Патент USA US2411090код для вставки
r Patented Nov.,l>2,l9i46 - . ' 2,411,090 > UNITED sures PATENT magic];v , 2,411,090 raErAnmG A DETERGENT PROCESS OF oomosmon Edwin S. Garverich, Upper Darby,v and William L. Martin, Philadelphia, Pa... assignors to They Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pemmyl vania No Drawing. Application December 4, 1942, Serial No. 468,168 1 2 Claims. (Cl. 252-116) 1 2 This invention relates to improved laundry detergent and break, compositions and to their than when an equivalent quantity or soap is added."'-(E. Meissner Deut. Wollen-Gewerbe '70, preparation. 381-2, 1938.) v Particularly the invention relates to the prep aration of detergent compositions containing in gredients which will react with one another. For example, detergent compositions made by mixing together alkali metal silicates such as _ ‘ Another .control of moisture can be effected I by pre-drying the bentonite or adsorptive'clay. A further reaction control is carried out by cooling during the mixing of the constituents as well as coolingthe ?nal product immediately aft er its preparation. Cooling during mixing re sodium orthosilicate, sodium sesquisilicate and sodium metasilicate; hydrophillic colloids, such 10 moves the heat of any reaction which does oc as bentonite; alkali metal phosphates such as the sodium orthophosphates, the sodium pyro cur preventing an accelerated‘and uncontrollable reaction. Cooling of the product, as formed, will arrest any reaction then taking place thereby acid containing oils such as tall oil, or fatty further preventing heat generation from promot acidester oils, such as palm oil, have been found 15 ing reaction between the unreacted clay and al by us to be particularly effective when mixed in kali metal subsilicate and between the oil and certain proportions and order under certain con alkali metal subsilicate. _ ‘ . ‘ ditions. As stated, it is important that the tall oil or According to this invention laundry detergent fatty acid be mixed with the absorptive clay be and break compositions are prepared from ma 20 fore the alkali alkali subsilicate is added. I! de terials such as above mentioned in such manner sired, it is within the scope of the invention to that substantial reaction between the alkaline e?ect mixing in any other order. In such case, materials and the clay, on the one hand, and more cooling to prevent reaction will be neces alkaline materials and fatty acid containing oil sary or the product will not have the same qual- > on the other, is prevented. ‘ 25 ity as when prepared according to the preferred I mixing order. An important characteristic of an embodiment of this invention resides in the order of mix By ?rst mixing the clay and oils there are ob ing the components. A composition consisting tained the following advantages: of an alkali metal subsilicate, an absorptive clay, 1. Better and more uniform distribution of the an alkali metal phosphate and fatty acid is pre 30 OilS. 3 pared so that no appreciable reaction will take 2. Prevention of an appreciable reaction be place between the fatty acid and silicate, or be tween the clay and alkali subsilicate. tween the clay and the silicate. If these reac 3. Retardation of saponi?cation of the fatty tions are not prevented, the properties of the acids until the composition is added to water, product will be impaired, the quality will be rel 35 for example in the laundry wash wheel. atively poor, and the oil will be saponi?ed by re 4. A uniform and better appearing product. action with the alkali metal silicate. This is ac The preparation of the composition of this complished by adsorbing or absorbing substan invention is generally carried out by feeding the tially all of the fatty acid in the clay before add oils, preferably as an atomized spray. into a . ing the alkali metal sub'silicate. In this man 40 mixer in which the clay is being agitated. After ner substantial reaction of the fatty acid or oil addition of the oils, the alkali‘metal subsilicates and silicate and the clay and silicate is prevented. and alkali metal phosphates are added. The Control of moisture is essential during proc mixer is so arranged that sumcient heat dis essing if reaction between the alkali metal sub sipation will occur to prevent a substantial rise silicate and the clay is to be controlled. One in temperature and so that compression and com control is exercised by the premixing or the oil paction of the ingredients will be at a minimum. and bentonite, already described, thereby pre After the ingredients have been thoroughly mixed, venting the formation of free moisture through the product is cooled, preferably with agitation, saponincation when the alkalies are added to to ensure substantially complete arresting of any the mix. An advantage of preventing saponi? reaction which may be taking place and to break phosphates and sodium metaphosphate; and fatty cation is that it will then occur- when the com up any agglomerates or nodules which may be in position is added to water and this is known to the product. This step may be carried out in a produce a greater cleaning effect. "en soap ?ight conveyor equipped with cooling jackets or is termed in the wash wheel, a greater cleaning in a cooled rotary tube or in any other man“ e?ect is produced at the moment or neutralization 55 ner. I 2,411,990 .r ‘ s ' 3 . - . ' ‘be added in the form oiRedoiloranyother' The following examples will serve to illustrate the compositions of the invention. e ' ' - ‘_ fatty acid or fatty acid containing material which ' v can be admixed as herein described and whichis Parts by weisht saponi?able. Bentonite (200 mesh) ____ ___ .......... -v_..__ 40 ' Tall oil (re?ned) __________ _'._a___-_ _ Sodium orthosilicate ...._.'....' ............. -- 85' - ' " -2 , > ‘ ' varied. The use 01' about 25%45% isgenerally sufficient. Quantities greater than about 45%‘ are not recommended as this leads to production Trisodium phosphate (monohydrate) ..-..'.'.__ 10 . ‘ 'rne' alkali, metal subsilicate can likewise be. .trouble, disproportionate relationship between ‘alkali and colloid, excessive pH values in the ' break operation and, therefore, poor results. . Bentonite v ‘40 Tall oil (crude) __________ .._' ____________ __ 7.5 Red oil (oleic acid) _____________________ __ ‘1.5. Wherever.“allrali metal silicate” is used in the specification these compounds or mixtures are encompassed within the term which have a ratio. v 15 of NazO-to-SiOz of 1 to 1 or greater. This in» Trisodium Sodium orthosilicate phosphate ....‘ (monohydrate) ......... _.l. _____ ._.___>_ __ 10 35 . 'cludes-Ssodiummetasilicate, the subsilicates so Bentonite I Tall nil ' - -_ v dium sesqui- and sodium orthosilicate, and-mix tures oi, caustic and silicates inwhich the over all 45 15 ratio at NaaO to 810: is'l to 1 or greater. . Sodium orthosilicate ____ _._ ...... ..__.____>___‘35 v v. The ; ‘alkali metal phosphate content may be .20 - vdoubled'jzor even tripled, but use of less than ab0ut“5.%~.'._will lead to serious losses in suds stabil- . Béntonite (200 mesh) _..-....;_..----.'4.___-'_....__J 40 ‘ ity and-"level. It is important that a phosphate Tall oil (re?ned) ________ _;-__'_.....>.‘. _________15 of lowiyinoisture- content be used for good- results. _ "Sodium orthosilicate'_-__,_____v,..._...‘. '.'..>_..'_ 85.: 25 We; 2 Trisodium phosphate"-.. ___________ ...‘.____ 5 1. Theprocess or preparing ‘a detergent com- Y‘ . . . 5 ' " - positionicontaining by weight 5%-25%' tall oil, ' - 25%;-45,%" oi.’ an alkali‘ metal subsilicate capa ble or. saponiiying said oil, at least 5% oi.’ anal Bentonite (200 mesh).-.. _________ _..____._;-- 35v ' Tall oilv (re?ned) ______ _.-. ________ _., ____ -.~.. '15. Sodium metasilicate‘._____...._______.______._ ‘40 kali metal phosphate and'25%-75% or‘ bentonlte Trisodium phosphate (monohydrate).'.__'.__ l0 which comprises mixing the oil and clay to cause " absorption or the oil by the clay and then ad-' 6. Bentonite v ' _ _ I . ‘Y mixing the alkali-metal subsilicate; and where 45 in at ‘least. the} ‘admixing oi the subsllicate is , ' Tall oil (re?ned)-.. _____ -_'.. _________ -9--- 15 35 eilected durinéjlbooling'; and further cooling the Sodium sesquisilicate______ __\.._'.'. .... --'.__..' 35 Trisodium phosphate .... -4.- ____________ __ product formed. 5 , _ . 2. The process of preparing a detergent com The relative quantities or. ingredients employed position containing about 5m 25 parts by weight ' ' in the composition will vary somewhat depending of a fatty acid oil, about 25_to 45 parts by weight 40 ‘of an'allcali metal subsliicate capable of s'aponi upon conditions of use. The bentonite or adsorptive clay may be from tying said on, at least 5% of an alkali metal phos- - ' ' 25% to 75% of the mixture.- ' ‘ ' - phate and about 25 to '75 parts- by weight of an The quantity oi’ oils used may be varied. From absorptive clay havingcolloidal properties which‘ about, 5% to 20% will yleld‘e?ective, detergent comprises mixing the oil and‘clay to cause ab results. Greater ‘quantities are not generally 45 , sorption oi’ the oil by the' clay and then, while recommended and. ‘amounts in excess 0! about cooling, admixing the subsilicate and cooling the 25%‘ lead to a material di?icult to process and product formed. , to such general disproportions that the composi tion will notv yield good results.~ Obviously, as shown inExample' 2 some oi-the iatty acids may so EDWIN S. GARVERICH; L. MARTIN.- '