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NW 129 19%.
G. E.
ET AL
ELECTROLYTIC TYPE OF PERIODIC CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
Filed Feb. 1, 1946
3 Sheets~$heet l
f‘ ATTORNEV
NOV- 12, 194%-
G. E. FREDERICKS ET AL
gpmi?gg
ELECTROLYTIC TYPE OF PERIODIC‘CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
Filed Feb. 1, 1.946
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR 8.
‘A'rraR/wfx
E29 119%.
G. E. FREDEFMCKS ET AL
ELECTROLYTIC TYPE OF PERIODIC ~CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
Filed Feb. 1, 1946
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
r78
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NVENTO
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75mg“_ . *0a $4., 41
ATTORNEY,
Patented Nov.vl2, 1946 7
2,411,089
UNITED- STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,089
ELECTROLYTIC TYPE OF PERIODIC
UIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
George E. Fredericks, Bethayres, and Jens Si
vertsen, Philadelphia, Pa., assignors to George
E. Fredericks (30., Bethayres, -Pa., a corporation
of Pennsylvania
Application February 1, 1946, Serial No‘. 644,878
10 Claims.v (Cl. 1'75—320)
Z
In industrial applications, it is often desirable
the time interval of the cycle is utilized to time
any desired operation.
With the foregoing and many other objects in
for an operation to continue for a limited time
and then stop. in some cases, it is desirable to
have a manual control to start the operation, and,
in other cases, it is desirable to have the opera
view as will hereinafter more ‘clearly appear our
invention comprehends a novel method of inte
grating, a novel method of timing, and a novel
tion automatically restarting, the latter being
usually de?ned as an automatic recycling.
electrolytic integrator and timer.
The method and apparatus herein disclosed is
For the purpose of illustrating the invention,
suitable for both types of operations. This does
we have shown in the accompanying drawings
not hold true of thermal types of time delayed‘ 10 preferred embodiments of it which we have found
relays which are not well suited for immediate
in practice to give satisfactory and-reliable re
recycling.
sults.
It is, however, to be understood that the
A further advantage in the present method is
various instrumentalities of which the invention
that a linear scale can be obtained which is of
consists can be variously arranged and organized
major interest in many automatic applications
and the invention is not limited to the exact ar
where only a small power can be used and pare
rangement and organization'of these instrumen
ticularly in vacuum powered circuits.
talities as herein set forth.
7
The accuracy obtainable is excellent due'to the
Figure l is a sectional elevation of an electro
fact that the system is based on a simple natural
lytic integrator and timer and illustrative of one
law, and the parts can be readily manufactured 20 manner of practicing the invention. The elec
to desired tolerances. Where even higher ac
trolytic levels show the beginning of a cycle.
curacy is required, individual adjustments can be
Figure 2 is a sectional elevation similar to Fig
readily made due to the linear scale calibration.
ure 1 but showing the electrolytic levels as at
The instrument is primarily an integrator.
the end of the cycle.
For example, if We have a varying voltage E, we
Figure _3 is a bottom plan view of Figure 1,
will have at all times a current
showing the electrodes and ?laments diagram
matically with the pin connections.
E
'
Figure 4 is a wiring diagram.
Figure 5 is a sectional elevation of another
I 5 —R
where R is the resistance of the circuit.
instrument will sum up the value
embodiment of the invention in which mercury
The
is used with the electrolyte for contact purposes.
-
Figure 6 is a sectional elevation of another em
bodiment of the invention which is similar to
that of Figures 1 and 2 except that the cham
K is constant, while T may vary from one cycle
to another. After K has been obtained, the proc
ess may be automatically restarted, or is auto
35 bers are of a di?erent physical form.
Figure 7 is a section on line 1-1 of Figure 2.
Figures 8 and 9 are electrical circuit ‘diagrams
for timing and integrating operations.
matically interrupted and restarted manually. '
If instead of the voltage varying, the current 40 Figure 10 is a graph showing integration.
Similar numerals of reference indicate corre
varies, we obtain a voltage drop IiT by passing
sponding parts.
the current over a resistor rand thereby obtain
Referring to the, drawings:
For the purpose of explaining the principle of
If the current is small enough, we can use it 45 the invention, we will ?rst consider Figure 6 in
which a tube l is in the form of a U tube having
directly in the circuit without any drop resistor r,
in its short leg 2 electrodes 3 and, 4. The short
or, if either the current or the voltage is too small,
leg 2 is nearly closedv at its upper end by a stric
we can use an ampli?er tube to obtain the proper
ture 5 and a tube 6 leads therefrom into the
value. In this manner, the instrument can be
upper end of a long leg 1 of the tube, thereby
used as an integrator or timer in many auto»
matic controlling devices.
_
I
In carrying out the invention in practice, an
electric current is passed through an electrolyte
50
forming intercorrlmunicating chambers, it being
understood that the receptacle formed by the
tube 1 may have many different forms. The tube
i is ?lled with an electrolyte 8 which may be a
to convert a portlon'of it into its component gases,
the gases are exploded to complete a cycle and 55 weak solution of sulfuric acid or other suitable
acid or base. A heater 9 is within the tube I
3
2,411,089
and as shown in the leg 2 above the electrodes 3
and Q, and a heater I0 is preferably employed in
the leg ‘l above the electrolyte.
In the electric circuit in Figure 6, the current
passes from a source of electric supply by a lead
it through a variable resistance !2 to the elec
trode i, electrode 3 and by line i3 to lead iii.
4
has prongs a, b, c, d, e, ,f, and g and h. Prongs
a and b are in the heater line H; h and g in
heater line 573; and d and f in the electrode line.
54 is the electrolyte.
In the diagram, Fig. 4, current passes by line
22 to the primary of a transformer ‘55 and from
a selected tap 56 of the primary to the plates or
anodes of a recti?er tube 51, and by line 58 from
the secondary to the heater of‘ tube 51. The
leads and heaters $3 and Iii.v The heater line is
10 recti?ed current passes by line 59 to the elec
preferably provided with a ?xed resistance IT.
A small current is passed between the‘ elec
trodes and by line 60 and rheostat 6! to line 52.
The gases formed from the electrolyte cause the
trodes 3 and ti, which, if we use sulfuric acid as
an electrolyte, causes a small amount of oxygen
level of the electrolyte to lower and open the
circuit through the electrodes. When this elec
and hydrogen at theelectrodes. The gases rise
and are trapped below the stricture 5. Enough
trode current is broken, the current through the
relay coil ‘53R increases to energize the relay
of the electrolyte adheres to the top Wall of the
chamber to completely close the stricture by
and '63 gives contact for a current to pass by
capillary action. The trapped gases create a
lines 22 and E5, lighting a lamp 66, to relay 63,
pressure above the electrolyte forcing the liquid
line 61 and line 62. The lighting of the lamp
level downwardly, thereby opening the electrode
indicates that the instrument is ready for re
, cycling. To repeat the cycle, the operator closes
circuit. The voltage across the electrodes is
small, two to eight volts depending on the elec
a momentary push button switch 88 and current
A relay IS in a heater line it is connected to the
trolyte used. Ee=E—IR, where I is the electrode
current and R the resistance of that part of re
sistor 52 in series with the electrodes. The'voltage
across the relay coil has therefore been kept low
passes by line 69 through the heaters, return
ing by lines it] and 59 to the secondary.‘ If the
contacts of switch 68 had been arranged on the
relay, recycling would have automatically oc
curred.
In Figure 8 a circuit diagram is shown for
due to the drop IR, and this voltage has been
insu?‘icient to deliver enough current to the relay
coil R15 to energize it. When the electrolytic
utilizing the instrument as an integrator with
current ceases, the relay receives suf?cient power 30 the embodiment seen in Figures 1 and 2. ‘I2
to attract its armature.
.
is a transformer to obtain correct ?lament voltage
The current now passes through heaters 9
and i0, and the gases are exploded. The space
for a recti?er tube 13. The circuit whereby a
recti?ed pulsating D. 0. current is obtained from
previously occupied by the gases is reoccupied
the A. 0. supply is conventional and similar to
by the electrolyte. The relay automatically re 03 Cl that already described.- By means of condensers
cycles'the instrument.
l3 and M and resistors 15 and‘lB we obtain from
During the explosion, a rather high pressure
point 77 to 18 across 16 a partly smoothed D. C.
obtains in the gas chamber which but for the
voltage and get a current from ‘H across resistor
stricture might force some of the mixture which
‘wand part of 80 a current which in 80 is divided
is unexploded down through the liquid. The 40. into two parts, namely, I which is the electrolysis
stricture opens under this high pressure and
current to anode Ill and cathode 48 and to 18; and
allows this gas to escape through the stricture
a small current 2‘ which is continuous through all
into the upper chamber in which the water vapor
of resistor 80 and relay coil 8| to 18. The voltage
and gas mixture separate slowly.
‘
required across the electrodes 41 to 48 is a nearly
By the next time the heating of the ?lament
constant voltage, not dependent on current. If we
occurs, we may get a slight explosion of these
wish to evaluatethe path in ohms, we have, may
escape gases around the ?lament Ill.‘ This ex
be, four volts and a current of 20 ma., i. e. the
plosion, however, is almost imperceivable and is
path represents 200 ohms. The relay coil 8| may have a resistance of 10,000 ohms. The current i
rarely seen ‘due to the fact that almost all of the
gases are exploded in the short leg of the tube. 50 will therefore be only 4/1o,ooo A. which is entirely
insu?icient to energize the relay. The electrode
In the embodiment seen in Figure 5, the tube,
electrodes and heaters are the same as in Figure
current will depend on the position ~of an arm 83
6, the vmain difference being that mercury 18
is used with the electrolyte to control contacts
It and 20 for the relay 2!, whereas in Figure 6
an electromagnetic relay is used. The electrolytic
circuit and the heater circuit will therefore be
clear without detailed description.
In Figures 1 to 4. and '7, the integrator and
which moves a pointer 84 to di?erent ‘positions '
on 80. _The current can therefore be varied be
tween a maximum value which we have when
the pointer is near 79 and a minimum value
determined by the limit of the stroke of the arm
83. The arm 83 is energized by any instrument, '
recorder or motor affected by the quantity we
timer has been shown in a di?erent form but 60 want to integrate, for example, a liquid ?ow, a
gas ?ow, or a gas or liquid pressure that varies.
embodying the same principles as in Fig. 6. An
outer tube M is sealed at its upper end by a cap
If it is an electric ?ow, we can use a simpler
arrangement as previously explained. The cur
42. An inner, open ended tube 43 has a stricture
4% and is connected at three points 65 with the
rent will be directly‘ inversely proportional to the
wall of the outer tube to be suspended within it, 65 sum part of the resistors 80 and 19 in series with
see Fig. 10. Within, spaced from and sealed with
the electrodes 657 and 48.
the outer tube is a‘ press d6 supporting spaced When the electrode current is broken by the
liquid level as previously explained, the voltage
electrodes ill and. t8 embedded in insulating
material except at their upper ends which ex
drop in resistors '59 and 80 disappears, and the
tend into the lower chamber of the inner tube
small current 2' increases to a value su?cient to
£53. A heater 69 is positioned in the lower cham- ‘
energize the relay. This may be 1, 2, 5 or 10 ma.
ber above the electrodes and its line is in the
dependent on the characteristic and quality of re
press. A heater 50 having a line M is in the upper
lay selecteddependent on the accuracy required.
chamber of tube éil . The tube structure is sealed
in a base 52 of insulating material. The base 75
When the relay is energized, two things will
happen:
-
.
'
' 2,411,089
5
A. A current willpass from 85 over the relay
b. Move'the liquid and thereby make a new
contacts 86 and 81' through the electric counter
contact, see l9 and 20, Figure 5. Mer
coil 88 and to 18 which is minus. The counter
cury is used but is not absolutely neces
89 will move ahead one number.
sary.
'
B. A current will pass from 1 l3 which is one 5
c.
Inflate
a
bellows
or
other
elastic
bag, 4
side of the winding of the ?lament transformer
which is used directly to make or break
over the relay contacts 86, 81, through the ?la
a contact or both make and break a
ments 49 and v5!! and back to the other side 99 of
contact, see Figs. 7, 8 and 9.
the ?lament Winding.
4. When the gas pressure has created the new
The gas mixture explodes as previously ex
‘
electrical conditions. these can be utilized
plained, recycling the process which starts over
to:
‘
again while one unit has been counted by the
a.
Perform
what
we
want
done
at
the
end
electric counter. One unit is equal to one product
‘
of the cycle and signal that the cycle
of ?ow and time, i. e., volume or whatever else
has been completed-see the lamp 66,
was integrated.
Figure 4. Instead of the lamp any
Figure 10 shows adiagram of the integration.
other controls too numerous to men
From 0 to 91 is one integration which resulted in
tion could be performed by the same
the counter stepping ahead one number; and
contacts or parallel ones, The signal
from 91 to 92 is the next integration and the
shows that the apparatus is ready for
counter steps ahead an additional number.
recycling by using the momentary
The time T1 is not equal to the time T2, how
switch 68 for the ?laments, or ?lament.
ever, the ?ow was in average higher during the
b. Perform what is to be done at the end of
time T2 than T1, but the area A1 is the same-as
the cycle and. light the filaments. This
the area A2. This is proven by Faraday’s law of
would happen if the contacts of switch
electrolysis.
.
58 had been mounted on the relay, and
Figure '9 shows another application of our in
energized by the same.
tegrator. We assume that an instrument meas
5. When the gas explodes it is 'reconverted into
ures a certain quantity and puts out a D. C. volt
its original electrolyte and we have returned
age proportional to said quantity. This may be
to the starting condition.
the ampli?ed output from a thermocouple, an 30
It has been found that direct sunlight and
electrical bridge arrangement, a speedometer or
other strong light has a tendency to slow down
anything. If the voltage is not D. C. but A. C.,
the condensation of water vapor, The result of
we rectify the Voltage and introduce it to our in
this is that after a number of cycles it may take
strument over the points 93 and 9d, polarized plus
a second or two from the lighting of the ?la
at 93 and minus at 99.
ment to the explosion of the gas. The apparatus
We will assume that the voltage is weak and
should therefore preferably be mounted in a box
does not pass enough power to energize a relay.
The electrolysis current passes from 93 over re
sistor 95 to ‘the anode ill, cathode 48 and by line
or container where it is protected from direct sun
rays.
‘
In Figures 1 to 4, the instrument has been ar- '
96 back to 94 which is the negative side of the 40
ranged with contacts and is adapted to be plugged
input. By means of the lines 91 and 99 and the
into
a standard radio tube socket. This has been
resistor 95, a negative bias will be placed on the
found to be a practical arrangement.
grid 99 of the triode 199 relative to the cathode
When the instrument is used as a timer, we
48 which will prevent any current flow in the
must assume it is to be connected to a constant
anode l0! cathode path of the tube.
_
When the electrolysis current is broken, how
ever, by the action of the integrator, the voltage
voltage source or derives its current from a con
stant current source. The sample diagram of
Fig. a shows the apparatus deriving its power
drop across 95 will disappear. The grid 99 will
from an ordinary 60 cycle A. C. line. By means of
get the same potential as the cathode 592. This
will allow a current to pass from one side 699 of, 50 the tap switch 59 and the potentiometer 6i used
as a rheostat for the electrolysis current the lat
our supply through the counter winding Hi4, re
ter can be in?nitely varied within its limits. The
lay coil I05, plate l?l, cathode E92 and conductor
timing can therefore be accurately set and will
I06 back to the other side l9? of the supply.
accurately repeat. If the current source is 115
The counter H18 will register one unit, the re
lay is energized and a current passes from one 55 volts A. C. and varies between 110 volts and 120
volts, i. e., plus or minus 5 volts, the timing will
side of the ?lament supply I99, relay contacts 1 l9
be accurate better than plus or minus 5%. A.
and HI, ?laments 49 and 50 and back to the ' thermal type relay where the timing is inversely
other side I 12 of the ?lament winding. ‘The gases
proportional to the square of the voltage would
explode, restart the cycle. A graph of the inte
give an error of plus or minus 10% for the same
60
gration may be exactly as previously explained in ‘
?uctuations, but generally is even much worse
connection with Figure 10.
.
due to temperature build up and is often plus
It will be apparent from the foregoing that the
or minus 50%.
i
gist of this invention is:
If higher accuracy is desired we can use either
1. Passing an electric current through'an electro_
lyte thereby obtaining gases.
2. These gases are trapped in a container and
create a gas pressure,
.
3. This gas pressure is utilized to do av
certain Y
amount of work as:
70
a. Change the liquid level so that one of the
a. Utilize a more accurate supply voltage, or
b. The resistor H in Figure 4 may be a compen
‘ sating resistor which will counteract voltage
?uctuations. This is most readily obtain
able by using an ordinary light bulb which
has a very steep current characteristic, as
to resistance.
electrodes is out of the electrolyte to
If we desire to consider the errors inherent in
create conditions for other electrical
the instrument, we ?nd only what can be caused
means to come into play, for example
by room temperature. This error is inherent in
the .relay in Figures 1, 2 and 6.
76 all types of accurate instruments. Where ex
2,411,089
?
.
Y treme accuracy is required or where extreme tem
peratures must be met, or both, compensation
but opening for higher pressures created by the
explosion of said gases of decomposition.
2. In an electrolytic integrator, a receptacle
containing an electrolyte and having a gas trap
ping chamber in free communication at its lower
end with saidlelectrolyte, the upper end of said
chamber being closed except for a restricted pas
to ?ll up the volume. To compensate for this,
sage opening therefrom, electrical means to de
we can use the resistor ‘H of a temperature co
compose said electrolyte, and means to ignite the
efficient and value which will increase the cur
rent correspondingly and thereby retain the time 10 gases of decomposition when their product of vol~
must be made.
If we assume that the volume of the gas cham
ber increases with an increase in temperature,
we need more of a product, current times time
T substantially the same as for some other tem
ume
and‘ pressure
reaches
a
predetermined
amount, and said passage being closed under nor
mal pressures in said chamber but opening for
During the research on this instrument, many
higher pressures created by the explosion of the
types of electrolyte were found to give satisfac-j
tory results. A weak solution of sulfuric acid was 15 gases of decomposition.
3. In ‘an electrolytic timer, a receptacle con
found to have better overall characteristics. Used
taining an electrolyte and having a gas trapping
with- D. C., the hydrogen is developed at the.
chamber in free communication at its lower end
cathode and oxygen at the anode and the gas
with said electrolyte, the upper end of said chain?
. trapped is two parts hydrogen and one part oxy
gen. If we use hydrochloric acid we obtain hy 20 ber being closed except,for a restricted passage
open'to said receptacle, electrical means to de
drogen and chlorine which recombines to form
compose said electrolyte, and means to ignite the
hydrochloric acid. A number of bases can also
gases of decomposition and explode them when
be used. NaOH has given excellent results.
_
their product of volume and pressure reaches a
' We have found that we can dispense with the
?laments or heaters if desired. Referring to Fig 25 predetermined amount, and said passage being
closed under normal pressure in said chamber but
ures 2 and 6, we have found that if we use a high
opening for higher pressures created by the ex
supply voltage for the electrolytic current in
plosion of said gases of decomposition.
series with a resistor of several thousand ohms
4. In an electrolytic integrator, a receptacle
‘and after the liquid level drops below the top
electrode, we will get a current along the ?lm of 30 containing an electrolyte and having a gas trap
electrolyte ‘along the glass. This current path
ping chamber in communication at its lower end
with the electrolyte, the upper end of said cham
is of such high resistance that the gas mixture
ber being closed except for a restricted passage
will heat up su?icient to explode. This action is
opening therefrom, and an electric circuit having
not at present as reliable as the ?laments and de
pends more on_the electrolyte, and is better the 35 electrodes extending into the receptacle to de- compose the electrolyte into explosive gases, there
higher the resistance'the electrolyte has and the
by changing the level of said electrolyte and the
manner it wets the glass and electrodes.
resistance in said circuit, and means to ignite
In selecting the electrolyte, it is important that
perature.
we have a combination where the electrodes will
' said gases, the time of ignition of said gases being
not be attacked. .Platinum electrodes have given 40 controlled by said change in resistance.
5. In an electrolytic timer, a, receptacle 'con
excellent results, and only the small part directly
- in contact with the electrolyte needs to be made
of this material.
The system will work using D. C. or A. C. Using
A. 0., however, both hydrogen and oxygen are
developed at the same electrode. This reduces
the e?‘lciency due to the oxygen developing a
small‘ ?lm of platinum oxid which acts as an
‘ taining an electrolyte, electrodes and their circuit
to decompose said electrolyte, said electrodes ex
tending into the receptacle in spaced relation
ship, means to ignite the gases of decomposition,
and means to utilize change in apparent resistance
between said electrodes to control said igniting
means.
6. The construction speci?ed in claim 5 having
We have obtained the most reliable operation 50 auxiliary means to ignite gases‘ exterior of said
chamber which may not have been ignited by said
with D. C. or~recti?ed A. C. as shown in Figure 6.
?rst igniting means.
>
In our‘ research up to the present time where
electrolytic condenser.
continuous recycling is employed, the embodi
7. In an electrolytic device for integrating a —
product of electric current and time, a, receptacle
55 containing an electrolyte and having a gas trap
other embodiments herein disclosed.
ping chamber in free communication with said
Insofar as we are aware we are the ?rst in the
electrolyte and having a restricted passage open
art to integrate and time in the manner herein‘
ing from said chamber, an electrical circuit to
set forth, and we therefore desire our claims to
decompose the electrolyte and having electrodes
such features-to receive the broad and generic
interpretation to which pioneers in the art are 60 extending into said receptacle, ignition means to
ignite the gases of decomposition, and an ignition
entitled.
.
control circuit having a thermionic valve and
Having thus described our invention, what we
means to utilize the change in current or voltage
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
between said electrodes to vary the grid voltage
entis: .
1. In an electrolytic timer, a receptacle contain 65 in said valve to change its plate-cathode current
to effect control of ignition.
ing an electrolyte and having a gas trapping
8. In an electrolytic integrator, a receptacle
chamber in free communication at its lower end
containing an electrolyte and having a gas trap
with said electrolyte, the upper end of said cham
ping chamber in free communication with said
ber being closed except for a restricted passage
opening therefrom, electrical means to decom 70 electrolyte, the upper end of said chamber beingr
closed except for a restricted passage open to-said
pose said electrolyte, and means to ignite the
receptacle, means to use a current to beHinte
gases of decomposition and explode them when
grated to decompose said electrolyte, and means
their product of volume and pressure reaches a
to ignite and explode the gases of decomposition
predetermined amount, and said passage being
closed under normal pressure in said chamber 75 when they reach apredetennined amount, said
ment in Figure 5 has not been as reliable as the
2,411,089
a
9
'
_
10
_
passage being closed under normal pressure in said
chamber but opening under explosive pressure for
composition, means to ignite and explode said
gases in said ?rst chamber when they reach a
escape of unignited gases.
predetermined amount, thereby opening said was
‘
9. The construction speci?ed in claim 8, having ‘
sage by explosive pressure to permit unignited
in addition means to ignite the unignited gases CI gases to pass into said second chamber, said pas
which escaped through said passage.
sage being closed under normal pressure in said
10. In a device'of the character stated. a re
?rst chamber, and means to ignite gases in said
ceptacle having two gas trapping chambers con~
nected by a restricted passage, the ?rst of said
chambers containing an electrolyte, means to
decompose said electrolyte into its gases of de
second chamber.
GEORGE E. FREDmICKS.
JENS BIVERTSEN.
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