional view taken on line 5-5, Fig. 4. ' Referring to Fig. 1, there is shown diagram 5. l4 indicates a speed governor which may be matically a gas turbine power plant comprising a of the ?yball type, the spindle I501 which is compressor I having an inlet 2 and a discharge arranged so that its end engages the end‘of an adjustable screw Iiia which threads through an conduit 3. Discharge conduit 3 is connected by a pipe line 4 to a. combustion chamber 5. Fuel, such 45 opening in the'end of ‘a lever arm [8 ?xed on a shaft H. The end of screw lie is held against as 'oil, is supplied to the combustion chamber 5 the end of spindle l5 by a spring 18“. Also ?xed through a pipe line 6 which is connected to the on shaft I‘! is a lever arm H! which through a discharge. side of a suitable fuel pump ‘I. The inlet side of fuel pump 1 isconnected by a pipe , link I9 is pivotally connected to one end of a‘ line 8 to a suitable fuel supply tank. The prod 50 ?oating lever 20 pivoted ‘on a pin 20' ?xed eccen ucts of combustion‘ generated in combustion ' trically to the end of a rotatable shaft 2| on the chamber 5 are supplied to a nozzle box _9 which other end of which is a valve body 22. In valve in turn supplies the hot gases to a turbine wheel. body 22 is an opening 23 adapted to connect ‘conduits l2 and I3 together. In other words, 10. ’ Turbine wheel I0 is connected to the rotor of compressor I to drive it. The excess power in 55 valve body 22 controls the ?ow of ?uid between 2,411,065 3 . The ?yball governor structure and its housing 4 so far described form a unitary structure which can be assembled and tested as a unit. As will conduits i2 and I3. The other end of ?oating lever 28 is connected to the pilot valve 24 of an hydraulic motor the piston of‘which is indicated at 25. be clear, the stub shaft 39 with the speed gov ernor assembly thereon may be ?rst assembled in spider 43.after which the spider may be mounted On the governor housing, stub shaft ~48 being in serted through bearing 42 which has previously Piston 25 is located in a cylinder 25 and is carried by a piston rod 21 which is pivotally connected by a link 28 to a crank arm 29 ?xed on shaft 2|. Actuating ?uid is supplied to pilot valve 24 through a conduit 38 connected to the been assembled in bearing housing 41. interior of an oil strainer 3|, the space around The valve structure and leverage mechanism the oil strainer a! being connected by a conduit 10 are carried in a second housing 58 which has a 32 to the discharge side of pump 1, i. e., to pipe ?ange 59 by which it is attached to ?ange 45 by line | 2. Upon increase and decrease in speed, the bolts 46. Housing 58 is provided with walls . the speed governor turns shaft 81 which in turn which de?ne a pocket 68 having an open side moves the pilotto admit actuating ?uid to cylin ' der 25 on one side or other oi’ piston 25, permit 15 which faces toward spider 43. Pocket 68._is rec tangular in cross section, its two side walls being ting ?uid to escape from the other side. The indicated at BI and 62,~its two end walls at 63 piston is then moved to turn shaft 2| to adjust and 64 and its bottom wall at 65. > In bottom wall the position of valve body 22, movement of the 65 is an opening closed by a plug 86. Pocket 58 valve body in turn restoring the pilot valve through eccentric pin 28%, this being a known form 20 houses lever arm l6. Adjacent to pocket 68 are walls which define a of follow-up connection. Preferably, eccentric second pocket 61, the two pockets having the . pin 288 is carried by an eccentric plate 28b at common side wall 82. The other side wall of tached by screws to lever 29, so that by changing pocket 81 is indicated at 68, its two end walls plates, the eccentricity of the pin may be changed thus adjusting the restoring ratio of‘ the govern 25 at 99 and 18, and its bottom wall at 1|. Pocket ing mechanism. The use of a speed governor to 81 has an open side opposite bottom wall 1| control the positioning of a valve through the intermediary of an hydraulic motor and. linkages including a follow-up connection is known. My which is closed by a cover plate 12 fixed in posi- ' tion by screws 13. The open side of pocket 61 is at right angles to the open side of pocket 58. 30 In Fig. 3, wall 82 is shown partly broken away - invention has to do speci?cally with the mechan ical arrangement of these parts in a simple, com- _ to show parts located in pocket 61.‘ Adjacent to wall 98 of pocket 61 are walls 14 pact structure. This structure is shown in Figs. which define a passage 15 which extends along 3, 4 and 5 which will now be described. The speed governor comprises two curved wall 88 and has an open end which is covered spring strips 33 and 34 which extend transversely 35 also by cover plate 12. At one side of passage of a rectangular frame 35 (see Fig. 2) and are 15 are walls which define a round passage 15 fastened at their ends to flyweights 35. The one which extends across passage 15 at right angles spring 33 is ?xed at its central portion to one thereto and in which is ‘located a valve liner 11 end of frame 35 by a clamping piece 31 held in in which valve 22 is located. The outer end of place by screws 38. Otherwise, the springs 33 passage 16 is closed by a cover plate 18 held in and 34 and the ?yweights are free to move. At place by screws 19. In‘ liner 11 are openings opposite ends of frame 35 are stub shafts 89 and. adapted to stand in line with the opening 23 48 supported in ball bearings 4| and 42. Ball through valve body 22. Between cover plate 18 bearing 4| is supported in a spider comprising a and the valve body is a suitable spring 88 which ring 43 connected to a bearing supporting hub 45 serves to hold the valve body against the bottom 438 ‘by spokes 43“. It is attached to the open of a shallow recess formed in wall 68. The stem side of a governor housing 44, the governor hous 2| of valve body 22 projects through wall 68 into ing being provided with a ?ange 45 to which ring pocket 51. > ' 43 is fastened by a ring of bolts 48. Ball bearing Formed integral with bottom wall 1| on the 42 is carried in a wall of governor housing 44 op 50 side opposite to pocket 81 are walls which de?ne posite spider 43. It is positioned in a ball bear the cylinder 2-6 and a pilot valve casing 8|. As ing housing 41, the bearing being held in the shown in Fig. 5, piston rod 21 and the pilot valve housing by a-ring of bolts 48 and a washer 485. stem 82 project through wall 1| into pocket 51. > At 48b is a packing. On the outer end of stub The open outer ends of cylinder 25 and pilot shaft 48 is a splined head 49 adapted to. be con 55 valve casing‘sl are closed by a cover plate 83 nected to a suitable driving shaft 58. Ball bear held in place by screws 84. ing 4| is held in place in spider 43 by a ring of I‘ Adjacent to they walls which define passage 16 bolts 5| and by a nut 52 which threads on an ’ extension of stub shaft 39. Stub shaft 39 and its extension are hollow and projecting there through is the governor spindle l5 which at its and on opposite sides thereof are rounded walls 85 and 86 which de?ne inlet and outlet conduits 81 and 88 with which pipe lines. i2 and I3 connect. Conduits ‘81 and 88 are connected by passage 15. outer end is provided with a ball 54 held in a In Fig. 4, pipelines i2 and i3 are-indicated for pocket in the end of the spindle. ‘The end of purposes of illustration although they would not screw l5a engages ball 54. The other end of show in true section on line 4-4, Fig. 3.v , ‘spindle | 5 engages with the central portion of 65 Extending across wall 64 in a direction parallel spring 34. It is biased to a position in engage with wall 85 is a rounded wall 89 which forms ment with said spring by a coiled spring 55 lo a well 98 for strainer 3|. The inner end of well cated between clamping plate 31 and a collar 56 98 is closed by a wall 9| and its outer open end on the governoryspindle. Connected with gov is closedby a plug 92 which holds in place ‘a ernorhousing 44 is a drainpipe 51. The ?ybali 70 spring 93 ‘the purpose of which is to hold the governor is more speci?cally described and strainer on its seat. The conduit 32 which con claimed in an application Serial No. 553,611, ?led nects well 98 with inlet pipe line I2 is formed September 11, 1944, in the name of Donald F. ' by a rounded wall 94 beneath wall 84 as shown in Warner and assigned to the same assignee as the Fig. 4. The conduit 38 which connects the in present application. 35 side of the strainer to the pilot valve casing is , 2,411,065 5 ' . shown in Fig. 3. Thus it will be seen, (referring particularly to Figs. 3’and 4) that liquid entering through pipe line I2 may flow by way of passage 81 ,to‘passage ‘I5, thence' through valve body 22 to passage 88 and out by way of pipe line l3. At the same time liquid for the hydraulic motor may flow from passage 81 through branch con duit 32 to well 90, thence throughthe strainer 3| and conduit 30 to the pilot valve. The spaces ' all the parts readily accessible. Furthermore, the construction is compact which has the ad vantage that it may be built so as to be relatively light in weight, a thing especially important ' where the mechanism is to be used in connection with a power plant on an aircraft. . What I claim as new and desire to secure by .Letters Patent of the United States, is: 1.. In combination, a governor housing having above and below the pilot valve heads are con~ 10 an open side, a bolting ?ange opposite said open side, and a bolting ?ange surrounding the open nected to pocket 61 by passages 95 and 96 _(Fig. side, a ?yball governor mounted in the governor 5) so that ?ow of actuating liquid from the cyl-‘ housing having a spindle which projects out inder 28 is discharged to pocket 61. Also, any ‘ leakage of liquid around piston rod 21 or pilot‘ ' through said open side, a second housing fas valve stem 82 is discharged to pocket 61. _In wall 15 tened to said last-named bolting ?ange having walls which de?ne a pocket, the open side of 88 is an over?ow opening 91» which connects which faces toward the open side of the governor pocket Bl to- outlet conduit 88 so that liquid housing and into which the end of the governor accumulating in pocket 6‘! will ?nd its way out spindle projects, walls defining a pocket adjacent to the outlet conduit. ' Shaft H is mounted in suitable bearings ‘38 20 to ‘said ?rst-named pocket having an open side ' facing in a direction other than that in which the and 99 which are accessible through an opening ‘ ?rst-named pocket faces, walls de?ning inlet in wall 6i closed by a plug Mill. The one end of and outlet passages connected by a transverse shaft i‘l projects through wall 62 into pocket passage, walls de?ning a valve casing extending 51!. The lever arm it. link i9, ?oating lever 26, transversely of said transverse passage, and walls link 28 and lever arm 2Q all are located in cham 25 de?ning piston and pilot valve cylinders having ber 6i. Also the one end of shaft ‘2i is in cham ber El, it projecting through wall 68‘. V Mounted on shaft H where it passes through ' wall 62 is a seal Hill to prevent leakage of ?uid, (which may be under low pressure). from cham ber 61 into chamber 5%, thereby preventing ex cessive leakage out pipe El and also preventing accumulation of liquid in housing M‘ where it _ might interfere with rotation of speed governor weights 36. Drain pipe 51 serves to carry away to any suitable point any ?uid which leaks into governor housing M. Viewed from one aspect, wall 62 forms a dam to keep liquid from getting into chamber 60 and hence ?nding its way into 40 the speed governor housing 44. By my invention, I provide aspeed governing mechanism wherein the speed governor is located in one casing part and may be assembled as a open ends which face outwardly, a valve in said valve casing having a shaft the‘ end of which projects into said second-named pocket, a. lever arm in the ?rst-named pocket with which the end of said governorspindle engages, a shaft for said lever arm an end of which projects into said second-named pocket, a piston and a pilot valve in said piston and pilot valve cylinders re spectively having shaft ends which project into said second-named pocket, leverage mechanism in said second-named pocket which. connects to gather the shaft ends therein, and cover plates , for said second-named pocket, said cylinders and said valve casing. 2. In combination, a governor housing having an open side, a ?yball governor mounted in the governor housing having a spindle which pro jects out through said open side, a second hous unit and tested, and wherein the leverage mech fastened to said governor housing having anism, the hydraulic motor and the valve may 45 ing walls which de?ne a pocket, the open side of be assembled in another casing part and be which faces toward the open side of the governor separately adjusted and tested. Afterwards, the ‘housing and into which the end of the gov two casing parts may be bolted together and the‘ ernor spindle projects, walls de?ning a pocket mechanism as a unit attached to the machine to to said ?rst-named pocket having an be controlled. It will be noted in connection 60 adjacent open side facing in a direction other than that in with the parts contained in casing section 58 that which the first-named pocket faces, walls de?n all may be ‘assembled through the outside of ing inlet and outlet passages connected by'a the casing part and that all parts are readily ' transverse passage, and walls de?ning a valve accessible for inspection. repair and replacement. casing extending transversely of said transverse In assembling the mechanism contained in cas 55 passage, a valve in said valve casing having a ing part 58, lever arm It may be positioned shaft the end of which projects into said second through the open end of pocket 50 between its named pocket, a lever arm in the ?rst-named bearings 98 and‘ 99 after which shaft I‘! may be inserted through the opening provided by plug ~ pocket with which the end of said governor spin die engages, a shaft for said lever arm an end of H. After shaft I‘! has been inserted. plug lilll 60 which projects into said second-named pocket, may be put in position. At any time, the setting leverage mechanism in said second-named pocket of the governor may be changed by removing which connects together the shaft ends therein, plug 66 and adjusting screw i5‘: and this adjust and cover plates for said secondmamed pocket ment can be made readily while the governor is and said valve casing whereby by the removal of' operating. The leverage mechanism located in said cover plates access may be obtained to said pocket 61 may be assembled through the open valve casing and to said second-named pocket. side of the pocket, the valve being inserted 3. In combination, a governor housing having through passage 15 and the piston and pilot valve being inserted from the outside into their re spective casings. After the parts are in position, cover plates 12, ‘I8 and 83 may be fastened in place. The strainer 3| is inserted through the' open end of well 80 after which the plug 92 may 1 be put in place. This arrangement ‘makes for an open side, a governor mounted in the governor ‘ housing having a spindle which projects out through said open side, a second housing fastened to said governor housing having walls which do: fine two pockets, one having an open side which faces toward the open side of the governor hous ease in assembling the ‘construction and renders 75 ing and into which the end of the governor spin 7 2,411,065 , die projects‘ and the other having an open side facing in a direction other than that in which the ?rst-named pocket faces, walls de?ning inlet and outlet passages connected by a transverse passage, and walls de?ning a valve casing extend ing transversely of said transverse passage, a valve in said valve casing having a shaft the end of which projects into said second-named pocket, a lever arm in the ?rst-named pocket with which the end of said governor spindle engages, a shaft 10 of said governor spindle engages, a shaft for said lever arm an end of which projects into said pocket, a piston and a pilot valve in said piston and pilot valve cylinders respectively having shaft ends which project into said pocket, leverage mechanism in said pocket which connects to gether the shaft ends therein, and cover plates for said pocket, said cylinders and said valve casing. , 5. In combination, a casing, having two unitary for said lever arm an end of which projects into ~ separable parts, one of which forms a governor said second-named pocket, leverage mechanism housing and the other a leverage and valve hous in said second-named pocket which connects ing, a governor supported in the governor housing. together the shaft ends therein, cover plates for a longitudinally slidable spindle with a said second-named pocket and said valve casing, 15 having free end which projects into the leverage and and walls which de?ne an over?ow passage con valve housing, walls in the leverage and valve necting said second-named pocket to the said housing which de?ne a pocket having an open outlet passage. , side and piston and pilot valve cylinders each 4. In combination, a governor housing, a second being open at the end remote from said pocket, housing connected to the governor housing, a gov 20 a rotatable valve in the leverage and valve hous ernor mounted in the governor housing having ing having a shaft which projects into said pocket, a spindle which projects into said second housing, a piston and a pilot valve in said cylinders having walls de?ning in said second housing a pocket shafts which project into said pocket, leverage ‘having an open side, inlet and outlet passages mechanism in said pocket which connects said connected by a transverse passage, a valve casing 25 shaft ends together and is loosely engaged by extending transversely of said transverse passage, the face end of said governor spindle for actua and piston and pilot valve cylinders having open tion thereby, a ?rst cover plate for the open side ends which face outwardly, a valve in said valve , of said pocketand a second common cover plate casing having a shaft the end of which projects for the open ends ‘of said cylinders. ‘ into said pocket, a lever arm with which the end 30 AUSTIN G. SILVES'I'ER.