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Nov. 12, 1946. K. EQAUMANN 2,411,124 . INTERNAL_— COMBUSTION TURBINE PLANT Filed Jan. 13, 1944 4 11a 11,4,» h 3b 4 _ / ' 9“ ¢ 9 2110 ‘. (,d Q Z ‘ a J 21:‘ ‘ / pi’; // QgJ7b 9b ,_ 3'! 3b g 4 I & /-8b I‘; \\ IUMWWT/ , , . s Sheets-Sheet 1 / ff _ W4 _ 7 % 2“ 56 2.? 7a I9 la 5b 5 5 Nov. 12, 1946. 2,411,124 K. BAUMANN INTERNAL- COMBUSTION TURB INE PLANT Filed Jan. 13, 1944 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 M6WW1 ‘Bi/670cm Jim", _ 19 T'ro IF/VAZY Nov. 12,1946. 2,411,124 K. BAUMANN INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE PLANT Filed Jan. 13, 1944 >8 Sheets-Sheet 3 3 \\\ \ \\\R \ \ 3_ I NYEMT'OK ?TTO EN:- Y Nov. 12, 1946. K. BAUMANN INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE PLANT Filed Jan. 13, 1944 I‘ 2,411,124 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 9: FIG. '5. INVENTO/F M_ ‘ MW TTORNEY Nov. 12, 1946. K. BAUMANN . 2,411,124 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE PLANT Filed Jan. ‘13, 1944 IN 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 IN ‘ Nov. 12, 1946, K- BAUMANN 2,411,124 INTERNAL - COMBUS ‘1' ION TURBINE PLANT I 'F'iled Jan. 13, 1944' . h 21‘ %/ \L.\ v ' \ v \ _ \\"P f 1 25 '9 //8;\/V//////// I 86 \r\\\\\‘ _ (4d. 1 2d i 5. ' . § 209 b L ' — 211 p w j N ¢- 8 Sheets-Sheet e W Z l . [ii ‘ 42 a 47' :i v 5‘ .37’ ////)// \‘ \ i 7' - 7' lad INYENTbIF . a’ifwbéumw Nov. 12, 1946.. K. BAUMANN 2,411,124 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE PLANT Filed Jan. 13, 1944 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 Ia NOV. 12, 1946. K_ BAUMANN 2,411,124 INTERNAL~COMBUSTION TURBINE PLANT , Filed Jan. 13, 1944 4' - \ 4 c 3' 7 I Z 2a 8 Sheets-Sheet 8. y‘ ‘ - I I a F/G. l0. 5 . 6b’ 30 ‘ AM “I - \/ J ““ * 37 , Cooling Air‘ ‘ ' 36 .25 / - ‘ \\ \\\\| '26“ 34 \ “ _ ' . 38 31 29“ 29 .36’ 29“ . 3-7 v n ‘IE/6' 7} ‘2% I 8/.IVVENro/i’ Patented Nov. 12, 1946 2,411,124 umrsosrnss PATENT OFFICE _ 2,411,124 _ ' INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE PLANT Karl Baumann, Mere, Knutsi’ord, England, as . Signor to Metropolltan-Vickers Electrical Com pany Limited, London, England, a company of , Great Britain Application January 13, 1944, Serial No. 518,166 I In Great Britain November 1, 1941 5 Claims. (01. 2304-116) This invention relates to internal combustion power plant for propulsion in air of the kind wherein the energy in the rearwardly exhausting ‘ products of combustion is utilised at least to assist in the propulsion by so-called jet action, such plant being notably but not exclusively em ployed for the propulsion of aircraft. The invention furthermore speci?cally con cerns an internal combustion power turbine com ponent operated by the exhausting products of combustion and arranged to drive or work upon air additional to that used for the internal com bustion, whereby essentially to increase the pro pulsion effect in atleast one way. A 2 . sion. Conveniently also at least oneand pref erably each of the stages of the power turbine blading is formed or provided with a. foundation ring (and conveniently also with shrouding as and where may be found necessary) again to pro-, vide a self-supporting structure in the case of each turbine stage.‘ i ' In carrying out the invention according to a feature thereof, a or the self-supporting air blad lng structure or element may have the founda tion ring of the inner blading periphery carried from the corresponding rotor of the power tur bine by means of a, thin axially extending or cylindrical ?ange, 'preferablypalso with a con The invention mainly but not exclusively con 15 necting portion or portions of re-entrant or an cerns subsidiary features and structural details nularly dished form, or by means of inner and of, and also some improvements‘in, the contra outer cylindrical portions united at one end by an rotational “thrust augmentor” and plant in ac integral annular portion which is itself of semi cordance with copending application Serial No. section or substantially so, these two co 518,165, ?led January 13, 1944, and is directed to 20 circular axial cylindrical portions and the uniting portion the convenient production of a plant of desirably being hereinafter for brevity referred to as a low Weight and small volume with provision for “swan-neck” member or portion: the other ends ?exibility for differential thermal expansion. In the following speci?cation for the sake of ‘ of these members are integral with or rigidly at brevity, clearness and convenience of description, 25 tached respectively to the foundation ring of the air blading stage and, within that, to the shroud the subject matter of the invention will be re ing or foundationv ring of the outer periphery of ferred to broadly as applied to a thrust aug a row of power turbine blading driving the air mentor and the turbine forming an essential part blading. In a, modi?cation of the former of the thereof, preferably a low pressure turbine, will mostly be referred to as the power turbine, whilst 30 two speci?c arrangements just above described the cylindrical member may be articulated with the air screws or ducted fan stages or low pres ‘ sure compressor driven by said power turbine will respect to one or both of the rings with which it be referred to mostly as air blading or ducted fan connects, that is to say the connecting member may comprise a relatively thin walled coaxial cyl stages. Furthermore, for convenience and by inder the two edges of which areformed or pro bustion products driving the power turbine oi the 35 vided with enlargements of part circular cross section engaged in correspondingly shaped an- > thrust augmentor are those discharging from a nular recesses in the foundation members which “compressor” turbine, that is, another turbine used wholly or mainly for driving the compressor are thereby united. In another arrangement which supplies air to a combustion chamber, the each of the foundation members may be formed gases leaving which pass through both of said or provided with a, short axially extending ?ange, turbines. the one overlapping the other, and the two con According to the present invention at least one nected together by tapered radial pins engaged in air blading stage, and preferably each air blading similarly tapered holes in both ?anges, the taper- \ stage, is mounted on a'foundation ring at the 45 ing converging to the axis of rotation; this ar— base-or radially inner-end of‘ the blading row rangement again providing for thermal expan (such row also having if desired outer shroud sion e?ects in per se known manner in steam tur way of example it will be assumed that the com - ~ ing), so as to form a self-supporting structure bines, and previously proposed in other situations which, or each of which, is carried by the or a in internal combustion turbine plant. rotor of the power turbine through the medium 50 Several arrangements in accordance with the of an axially extending member or'members invention and further'features thereof will now which may assume various forms (some of which be described with reference to the accompanying are per se known) and which permit radial ?ex drawings, in all the ?gures of which it can be ibility between the members thereby connected, assumed that there are two stages of air screws for accommodating differential thermal expan 55 or ducted fan blading and four stages of power‘ 2,411,124= rotation principle. ' - erably of tapering section such as illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12. . In the drawings like or similar reference nu merals will be used for the same ‘parts, where Preferably at leastone, and maybe two' or" possible, in the several ?gures, all the ?gures of three or four of the turbine blading stages are’ which are fragmentary views illustrating con provided at their inner peripheries with founda tion rings‘designated la, 2a, 3a and 4a, whilst, as illustrated only in Fig. 9 there may alterna ventionally in sectional elevation the upper halves of the several arrangements. In the drawings; 4 6 (only parts of which are shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3.‘ 4, '7, '8 and 9) or by undished'radial discs, pref: turbine blading, all operating-on the contra ' ' Fig. 1 is an axial section of the turbine and 10 tively be a common inner foundation ring such as 3ala for the ?rst and third blading stages, fan blading of a turbine structure embodying the present invention. or alternatively and similarly a common outer foundationring for the second and fourth stages. Certain of these turbine inner foundation rings, or, in the case of Fig. 9, both of them, may be ' Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig.’ 1, but showing a modi?ed construction of the shrouding of the turbine blading and foundation rings of ‘stages of the turbine blading. _ ' Fig. 3 is a view similar to .Fig. l, but showing inner foundation rings for all of the turbine stages and a modi?cation of the outer shrouding thereof. Fig. 4' is a view similar to the preceding ?g 20 ures but showing a modi?cation of the connec tions between the turbine stages and the fan blading. , integral with, but are preferably formed ‘sep ar'ately from and rigidly connected with the discs 5 ‘and. 6 (Figs. l_to 10). On the other'hand, in Figs. 11 and 12 the inner foundation rings indi cated at lb and 2b in Fig. 11 form the rims of, the radial undished discs 5a and 6a. Thus in most of the ?gures of the drawings, in general the two foundation ringsof the ducted . fan blading rows are designated Ia and Illa; up and welded structure between the turbine 25 inner foundation rings of the power turbine blad- _ ing stages‘are indicated by la, 2a, 3a and 4a; stages and the fan blading. -outer foundation rings of the turbine blading Fig. 6 is a detail axial section showing a riv-' Fig. 5‘ is a fragmentary axial section of a built; eted assembly connecting the bladings of the tur bine and fan and providing for ?ow of cooling air. . are indicated similarly by-the suffix b. Inner shrouding rings of the turbine blading stagesv l, 30 2, 3 and 4 are indicated by similar numerals with the su?ix c and outer shrouding rings of . Fig. 7 is an axial section showing a tapered pin such blading are'indicated by the suiilx d applied arrangement for connecting the bladings of the turbine and fan. I to the same numerals l, 2, 3 and 4. . Since the generally cylindrical structures of ‘ Fig. 8 is an axial section showing another the herein called inner and outer rotors of the modi?ed arrangement for connecting the turbine turbine must be substantially rigid and the con ' and fan bladings. Fig. 9 is an axial section showing dished discs for mounting the turbine bladings and ventilating holes for protecting the fan bladings from high temperatures. ‘ tinuity of the annular passage containing the contra-rotational blading must be ensured, inner turbine connecting sleeves are employed for the 40 Fig; 10 is an axial section showing the bear-. ings for mounting the turbine rotors. Fig. 11 is a'view similar to Fig. 10, but show ing radial turbine discs and the bearings for supporting them. Fig. 12 is a detail view in axial section, show- , ing- a ?exible connection between one of the turbine rotor discs and its bearings. , Figs. 13 and 14 are sectional views through inner rotor cylinder, designated by the reference numeral 1 with certain su?lx letters as appro prlate, whilst the outer'sleeves are designated 8 also with ‘certain su?ix‘ letters as appropriate. The ?exible axially extending members con necting the inner foundation ‘rings Ia. and Hit of the ducted fan blading stages with the respecé tive turbine rotors are indicated in general by the reference numerals 9 and ID with suffix let ters as appropriate. _) _ A _ v the air blading and the turbine blading, respec 50 The several figures of the drawings will now be described in such detail as seems necessary. tively. Referring to Fig. 1, it will bev noticed‘ that In all the illustrated arrangements it will be assumed that the gas and air flows are from right to left, the four rows of turbine bladingbeing numbered respectively i, 2, 3 and 4, whilst the two ‘ air screws or rows of ducted fan blading are des ignated I and II. . In Figs. 1 to 9' the foundation rings of the ducted fan'blading are‘ indicated at Ia and Ho. ' 1 It will be appreciated from an inspection‘ of 60 Figs. 1 to 9 and a perusal of the description of these ?gures that in all the arrangements illus-. trated in these ?gures the four contra-rotational - intercalated stages of thepower turbine blading I, 2, 3 and 4 (Fig. 14) are- carried on two rotors variously constructed as hereinafter described in detail, namely what are herein for convenience the blading stages i and 2 of the power turbine have inner foundation rings la and 2a whilst the blading stages 3 and 4 of this turbine have outer foundation rings 3?) and 4b. It is to be assumed that the blades are in most arrangements secured in the foundation rings by the provision of roots on the blades engaging in axial grooves in the foundation rings, as indicated by the dotted lines ‘such as If and 41‘. On the other hand, the shrouding such as id and 4c'in Fig. 1 'can' be assumed to be integral with the evenly circum ferentially distributed blading in' the stages I and _ 4, each 'blade carrying a segment ‘of shrouding. In Fig. 1 the inner foundation ring ‘la of the‘ turbine blading stage I has an inward ?ange lg which is riveted to the outer periphery of the dished disc 5. which is provided with a cylindri inner one, but these terms arein no way related to mean blade diameters: wthese rotors are car 70 cal ?ange 5b between which and the inner cylin drical surface of the foundation member 2a of ried from a shaft or axle preferably but not stage 2 is the labyrinthine packing gland 5c. The necessarily in the manner illustrated in Figs. 10, foundation .ring 2a has the internal radial ?ange ' 11 and 12 of the accompanying drawings and 2g which is riveted not only to the outer pe as described hereinafter with reference thereto, through annularly dished discs such as 5 and 75 riphery of the dished disc 6 but also to the inner - called an outer rotor cylinder structure and an 2,41 1,124 radial ?ange 1a of the connecting sleeve ‘I which at its‘other end has a‘ ?ange ‘lb riveted to the inwardly projecting vsegmental lugs 49 formed on the‘ shrouding ringlc of blading-stage 4 of the power turbine; thus is constituted the inner rotor cylinder, carrying stages 2 and 4. It is to ‘ be understood that the rivets may be replaced are formed directly on the outer ends of some or all of the turbine blades. The boundaries of the ‘gas and air passages are formed by the bridge pieces Ho, '41) which are integral with the blades, and which butt together to form a coinplete cir cle. There may, however, be fewerair blades than turbine blades in the row. There may be an annular recess 4a: as shown. The outer rotor cylinder of the power turbine arrangement shown in Fig. 4 only differs is similarly constituted namely by the provision lit in The detail from that shown in the preceding ?g of the axiallyextending connecting sleeve 8 hav ures in that the member 9 is integral through a ing a ?ange 8a riveted or bolted to the segmen semi-swan-neck part 9a’ at the centre of the tal external ?ange on the segmental shrouding foundation ring Ia. the right-hand end of the ring Id and having a ?ange 8b riveted to the part 9 being connected to the shroud ring Id outer foundation ring 3b. . 15 as shown in Fig. 3. There is also the difference The foundation ring Ia in Fig. 1 is shown as regarding Fig. 4 that there is a common founda having the integral axially extending cylindrical tion ring IIa and 4b between the fan blading II member 9 with the “swan-neck” portion 9a, the and the turbine blading stage 4, plus the cylindri right-hand end of which member 9 is connected by radial rivets at 91) to the right-hand end of 20 cal ?ange 4y extending outwardly around the a cylindrical extension to of the radial ?ange ' foundation ring 32), with labyrinth packing 42 therebetween as shown. ' dc; by screws or nuts and bolts. .- The foundation ring 11a of the second row II In the arrangements illustrated by Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4, the ?rst row I of turbine blading is me of the ducted fan blading has integral with it the axially extending‘cylinder it which at its left chanically connected with the third row 3 there outer foundation ring lib of the turbine blading outer foundation or shrouding rings respectively, 25 of through‘ the outer rotor cylinder comprising ' hand end joins integrally as shown at we the connected by the essential member 8. In the arrangements shown in Figs. 5, 5, 7, 8 and 9, on - It will be noticed that the turbine outer founda the other hand, it is the second and fourth rows tion ring tlb has a cylindrical ?ange 3h extend ing into the swanmeck Eda and provided with 30 of the turbine blading which are connected to the outer rotor cylinder. In all cases the ?rst ridges as shown to constitute labyrinthine pack row I of ducted fan blading is mechanically con ing against escape of gases from the radial gap nected With the ?rst and third rows of power between the turbine foundation rings 3?) and db. turbine blading at the outer periphery of the lat At ml) is shown one of a plurality of radial ven ter, although the invention is not limited in this tilation holes in the axially extending member respect. iii to allow turbine, gases which may pass the 1 Referring to Fig. 5, the ?exible axially extend- , labyrinth ?ange db, to escape into the air duct ing swan-neck member 9, 9a is connected by the (not shown). The arrangement shown in Fig. 2 differs only 40 welds at 90 and 9] as shown between the short cylindrical extensions on the left-hand ends of . from that shown in Fig. 1 in the main in that the foundation ring Ia and the shrouding Id. the turbine blading stage 2 is provided with the The connection of the ducted fan foundation outer shrouding 2d, whilst the member 8 of Fig. 1 ring 11a is by the cylindrical extension Ill welded is not bolted or riveted at its ends to the shroud at its left-hand end at l?d to the cylindrical outer ing Id and foundation ring 3b but is articulated portion of the externally ?anged shrouding lid with respect to these members as indicated at 811 (as shown) the radial ?ange being in this case in the manner hereinbefore set forth. Further riveted to the left-hand radial ?ange of the sleeve more the member 8c is omitted and the member 9a, 9 is provided with the internal ?ange 90 with . B which at its right-hand end is welded at 80” to a left extension of the shrouding 2d. the cylindrical extension 902 riveted to the ?anged 50 The further modi?cation illustrated by Fig. 6 , ' shrouding ring id. is characterised by several minor features,‘ as The arrangement shown in Fig. 3 differs from follows: The cylindrical member 8 has its ?anges the arrangement shown in Fig. 1 in the follow connected by “axialf’ rivets, at its right-hand ing respects: all the turbine blading stages have end to the ?ange formed on the turbine blade inner foundation rings id to Ila. The stages i shrouding 2d, and at its left-hand end to a simi: and 3 have outer shrouding rings‘ id and 3d,. lar ?ange on the fourth turbine stage shrouding which are preferably formed in segments each dd radially riveted at Hie to the doubly ?anged . segment being integral with one blade. The use end Iii)‘ of the'?exible cylinder ill, near the right of complete rings is not, however, excluded, and hand end of which is the radial ?ange lllg secured these of course will be relatively light in weight stage it. - , compared with foundation rings. The member I 60 by the hollow rivets lllh to the inward ?ange of the ducted fan foundation ring Ila, as shown. The ?ange I09 is extended outwards at I02‘ to eted ?anged joints, whilst labyrinthine packing terminate in a cylinder portion I 07' bridging the 5d may be provided, as shown. gap between the ducted fan foundation rings Ia A member 8, likewise, connects the shrouding and 11a. _ ‘ ring id with the shrouding ring 3d. The axial- . In the arrangement illustrated by Fig. 6, fur 1y extending member 9 is of more elementary thermore, the turbine shrouding id has an out form than is shown in Figs. 1 and 2, being a sim ward ?ange Id’ secured by hollow rivets I d" to ple integral extension of the ducted fan founda an internal ?ange 9g on the ?exible member 9 ' connects the foundation rings 2a and 13a by riv- _ tion ring Ia, and riveted or bolted at its right 70 which at its other end has an outward ?ange 9h hand end to a short axial extension 80’ of the secured by hollow rivets 97' to an inward ?ange member t. , of the foundation ring Ia. Furthermore, the Furthermore, the ducted fan blading stage II ?ange 99 has a cylindrical extension 9k overlap is shown integral with the turbine blading stage ping the shroud 2d, with labyrinthine packing 9h’ 4 as a “double-tier” stage in which the fan blades 75 therebetween. The hollow rivets 9i and I (In have . ' 7 agraph is‘per se broadly claimed in oopending application Serial No. 518,174, ?led January 13, ?owing through them cooling air inducted by the air blades, while the hollowjrivets Id" prevent 1944, and is only claimed herein strictly subordi the establishment of a hot pocket by gases pass ‘ ing the labyrinth packing between the station . nately to the main features of the present inven- ary structure and the facing surfaces of member Id and 9. ' - I tion. \ . . I . ‘Fig. 9 of the drawings of the present applica tion shows an arrangement which differs only in details‘ (which should be readily apparent now) > The arrangement of Fig. 6 enables the foun dation rings Ia and Ila to be of a different ma— terial from the ?exible members in and 9. Also, ' from'the arrangement shown inFlg. 8. At 23 is owing to the cooling effect of the air stream pass 10 shown in dotted lines the ?nal blading stage of the compressor turbine, namely the'turbi'nedrlv-' ing through the hollow rivets, thematerial- of ing the. compressor which supplies the combus the said foundation rings Ia and 11a may be chosen'without regard to its suitability for high ‘ tion» chambervsupplying the gas for said com pressor turbine. .In' Fig. 9 are fragmentally. temperature operation. It may, for example, be an aluminium alloy. - _ ; Referring to Fig. 7, the per. se constructions of the ducted fan and power turbine need no ‘particular description after perusal of the de scription of ‘and the inspection of Figs. 1 to 6; except‘ by the hereinbefore set forth means of connection of the two contra-rotational tu'rbine rotors to the respective foundation rings Ia. and 11a ofthe ducted fans. Namely, the comparative 15 shown labyrinth packing members 21 and 28 separating moving parts from the last stage 26 of the compressor turbine. There is also shown in Fig. 9 at 2dr 2. double tongue projection formed at the outer end of the blades of stage 2, engaged 20v and held by rivets in a correspondingly formed extension 8:: of the connecting member 8, thus forming the foundation ring for the blading'stage 2. There are also shown in this Fig. 9 the ven tilation holes VI and V2,'and the cylinder V3 ly shorter axially extending members 9 and it are connected to relatively short overlapping axial 25 for preventing the light alloy foundation rings of the ducted fans being subjected to too high extensions of the air ‘blade foundation rings Ia ‘ ‘ and Hay respectively, by the tapered pins I2, as . temperatures. Fig. 10 shows how the dished discs 5 and 6 and for the purpose hereinbefore set forth. It can be ‘contra-rotationally carried on ball bear will also be'noted from an inspection of Fig. 7 4 that the discs 5'and B may be dished oppositely 30 ings about a shaft which, as an’ example, is a stub shaft extension 29 of the compressor tur ' in contrast with'those indicated in Figs. 1 to 4. ' In the arrangement illustrated by Fig. 8 the power turbine is shown by way of example’as. in Fig. '7, but the connection of the ducted fan blading to the turbine rotors is different in a 35 bine, being integral with or secured to the disc 26a of ‘the last stage 26 (Fig.9) of the compressor turbine. In the ‘illustrated example the annu larly dished disc 6 is secured at its inner periph ery by rivets 61) (or bolts) to a radial ?ange 30 respect as follows: In this figure the foundation‘ ringsIa and Ho are of “light alloy” and are con on the left-hand end of the sleeve shaft 3| car rying at that end the outer race of a ball bear ing 32 the inner race of which is- carried on the nected by the steel, axially extending membersil and ID, preferably of “swan-neck” form generally similar, as‘an example, to that shown in Fig. 1 40 stub shaft or extension 29. The bearing 33 at the right-hand end of the sleeve shaft 3| ‘is car ried within a member 34, the outer cylindrical . as regards the members 9b and 8c, and similarly as regards ducted fan stage II illustrated by Fig. '5 at I0, but with the following changes, namely: The member .8,c (compare Fig. 1) at its right hand' end is riveted or otherwise connected to 45 theright-hand end of the outer ?exible cylinder. part of which is connected by taper pins 35 from a cylindrical hub part 36 of the disc 26a for ac commodating radial differential thermal ‘expan sion. The inner periphery of the annularly dished ' 9 which at its left-hand end is formed as fol . lows for its connection to the foundation ring Ia. disc 5 is rigidly attached to an outer sleeve shaft _ 31 relatively rotatable with respect to the sleeve The left-hand end of the ?exible cylinder 9 is ‘ . formed with 'a radial flange portion 91 integral 50 shaft 3| through the ball bearings 38. Cooling of the ball bearings and their sleeve - with a re-entrant cylindrical ?ange 9m, thereby shafts may be effected, together with some cool; providing as shown the annular channel holding, ing of the discs 5 and 3 or 5a and 6a and the blade by the. rivets 9n, the inserted extension edge of foundation‘ rings, by the introduction of cool the foundation ‘ring Ia, as shown. The other" foundation ring 11a is similarly drivingly con 55 ing air at the outer end of the stub extension 29 of the compressor turbine shaft, which extension nected to the other rotor' of the power turbine, is made hollow for the purpose and furnished as can be readily seen by examination‘ of Fig. 8 with radial holes 2911 providing outlets into laby of the accompanying drawings. In Fig. 8 there rinthine passages‘ about the sleeves and bearings, is also shown the following adjuncts,- viz: An annular shield disc 20 is clamped by its cy 60 with ?nal-discharge intospaces from which the air may emerge to join the gas stream. lindrical portion by the rivets 9b, at the inlet end of the ducted ‘fan stage I, and an annular , de?ector disc 2| at the left-hand end of the . . Fig. 11 is similar to Fig. 10, only differing-there _' from, as hereinbefore indicated, in that instead foundation ring IIa: there are also holes 11, \as _ of the dished discs, there are the radial 5a flexible cylindrical members 9 and I0. ' some further ?exibility to the discs 5a and 6a - shown, in the radial parts holding the'foundation 65 and So each‘ having inner cylindrical parts 5.1: and 61: connected by taper pins 39 and 49 to the rings Ia and 11a, which rings necessarily have sleeve shafts 31 and 3| respectively. For giving cylindrical clearance from the outer parts of the Thus, as shown by the'short arrows 22 and 23, cool air, due to pressure difference, flows back to the axial 70. they may be provided with the annular ‘grooves indicated, at ll. ' 7 Finally, Fig. 12 illustrates the ?exible connec grooves 24 in' the foundation ring 11a to and through the holes p and then through the grooves tlon' of a disc, for example 5a, to the sleeve shaft, ~ 25 in the ring Ia, as shown by the arrow 25, to for example 31, by the cylinder 42. . It will be understood that there may be more ‘the shield 20 to be returned to the annular stream of ‘inducted air. The subject matter of this par than four‘l‘ow pressure turbine stages. For in 2,411,124 10 from to said ring, and comprising everlapping portions, and radial tapered pin's uniting said por stance, ii there are six turbine stages the disc or dished web for the .?rst rotating member may carry or be connected directly to the blading or tions. , 3. In an internal combustion turbine structure, the ?rst turbine stages while the rows or blad ing of the third and ?fth stages are carried by 5 the combination of a power turbine having axial ?ow turbine blading and air blading carried and exteriorly located‘ foundation rings. The disc driven by a turbine rotor outwardly of said tur or dished disc for the second rotating member bine blading, at least one air blading stage hav may carry or be connecteddirectly to the blad ing a'ioundation ring at the base of the blading ing of the fourth stage whilst the rows of blad ing of the second and sixth stages are carried by 10 row so as to form a self-supporting structure which is carried by said rotor of the power turf foundation rings located’respectively interiorly bine, and an axially extending member capable and exteriorly of the bladlng. The exterior cy of radial ?exibility for accommodating diil'er lindrical and/or "swan-neck” connections for ential thermal expansion, said member being con driving the ducted fan stages may be made re spectively with the ?rst and sixth low pressure 1.5 nected to said rotor and extending axially there- ‘ from to said ring and terminating in radially spaced cylindrical portions, and the inner founda tion ring of said row‘ of ‘air blading having a of the inner and outer rotors ‘or the power tur cylindrical portion extending‘ between and se bine'as hereinbefore described may involve the progressive building up of. the separate constit 20 cured to said portions. 4. In an internal combustion turbine structure, ' uent parts and intercalated blading stages of the combination of a power turbine having axial these rotors, in the axial direction, and this sub flow turbine blading and air blading carried and _ject matter,'which can be carried'out in other driven by a turbine rotor outwardly of said tur- . ways, per se forms the subject matter of copend ing application Serial No. 518,167, filed January 25 bine blading, at least one air blading stage hav ing a foundation ring-at the base of the blading 13, 1944i. turbine stage structures. ‘ It is now herein pointed out that the structures I claim: 1. In an internal combustion turbine structure, an air impeller comprising a power turbine com row so as to form a self-supporting structure which is carried by said rotor of the power tur bine, and an axially extending member capable prising a. plurality of intercalated stages of axial 30 of radial ?exibility for accommodating differen tial thermal expansion, said member'bein'g con flow turbine blading constituted as inner and nected to said rotor and extending axially there outer rotor members, at least one of said rotor from to said ring and having a cylindrical ex members comprising axially spaced ring supports tension arranged to constitute a heat shield be for a pair of stages of turbirieblading and a co-. axial sleeve member interposed between and con 35 tween the driven structure and the hotter turbine necting said supports, and air blading carried 5. In an internal combustion turbine structure, ‘and driven by said rotor members, at least one an air impeller comprising a power turbine hav air blading stage having a foundation ringat‘ ing axial ?ow turbine blading and air blading' the base of therblading row so as to form a self carried and driven by _a turbine rotor outwardly supporting structure which is carried by one of 40 of said turbine blading, at least one air blading said rotor members of the power turbine, and an . stage having a foundation ring at the base of the axially extending member capable of radial ?ex blading row so as to form va. self-supporting struc ibility for accommodating di?erential thermal ex ture which is carried by said rotor of the power parts. . ‘ I ‘ pansion, said axially extending member being , turbine, and an axially extending member capa connected to one of said rotor members and ex ble of radial ?exibility for accommodating diii'er tending axially therefrom to said foundation ring. ential thermal expansion, said member being 2. In an internal combustion turbine structure, an air impeller comprising a power turbine having axial ?ow turbine blading and air blading car ' connected to said rotor" and extending axially said turbine blading, at least one air blading stage having a foundation ring at the base of the blad ; ling row so .as to-torm a self-supportingwstrucv spaced therefrom to provide an annular channel therefrom to said ring, and comprising a cylin drical portion within the inner substantially cy-. ried and driven by a turbine rotor outwardly of 50- lindrlcal surface or said foundation ring and for cooling air whereby said ring and associated structures are protected from the heating e?ect of . ture which is carried by said rotor of the power adjacent turbine parts and of turbine gases, and turbine, and an axially extending member capable ‘55 means providing an induced air circulation in ‘of radial ?einbility for accommodating di?eren- . said channel. ‘ _ tial thermal expansion, said member being con“ nected to said rotor and extending axially there-_> - KARL BA'UMANN. 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