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Патент USA US2411090

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Patented Nov.,l>2,l9i46 -
. '
2,411,090 >
UNITED sures PATENT magic];v ,
Edwin S. Garverich, Upper Darby,v and William
L. Martin, Philadelphia, Pa... assignors to They
Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company,
Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pemmyl
No Drawing. Application December 4, 1942,
Serial No. 468,168
2 Claims. (Cl. 252-116)
This invention relates to improved laundry
detergent and break, compositions and to their
than when an equivalent quantity or soap is
added."'-(E. Meissner Deut. Wollen-Gewerbe '70,
381-2, 1938.)
Particularly the invention relates to the prep
aration of detergent compositions containing in
gredients which will react with one another.
For example, detergent compositions made by
mixing together alkali metal silicates such as
Another .control of moisture can be effected
I by pre-drying the bentonite or adsorptive'clay.
A further reaction control is carried out by
cooling during the mixing of the constituents as
well as coolingthe ?nal product immediately aft
er its preparation. Cooling during mixing re
sodium orthosilicate, sodium sesquisilicate and
sodium metasilicate; hydrophillic colloids, such 10 moves the heat of any reaction which does oc
as bentonite; alkali metal phosphates such as
the sodium orthophosphates, the sodium pyro
cur preventing an accelerated‘and uncontrollable
reaction. Cooling of the product, as formed, will
arrest any reaction then taking place thereby
acid containing oils such as tall oil, or fatty
further preventing heat generation from promot
acidester oils, such as palm oil, have been found 15 ing reaction between the unreacted clay and al
by us to be particularly effective when mixed in
kali metal subsilicate and between the oil and
certain proportions and order under certain con
alkali metal subsilicate.
As stated, it is important that the tall oil or
According to this invention laundry detergent
fatty acid be mixed with the absorptive clay be
and break compositions are prepared from ma 20 fore the alkali alkali subsilicate is added. I! de
terials such as above mentioned in such manner
sired, it is within the scope of the invention to
that substantial reaction between the alkaline
e?ect mixing in any other order. In such case,
materials and the clay, on the one hand, and
more cooling to prevent reaction will be neces
alkaline materials and fatty acid containing oil
sary or the product will not have the same qual- >
on the other, is prevented.
25 ity as when prepared according to the preferred
I mixing order.
An important characteristic of an embodiment
of this invention resides in the order of mix
By ?rst mixing the clay and oils there are ob
ing the components. A composition consisting
tained the following advantages:
of an alkali metal subsilicate, an absorptive clay,
1. Better and more uniform distribution of the
an alkali metal phosphate and fatty acid is pre 30 OilS.
pared so that no appreciable reaction will take
2. Prevention of an appreciable reaction be
place between the fatty acid and silicate, or be
tween the clay and alkali subsilicate.
tween the clay and the silicate. If these reac
3. Retardation of saponi?cation of the fatty
tions are not prevented, the properties of the
acids until the composition is added to water,
product will be impaired, the quality will be rel 35 for example in the laundry wash wheel.
atively poor, and the oil will be saponi?ed by re
4. A uniform and better appearing product.
action with the alkali metal silicate. This is ac
The preparation of the composition of this
complished by adsorbing or absorbing substan
invention is generally carried out by feeding the
tially all of the fatty acid in the clay before add
oils, preferably as an atomized spray. into a
. ing the alkali metal sub'silicate. In this man 40 mixer in which the clay is being agitated. After
ner substantial reaction of the fatty acid or oil
addition of the oils, the alkali‘metal subsilicates
and silicate and the clay and silicate is prevented.
and alkali metal phosphates are added. The
Control of moisture is essential during proc
mixer is so arranged that sumcient heat dis
essing if reaction between the alkali metal sub
sipation will occur to prevent a substantial rise
silicate and the clay is to be controlled. One
in temperature and so that compression and com
control is exercised by the premixing or the oil
paction of the ingredients will be at a minimum.
and bentonite, already described, thereby pre
After the ingredients have been thoroughly mixed,
venting the formation of free moisture through
the product is cooled, preferably with agitation,
saponincation when the alkalies are added to
to ensure substantially complete arresting of any
the mix. An advantage of preventing saponi?
reaction which may be taking place and to break
phosphates and sodium metaphosphate; and fatty
cation is that it will then occur- when the com
up any agglomerates or nodules which may be in
position is added to water and this is known to
the product. This step may be carried out in a
produce a greater cleaning effect. "en soap
?ight conveyor equipped with cooling jackets or
is termed in the wash wheel, a greater cleaning
in a cooled rotary tube or in any other man“
e?ect is produced at the moment or neutralization 55 ner.
2,411,990 .r
‘be added in the form oiRedoiloranyother'
The following examples will serve to illustrate
the compositions of the invention.
‘_ fatty acid or fatty acid containing material which
v can be admixed as herein described and whichis
Parts by weisht
Bentonite (200 mesh) ____ ___ .......... -v_..__ 40 '
Tall oil (re?ned) __________ _'._a___-_
Sodium orthosilicate ...._.'....' ............. -- 85' -
varied. The use 01' about 25%45% isgenerally
sufficient. Quantities greater than about 45%‘
are not recommended as this leads to production
Trisodium phosphate (monohydrate) ..-..'.'.__ 10
'rne' alkali, metal subsilicate can likewise be.
.trouble, disproportionate relationship between
‘alkali and colloid, excessive pH values in the
break operation and, therefore, poor results. .
v ‘40
Tall oil (crude) __________ .._' ____________ __ 7.5
Red oil (oleic acid) _____________________ __ ‘1.5.
Wherever.“allrali metal silicate” is used in the
specification these compounds or mixtures are
encompassed within the term which have a ratio.
15 of NazO-to-SiOz of 1 to 1 or greater. This in»
Sodium orthosilicate
phosphate ....‘
......... _.l. _____
__ 10
. 'cludes-Ssodiummetasilicate, the subsilicates so
Tall nil
dium sesqui- and sodium orthosilicate, and-mix
tures oi, caustic and silicates inwhich the over all
ratio at NaaO to 810: is'l to 1 or greater. .
Sodium orthosilicate ____ _._ ...... ..__.____>___‘35
v v.
The ; ‘alkali metal phosphate content may be
- vdoubled'jzor even tripled, but use of less than
ab0ut“5.%~.'._will lead to serious losses in suds stabil- .
Béntonite (200 mesh) _..-....;_..----.'4.___-'_....__J 40 ‘
ity and-"level. It is important that a phosphate
Tall oil (re?ned) ________ _;-__'_.....>.‘. _________15
of lowiyinoisture- content be used for good- results. _
"Sodium orthosilicate'_-__,_____v,..._...‘. '.'..>_..'_ 85.: 25 We;
Trisodium phosphate"-.. ___________ ...‘.____
1. Theprocess or preparing ‘a detergent com- Y‘
positionicontaining by weight 5%-25%' tall oil, '
25%;-45,%" oi.’ an alkali‘ metal subsilicate capa
ble or. saponiiying said oil, at least 5% oi.’ anal
Bentonite (200 mesh).-.. _________ _..____._;-- 35v '
Tall oilv (re?ned) ______ _.-. ________ _., ____ -.~.. '15.
Sodium metasilicate‘._____...._______.______._ ‘40
kali metal phosphate and'25%-75% or‘ bentonlte
Trisodium phosphate (monohydrate).'.__'.__ l0
which comprises mixing the oil and clay to cause
" absorption or the oil by the clay and then ad-'
mixing the alkali-metal subsilicate; and where
in at ‘least. the} ‘admixing oi the subsllicate is , '
Tall oil (re?ned)-.. _____ -_'.. _________ -9--- 15
35 eilected durinéjlbooling'; and further cooling the
Sodium sesquisilicate______ __\.._'.'. .... --'.__..' 35
Trisodium phosphate .... -4.- ____________ __
product formed.
2. The process of preparing a detergent com
The relative quantities or. ingredients employed
position containing about 5m 25 parts by weight '
' in the composition will vary somewhat depending
of a fatty acid oil, about 25_to 45 parts by weight
40 ‘of an'allcali metal subsliicate capable of s'aponi
upon conditions of use.
The bentonite or adsorptive clay may be from
tying said on, at least 5% of an alkali metal phos- - ' '
25% to 75% of the mixture.- '
' - phate and about 25 to '75 parts- by weight of an
The quantity oi’ oils used may be varied. From
absorptive clay havingcolloidal properties which‘
about, 5% to 20% will yleld‘e?ective, detergent
comprises mixing the oil and‘clay to cause ab
results. Greater ‘quantities are not generally 45
, sorption oi’ the oil by the' clay and then, while
recommended and. ‘amounts in excess 0! about
cooling, admixing the subsilicate and cooling the
25%‘ lead to a material di?icult to process and
product formed.
to such general disproportions that the composi
tion will notv yield good results.~ Obviously, as
shown inExample' 2 some oi-the iatty acids may
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