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Патент USA US2411132

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Nov. 12, 1946-
B: L. HATHORN‘E ETAL
'
ARTIFICIAL YARN AND METHOD OF PRODUCING
Filed Aug. 15, 1942
‘
2,411,132
SAME
I
.
AND ROBE/P7’ 14/. SEEM '
W-u/WM
2,411,132
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
Fatent'ed Nov. 12, 1946_
2,411,132
ARTIFICIAL YARN AND METHOD OF
PRODUCING THE SAME
Berkeley L. Hathorne, Delray Beach, Fla., and
Robert W. Seem, United States Army, assignors,
by direct and mesne assignments, to Crepe de
Chine, Inc., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application August 13, 1942, Serial No. 454,679%
23 Claims. (Cl. 57—140)
1
This invention is a continuation-in-part of ap
plication Serial No. 354,064, ?led August 24, 1940,
greater than the desired ?nished twist, the twist
set, the yarn subjected to a twisting operation
and relates to arti?cial or synthetic yarns, par
ticularly rayon yarns, the method of producing
the same, and fabric made therefrom.
An object of this invention is to, in some in
in a direction opposite to the original twist to
stances, substantially reduce, by counter-balance
in the ?nal yarn.
ing, the torsional forces in the yarn and, in other
instances, to create in the yarn torsional forces
in a direction opposite to that which results from
claims.
twisting a yarn directly to the same ?nished
twist and opposite to that which would be ex
pected from a twist determination, as determined
by a standard twist tester.
'
,
produce the desired ?nished twist, and ?nally
the twist set, the twists and the degree of setting
thereof depending on the torsional forces desired
,
Other and further objects will become apparent
from the’ following description and appended
'
The above objects are broadly obtained by
twisting a yarn beyond the ?nished twist desired,
setting the twist, reverse-twisting the yarn to
produce the desired ?nished twist, and setting
'Another object of this invention is to accu 15 the twist, the magnitude of the twist and the
degree of setting the twist being such as to con
rately control the torsional forces of knitting or
trol the torsional forces of that yarn very accu
weaving yarns whereby said yarns possess new
rately. By appropriate twisting operations in the
and useful characteristics.
opposite directions and the degree of setting of
Another object of this invention is to provide
yarns having substantially reduced and/or con 20 the respective twists, the knitting orv weaving
yarn can be made, as desired, to have (a) either
trolled torsional forces to facilitateoperations
subsequent to twisting, for example coning and/or
quilling, and the knitting or weaving operations,
by substantially eliminating and/or controlling
or both the active and/or latent torsional forces
practically eliminated or reduced to the desired
or required degree, or (b) active torsional forces
25 resulting from S-twist in a yarn showing a Z-twist
the curling, kinking or ?ying of the yarn.
only by conventional twist-testing methods, to
A further object of this invention is to provide
gether with latent torsional forces practically
yarns having the torsional forces substantially’
reduced and/or controlled, which makes possible I eliminated or reduced the desired or required
degree.
new knitted and woven fabrics.
We have further discovered that when the
, A still further object of this invention is to 30
aforementioned process is applied to rayon yarn,
for best results the inherent characteristics of
rayon that effect its resistance to twisting, its
tendency to untwist after having been twisted,
crepeing, shrinking, curling or twisting on a bias
35 and the amount of twist that may be inserted
is substantially reduced and/or controlled.
and set without having an objectionable degree
Another object of this invention is to provide
of tendency to untwist should be considered with
yarns, and fabrics formed thereof, of increased
respect to the various steps of the process.
resiliency and elasticity.
The term “rayon” employed herein is intended
Another object of our invention is to provide
provide yarns having the torsional forces sub
stantially reduced and/or controlled, which makes
possible knitted and woven fabrics in which the
'~ more compact yarns with the torsional forces 40 to include all yarns formed of a cellulose or cellu
losic material such as, for example, prepared by
I
the viscose, cuprammonium or.cellulose acetate
Another object of this invention is to provide
process, irrespective of whether the yarns are
sheerer, duller, and more snag-resistant fabrics.
formed of continuous ?laments or staple fibers.
Another object of this invention is to provide
yarns of the maximum compactness and mini 45 If rayon were perfectly elastic, then the torsion
reduced and/or controlled.
in a twisted rayon yarn would follow Hook's law,
i. e. the torsion is proportional to the turns.
However, rayon being far from perfectly elastic,
a method of making the yarns having the afore
the torsion of twisted rayon yarn varies consid
mentioned characteristics.
Another'object of this invention is to provide 60 erably from Hook's law.
When referring to all of the many types of
a. method in which rayon yarns have been twisted
natural and arti?cial yarns, the “size >< twist ><
beyond the ?nished twist desired, twist-set to the
strength factor” (size in denier >< twist in turns
necessary or desired degree and then untwisted
per inch X strength in grams per denier) gives
to the desired twist, and ?nally the twist set to
produce yarns whose superficies do not differ from 55 a good over-all relative indication of the resist
ance of a yarn to twisting and the tendency to
that of a yarn that has been twisted directly to
untwist after having been twisted and the amount
the same ?nished twist.
'
_
of twist that may be inserted and set, without
Another object of this invention is to provide
having
an objectionable degree of tendency to
a method wherein rayon yarns are twisted in one
direction to impart a twist of from 3% to' 60% 60 untwist. Rayon, however, possesses certain pe
mum torsional forces.
Another object of this invention is to provide
2,411,132
3
4
culiar characteristics which must especially be ,
taken into consideration, said relevant character- '
istics being the elongation and plastic flow of the
rayonv at stress .strain loads voi.’ spinning various
amounts of twist under various percentages of
relative humidity, and the degree of ductility,
plastic ?ow or permanent’ elongation‘resulting
from twist-setting.
'
'
‘
Rayon, being synthetic, can and\is_ being made '
to vary considerably in strength and elongation, 10
but of special importance inythe utilization of our
invention is'the fact that the elongation does not
always have approximately the same relationship
to the strength, and for this reason it is necessary
mula, the ‘numerical values resulting therefrom
are necessarily of a different magnitude than
when the "size X, twist X strength factor" is
used. In connection with this formula, it is im
portant to consider ,‘the atmospheric conditions
under which the twisting load is applied, since
' rayon generally elongates up to 50% more when
wet than when dry and- consequently more twist
may be evenly inserted under a given twisting
load it the atmospheric conditions cause the rayon
yarns to absorb more moisture, and the more
moisture present in a rayon yarn being twisted
under a given twisting load, the less tendency
there will be to untwist from a given amount of
to include the elongation of the yarn in any for 15 twist. In other_ words, the elasticrecovery of
mula dealing with the resistance of various rayons
rayon after the removal of various stress strain
to twisting and the tendency to untwist after hav
loads varies considerably with the moisture con
ing been twisted.
'
tent of the rayon when being twisted.
Tensile strength is the measure 01’ the resistance
It‘ is also important, when considering the tor
of a yarn to elongation at the breaking point and, 20 sion to be expected from a twisted rayon yarn, to
since no single or multi-?lament yarn can be
take into consideration the degree of setting of
twisted without elongating the ?ber in a helical
the twist, since it is customary in the art of rayon
form around its axis, it is quite evident that the ,
yarn manufacturing to set the twist for the de
strength or resistance to elongation is an im
liberate purpose of reducing the active torsion re
portant factor when dealing with torsion of a 25 sulting from twisting. It can readily be appre
yarn. However, since the elongation of various
ciated that the degree of twist-setting, including
rayon yarns varies so considerably under the same
the time that the yarn is exposed to the arti?cial
atmosphere or to water, has a considerable effect
upon. the production of twisted rayon yarns.
stress strain load, the factor of the elongation at
the stress strain load of twisting must also be
taken into consideration.
30 However, there are de?nite limitations tov the
A comparison of stress strain load curves of
control by twist-setting of the torsional forces of
both conventional and high tenacity continuous
a twisted rayon yarn. We can best illustrate this
?lament rayon of the several types, such as vis
by the following examples;
'
cose, cuprammonium, and acetate process, and
A IOO-denier continuous ?lament viscose proc
from various producers, readily shows the marked 35 ess rayon yarn was twisted 20 turns per inch and
difference in elongation under the same stress
strain load. It is true that these curves show the
elongation as a result of load strain applied longi
the twist set in a conventional manner, with the
resultant yarn being a practical knitting yam
from the standpoint of being capable of being
knit without kinking, snarling or ?ying of the
sists elongation in a helical form around its axis, 40 yarn while knitting. A more improved knitting.
tudinally along the yarn's axis, butleach yarn re
necessarily resulting from twisting, approximately
yarn was then produced by utilizing the very best
the same as it resists longitudinal elongation. The
known method of twist-setting, but still this im
marked differences mentioned above, between var
proved yam was found to be inferior, as hereaf
ious kinds of continuous ?lament rayons are also
ter set forth, to the same IOU-denier rayon yarn
present in rayon staple ?ber yarns of various 45 which we produced, in accordance with this in
kinds.
1 I
vention, by twisting the yarn 30 turns per inch
Generally speaking, the elongation at the break
in one direction, then setting the twist, by the
ing point of various rayon yarns is proportional to
same very best known method of twist-setting,
the elongation at lower stress strains, such as con
then twisting the yarn in the opposite direction
ventional spinning loads, but for more accurate
10 turns per inch, and then setting the twist
determination of the resistance of various rayon
just su?'iciently to leave in the yarn a decided
yarns to twisting and the tendency to untwist, the
I tendency to turn on its own axis in a direction
elongation at the twisting load must be speci?cally
opposite to that of the last twisting, i. e. though
considered. It is customary in the art of rayon
it contained Z-twist ‘only when tested by con
yarn processing not to use a twisting load in excess
ventional twist-testing methods, it also possesses
of 1/3 of that required to break the yarn. but gen
S-twist active torsional forces. This latter yarn,
erally the twisting load is 15% to 25% of the
produced in accordance with this invention, can
breaking strength, and it is therefore the elonga
be knit with‘ greater tension without kinking and
tion at these stress strain loads that particularly
the knitted fabric knit therefrom shrunk less,
concerns us.
,
60 had less bias, and was more resilient and elastic
We have found that a very practical formula to
than the prior art yarns and fabrics formed
use in comparing the relative torsion to- be ex
thereof, respectively.
‘
pected from various twisted rayon yarns is the
_ In certain embodiments of this invention, we
have found it to be very advantageous for a knit
“size >( twist”
ting or weaving rayon yarn to have substantial
strength X % elongation at stress strain load of
I twisting
active or visible torsional forces in a direction
opposite to that which would result from twist
For accurate comparisons, the elongation at the
ing ‘a yarn directly to a given twist. This can
stress strain load of twisting is necessary, but in
be accomplished in a yarn in which there is ply
most instances a good practical formula has been
twist only in no other way than by the principles
found to be
of this invention, i. e. by ?rst twisting the neces
“size X twist”
.
strength >< % elongation (at the breaking point)
sary degree beyond the ?nished twist desired, '
setting the twist the required degree, and sub
Since the property of elongation has been neces
sequently twisting in the opposite direction, and
sarily introduced into the aforementioned for 75 thereafter setting the twist'the required degree
9,411,182
5
6
.
means a yarn which is free of crimps; curls or
waves to substantially the same degree as pos
sessed by a like yam directly twisted to the same
- to produce the desired torsional forces in the
?nal twisted yarn. In a one-way prior art twist
ed yarn, as for example a yarn twisted directly
to the desired Z-twist, the torsional forces re
finished twist.
,
'
Rayon yarn can be directly twisted to produce
sulting from the twisting causes the yarn to tend
a
to fly in an S-direction and any disturbance of
the set of the twist, such as by stretching, change
in atmospheric conditions, etc.,'adds to this tend
size X twist
strength X elongation
)
ency to fly in an S-direction. Also, since any
contact with the spiral formation of the yarn 10 factor” of 60 without encountering the serious
di?lculties due to the torsional forces resulting
surface mechanically tends to untwist the yarn,
from twisting, whereby such rayon yarn can be
the frictional contact with said yarn while knit
used for many purposes. However, when rayon
ting or weaving exaggerates this tendency to fly.
yarn is directly twisted to produce a
In a yarn contemplated by the instant inven
tion, and particularly that embodiment wherein 15
_
the yarn contains S-twist active torsional forces _
size X twist
)
strength X elongation
even though the yarn shows‘ Z-twist only, when
factor in excess of 60, such as, for example, 75,
the yarn has a. decided tendency to curl, kink,
any disturbance of the set 'of the twist as previ
snarl or fly during operations subsequent to
ously mentioned will counter-balance the S 20 twisting, knitting or weaving of the fabric knit
twist torsional forces and the yarn will be pre
or woven therefrom and said yarn cannot be
vented from ?ying in the S-direction, and indeed
satisfactorily used for many purposes. Accord
in any direction, either 2 or S.
.
ing to the instant invention, there can be readily
As is shown from the foregoing, the principles
obtained a twisted rayon yarn having a
of this invention are applicable to the produc¢ 25
tested by conventional twist-testing methods,
tion of rayon yarns having either a ?nished low
or high twist or indeed a twist higher than that
which could be obtained by the prior art pro- ‘
cedures. For purposes of this invention, a twist
ed rayon yarn having a
sizeXtwist
strength X elongation
,
I
sizeXtwist
strengthX elongation
)
factor in excess of 60, such as, for example 75,
and in which the tendency to curl, kink, snarl or
30
)
?y' during operations subsequent to twisting,
knitting or weaving of thefabric therefrom is
inhibited to substantially the same degree as that.
possessed by a rayon yarn twisted directly to a
factor in excess of 60, such as '75 or more, is con- »
size)( twist V )
sidered a highly twisted rayon yarn. The em 35
strength X elongation
bodiment of the invention which contemplates a
twisted yarn having a high twist or twist higher
factor of 60 or less. Further, according to this
than the prior art yarn, in addition to possessing
invention, there can be obtained a twisted rayon
the aforementioned properties, will, when formed
yarn having a
‘
-
into fabrics,,woven or knitted, result in fabrics 40
having greater sheerness, dullness, snag resist
strength X elongation
ance, resiliency and elasticity when compared to
prior art fabrics formed of the prior art rayon
factor of 60 or less and which is substantially
free of many of the undesirable and unavoidable
yarns.
We have discovered that, by twisting beyond 45 features which characterize a directly twisted
(
the ?nished/twist desired, then‘ setting the twist
and then untwisting to the desired twist, and
?nally setting the twist to the desired degree,
rayon yarns, due to their generally poor elas
‘ tic recovery, will become substantially more per
size X twist
)
yarn of the same factor.
*With rayon yarn, we have found in practice
that with any degree of twisting, certain desirable
bene?ts, as hereinbefore and hereinafter'men
50 tioned, result from our method of counterr
balancing and/or controlling the torsional forces
to various degrees. For example, in some in
manently elongated and thus the fabrics pro
duced therefrom will have substantially less op
portunity 0r tendency to become further per
stances on high, medium or low twisted rayon
manently elongated or baggy during use. We
yarns, it may be desired to merely slightly mini
have also found that the greater permanent 55 mize the active torsion to enable the twist setting
elongation of yarn produced by our method re
to be minimized and/or to facilitate further
sults in a closer relationship of the rayon micells.
processing; in other instances, it may be desired
thus further adding resiliency to the yarn and to create an opposite torque force just sufficient
fabrics made therefrom.
to enable the twist-setting to be minimized and/ or
The mechanical formation of higher twist in 60 to facilitate processing; but in still other in
rayon yarn causes greater elasticity due to the
‘ stances, it may be the chief object to control the
spring-like effect of the twist formation, but . crepeing, or the shrinking, or the curling; or the
we have discovered that due to the greater per
twisting on a bias of the fabric knit or woven
manent elongation of rayon yarns produced by
therefrom, while at the same time counter
our method, much of the plastic ?ow is removed 65 balance the torsional forces resulting from twist
ing to a degree that will inhibit the yarn from
and any further stretch of the yarn per se or
curling‘, kinking, snarling or ?ying during op
in the fabric produced therefrom will result, in
erations subsequent to twisting or while knitting
greater recovery or elasticity.
,
or weaving. It can thus readily be appreciated
The yarns contemplated and made in accord
ance with this invention are straight and have 70 that the degree of counter-balancing desirable or
necessary varies greatly depending upon the
substantially the same compactness and surface
further processing or eventual use to which the
appearance throughout their length as that of
yarn is to be put.
alike rayon yarn that has been twisted directly
to the same ?nished twist. _Herein, the term
“straight yarn,” or ‘.equivalent'" terminology,
75
‘The ccrrelationship between the twisting in
the Z-direction, the degree of setting of the Z
2,411,182
.
_ 7
I
twist, the twisting in the S-direction, and the
degree of setting of the resultant yarn depends
_ Example B
Purp0se.—-To produce a high twist rayon woven
fabric, which entailed a sumcient reduction in
on the ‘torsional forces required in the ?nal
product. It will be clear to those familiar with
the art that the embodiments of our invention
for a given purpose and/or given effect, or various
the active torsion of a rayon yarn having a
(strength
sizeXXelongation
twist )
_ combinations thereof, are enumerable.
For any given purpose, the above relation of >
twist, degree of setting, counter-twisting, and
factor of 150, in order to facilitate the cupping
degree of setting to produce the desired torsional 10 and weaving after .using normal twist-setting
forces may be determined by simple empirical
experiments. Experiments have shown that the
Satisfactory results are obtained by (a). twist
methods.
‘
.
'
twisted rayon yarn can be counter-twisted, from
ing a loo-denier rayon yam of 1.8 grams per
3% to 60% of the original twist, depending on
denier strength and 20% elongation to a '
the nature of the twist setting and the torsional
m,
forces desired in the ?nal product.
( strengthX
size Xtwist
)’
elongation
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is an enlarged diagrammatic elevation
factor of approximately 155 and (b) then‘set-'
of a multi-filament rayon yarn resulting from
ting the twist in a normal manner, and (c) then
twisting in the Z-direction 3% to 60% in excess of 20 twisting in an opposite direction to a
the desired. ?nal twist and setting; and
Figure 2 is an enlarged diagrammatic elevation
of the rayon yarn shown in Figure 1 after twist
v
strengthXelongation
(
sizeXtwist )
mg in the S-direction to the desired ?nal twist ‘
factor of 150, and (d) then copping the yarn and
and with or without setting.
25 (e) then weaving the yarn.v
Enumerable examples could be given to illus
In this example, the yarn was counter-twisted
to an amount approximately 3% of the original
twist, but it can readily be appreciated that to
trate the many useful embodiments of our in
vention hereinbefore and hereinafter referred
to.
It is to be ‘understood that the several em
' bodiments hereinafter set forth are merely illus
trative and in no way limitative of the invention.
'
meet some conditions or combination of condi
30 tions, a very much greater degree of counter
twisting may be desirable or necessary and, in
Example A
fact, we have ‘found certain combinations of con
Purpose.—To substantially reduce the degree
of twist-setting of a rayon-yarn having a /
ditions that required as much as 60% counter
twisting.
35
( strength
sizeXXelongation
twist )
‘
Example 0'
Purpose-To produce a rayon hosiery welt im
proved in resiliency and reduced in bagginess by
factor of 50, while the the same time have no
greater torsional forces than is characteristic of 40 the utilization of higher than conventional twist, ,
but without the creases, etc., at the upper edge of
the same yarn twisted directly to a
the stocking, characteristic of rayon hosiery welts
(strength
sizeXXelongation
twist )
knit from rayon yarns having a
( strength
sizeXXelongation
twist )
factor of 50, and then thoroughly set by con
ventional twist-setting methods.
Highly satisfactory results were obtained by
(a) twisting a 100-denier rayon yarn of 2 grams
factor of approximately 60;
A highly satisfactory welt yarn having a final
per denier strength and 20% elongation to 22%
turns per inch, and (b) then setting the twist
(strength
sizeXXelongation
twist )
to a low degree, 1. e. in an atmosphere of 120° F.
factor of approximately 60 was produced by (a)
dry with temperature at 110° F. with bulb tem
twisting a, ISO-denier rayon yarn of 2 grams per
perature for 30 minutes, and (c) then twisting
denier strength and 18% elongation to a
‘in an opposite direction 2‘turns per inch, and
(d) then coning the yarn without any further 55
twist—setting.
( strength
sizeXXelongation
twist )
-In this example, the yarn was counter-twisted
approximately 10% to the ?nal
size X twist
strength X elongation
' factor desired.
60
factor of approximately 90, and (b) then set
ting the twist, and (c) then counter-twisting to
the required twist, and (d) then setting the twist
in an atmosphere of 170° F. dry bulb tempera
ture and 160° F. wet bulb temperature for 2 hours,
However, to meet some conditions, including
and (e) then coning the yarn.
reduction in twist-setting. we have found that
In this example, the yarn was counter-twisted
counter-twisting to an amount of as little as 3% 65 to an amount approximately 331/2% of the orig
of the original twist gave the most bene?cial re
inal twist.
sults, especially in rayon yarns of a high
It is to be noted that we cannot utilize ex
tremely high twisted rayon yarns in wells even
size X twist
)
though such yarns are perfectly balanced when
strength X elongation '
70 dry because the twisted condition of the welts
factor, such as 150.
while wet, caused by the swelling of the yarn, .
To meet other conditions, such as when prac
prevents the welt from drying smoothly on the
tically no twist-setting was to be used, we have
hosiery forms when boarding in a conventional
found that counter-twisting as high as 60% of
manner, even though the welts when dried loose
the original twist gave the most beneficial results. 76 return to a perfectly smooth condition.
2,411,182
10
Example D
tion yarn separately, and (h) weavingvwith a
plain weave with 50 picks per inch using a suit
Purpose-To produce Isubstantially shrink
proof rayon.“crepe" fabric, processing the prop
' able warp of approximately 3200 ends, and (i)
boiling off and dyeing as usual (due to the con
erties normally associated with “crepe,” and also
trol of the torsional forces,.the_ fabric can be dyed
on a continuous machine, thus substantially re
having the torsional forces so controlled that
after washing and drying the fabric is substan
ducing production costs), and (:i) then drying
tially the same in‘size and appearance‘ as before
_ and framing as usual. '
washing.
Highly satisfactory results were obtained by .10
’
Example F
Purpose.-To produce a rayon hosiery yarn of
1.8 grams per denier strength and ‘20% elonga
maximum compactness, sheerness, lack of longi-'
tion to a
'
"
_
'
tudinal waviness, and having the active torsional
forces practically eliminated and the latent ‘tor
_
sizeXtwist
)
(a) twisting a 100-denier viscose rayon yarn of
strengthXelongation
sion substantially reduced.‘
'
Very satisfactory'results were obtained by (a)
factor of 208, and (b) then setting the twist in
an atmosphere of 175° F. dry bulb temperature
and 165° F. wet bulb temperature, and (c) then
twisting in an opposite direction to a
z-twisting various kinds and sizes of rayon to a '
20
(strength
sizeXtwist
)
>< elongation
~factor of 180, and (d) then setting the twist the
same as used in step‘ (a) above, and (e) then
copping the yarn and (1‘) then weaving the yarn
strengthX elongation)
factor of from 107 to 120, (b) setting the twist
in an atmosphere of 180° F. dry ‘bulb temperature
and 170° F. wet bulb temperature for 2 hours
and (c) then S-twisting the ‘yarn to a
v
"
size X twist
as hereafter described.
Two picks alternately of S-twisted and Z-coun- "
strengthxelongation
factor of from 75 to 8'7, (11) setting the twist for 1
hour in an atmosphere of 140° F. dry bulb tem
yarn, prepared as described in the paragraph im
perature and 130° F. wet bulb temperature, and
mediately preceding, were woven into the ?lling 30 (c) then coning the yarn.
of an acetate warp viscose-?lled crepe, for exam
‘In this example, the yarn was counter-twisted
ple a fabric 45 inches in the greige containing
approximately 30%.
_
6075 ends in the warp and 64 picks per inch in
Itis, however, understood that to meet various
the ?lling. The woven fabric was boiled off and
conditions, considerably more or less counter
dyed in a conventional manner. The boiled-off 85 twisting may be used as required.
ter-twisted and Z-twisted and S-counter-twisted '
and dyed fabric was straightened and dried loose,
after which it was framed. .
Example G
.
Prior to drying loose, the fabric was especially
Purp0se.—To produce a 75-denier; rayon ho
well straightened out so as not to interfere with
siery yarn of 40 turns per inch delivered Z-twist,
action of the torsional forces in causing the fab-. (0 said yarn having a substantial amount ‘of active
ric, which shrunk appreciably during boil-off and
dyeing, to come back substantially toward its
original width during drying, and thus producing
the shrink-proof effect desired.
‘
Under one normal boil-off, dyeing, and drying
S-torsion and the latent Z-torsion substantially
reduced.
Very satisfactory results were obtained by (a)
45 Z-twisting the 75-denier rayon yarn which had
a strength of 1.8 grams per denier and an elon
gation of 20% to a
procedure, the fabric shrunk from 451/2 inches in
the greige to 32 inches after dyeing, and recov
size X twist
ered to 371/2 inches during drying and was framed
strength X elongation _
to 39 inches.
50
factor of 135, (b) settingthe twist for 1 hour in
Example E
an atmosphere of 180° F.‘ dry bulb temperature
Purpose-To produce a substantially shrink
and 170° F. wet bulb temperature and (c) coun
proof combination “crepe” fabric, processing the
' other properties normally associated with com
bination yarn fabrics.
_
.
I
ter-twisting to a
55
,
sizeX twist
)
Satisfactory results were obtained by (a) S
strength X elongation
twisting a 100-denier rayon yarn of 1.8 grams
per denier strength and 20% elongation to a
factor of 83.3, (d) then setting the twist for 10
minutes in an atmosphere of 140° F. dry bulb
sizeXtwist
strengthXelongation
)
60
(e)' coning the yarn.
65
sizeXtwist
)
st engthXelongation
factor of 153, and’ (d) then setting the twist the
_
In this example, the counter-twisting was ap
proximately 38% of the original
factor of 180, and (b) then ‘setting the‘ twist in
an atmosphere of 175° F. dry bulb temperature
and 165° F. wet bulb temperature, and (c) then
Z-twisti'ng the yarn to a
temperature and 130° F. wet bulb temperature,
size X twist
)
’
s‘trength X elongation
factor, but this percentage of counter-twisting
may be increased or decreased substantially de
pending upon the condition to be met, the char
same as used in step (a) above, and (e) then 70 acteristics of the rayon, and the conditions under
doubling and S-twisting, with 12 turns per inch,
which it must be processed, as hereinbefore de
scribed. ’
the yarn from (d) with 100-denier acetate yarn,
In reference to the examples herein given, we
and (e) then setting the twist, and (I) then re
have found that when rayon of other sizes,
peating (a) to (e) starting with Z-twist and end
ing with S-twist, and (g) copping each combina 75 strength and elongation are to be used, very simi
-
i-r
-
a
4'
I
‘
,
2,411,182
11
12
iar results may be obtained if said yarns are
( strengthXelongation
sizeXtwist )
twisted and counter-twisted approximately to
~
'
-
'
‘
’
the same
( strengthX
sizeXtwist
)
elongation
,‘
factor in excess of '75, setting said twist, subject
’
0 ing‘ said yarn to a twisting-operation in the op
posite direction to produce a twisted yarn having
factors used in‘ our examples and otherwise simi
larly processed.
,
a
'
(strengthX
sizeXelongation
twist )
In this speci?cation, the expression “Z-twist"
de?nes a twist resulting from twisting the yarn
in one‘ (the left) direction, and the expression
factor of approximately 75, and setting the re
sulting yarn, the twisting operation in the said
opposite direction and the setting of the twists
~ “S-twist” de?nes a twist resulting from subject
' ing the yarn to a twist in a direction opposite
(i. e. right) to that of the Z-twist. Likewise,'the
expressions “Z-direction” and “S-direction" used
herein de?ne subjecting the yarn to a twisting
operation in one (the left) direction and subject
ing the twisted yarn to a twisting operation in
being of such magnitude and degrees as to pro
duce a twisted yarn in which the torsional forces
' are counter-balanced in accordance with the
ultimate use of the yarn.
3..A method of producing a straight, compact,
, the opposite (right) direction, respectively. It
twisted rayon yarn which, when tested by con
is, however, to be understood that the expression 20 ventional twist-testing methods, shows twists in
“it-twist”v as appearing herein is not intended to
one direction only, which comprises subjecting
be ‘restricted thereto, since it will be obvious to
a rayon yarn to a twisting operation in one direc
~ a person skilled in the art that the twist in the
tion to produce a twisted yarn having a
yarn as delivered may have an S-twist and sub
(
jected to counter-twisting in the Z-direction in
sizeXtwist )
accordance with this invention. In other words,
strengthXelongation
the ‘expressions “Z-twist” and “Z-direction” are
used for convenience only and may de?ne an
factor of. from 3% to 60% in excess of 75, setting
said twist, subjecting said yarn to a twisting op
eration in the opposite direction to produce a
“S-twist" and “S-direction” respectively.
'
,
Herein, wherever reference to "size” is made, 30 twisted yarn having a
it is intended to refer to denier., Also herein,
wherever reference is made to “turns" or
"twists," it is intended to mean turns per inch.
strength
sizeXtwist
X elongation
Also herein, wherever reference is made to
factor of 75, and setting'the resulting yarn, the
twisting operation in the said opposite direction
“strength,” it is intended to refer to grams per
denier. Also herein, wherever reference is made
to “elongation,” it is intended to refer to the
and the setting of the twists being of such mag
as set forth in application Serial No. 354,064, _
twist of from approximately 3% to 60% beyond
nitude and degrees as to produce a twisted yarn
percent of elongation at the breaking point, as
in which the torsional forces are counter-bal
determined by conventional methods.
As is apparent from the foregoing description, 40 anced in accordance with the ultimate use of the
yarn.
.
the principles of the instant invention have been
4. A method of producing straight, compact,
described in connection with arti?cial yarns, and
twisted rayon yarns~ which comprises subjecting
speci?cally rayon. /It is, however, to be under
a rayon yarn to a twisting operation in one di
stood that the principles of this invention are,
rection to produce a number of turns per inch of
equally applicable to natural and synthetic or
arti?cial yarns other than rayon.v
the twist desired in the ?nal yarn, setting/the
twist, subjecting the yarn to a twisting operation
in the opposite direction a number of turns suffi
,
Since it is obvious that various changes and
modi?cations may be made in the above descrip~'v
cient to produce a yarn having the desired num
tion without departing from the nature or spirit 50 ber
ofv turns per inch of twist and substantially
thereof, this invention is not restricted thereto
free
of the objectionable active and latent tor
except as set forth in the appended claims.
sional forces which normally result from sub
We claim:
jecting a yarn of like kind directly to the same
1. A method of producing a straight, compact,
twist in the ?nal yam,.and, normally remaining
twisted rayon yarn which, when tested by con
after the setting of said direct twist, to thereby
ventional twist-testing methods, shows twists in
substantially inhibit the tendency of the yarn to
one direction only, which comprises subjecting
curl, kink, sn‘arl or ?y during operations subse
a rayon yarn to a twisting operation in one direc
quent to twisting, knitting or weaving thereof and
tion to produce a twist of approximately from 3%
the creping, shrinking, curling, or twisting on
to 60% in excess of the desired ?nished twist, 60 a bias of the fabric formed from said yarn.
setting said twist, subjecting said yarn to a twist:
5. A method of producing straight, compact,
ing operation in the opposite direction to produce
twisted rayon yarns which comprises subjecting
the desired ?nished twist, and setting the re
a rayon yarn to a twisting operation in one di
sulting yarn/the twisting operation in the said
rection to produce a number of turns per inch of
opposite direction and the setting of the twists 65 twist of from approximately. 3% to 60% beyond
being of such magnitude and degrees as to pro;
the twist desired in the ?nal yarn, setting the
duce a twisted yarn in which the torsional forces
twist, subjecting said yarn to a twisting operation
are counter-balanced in accordance with the _ in the opposite direction a number of turns suffi
ultimate use of the yarn.
I
cient to create in the yarn‘ an active torsional
2. A method of producing a straight, compact, 70 force in the desired direction,'and setting the
twist su?iciently to maintain said active torsional
twisted rayon yarn which, when tested by con
ventional twist-testing methods, shows twists in - force in the yarn and to substantially inhibit the
yarn from curling, kinking, snarling or ?ying
one direction only, which comprises subjecting
a rayon yarn to a twisting operation in one direc- I '
tion to produce a twisted yarn having a
during operationssubsequent to twisting, knit
75 ting or weaving thereof and the crepeing, shrink
r
-
.
'
2,411,182
'
13
,
prises subjecting a rayon yarn to a twisting oper-r
ing, curling, or twisting on a bias of the fabric
_ formed from said yarn.
ation in one direction to produce a yarn having a
Y
6. A method of producing straight, compact,
(
twisted rayon yarns which comprises subjecting
V
a a rayon yarn to a twisting operation in one di
'
sizeXtwist
)I
strengthXelongation
,
.
factor of from approximately 3% to 60% in ex
cess of 75, setting the twist, subjecting said yarn '
to a twisting operation in'the opposite direction
to- produce a yarn having a
-' rection to produce avnumber of turns per inch of
twist of from approximately 3% to 60% beyond
the twist desired in the ?nal yarn, setting the
twist, subjecting said yarn to a twisting opera
tion in the opposite direction a number of turns
sufficient to not only eliminate the active tor
( strength
sizeXtwist
X elongation
sional forces normally resulting from the twist
factor not less than '15 and to eliminate the active ‘
‘ing of a like kind of yarn directly to the same
torsional forces normally resulting 'from the
twist in the ?nal yarn and normally remaining
twisting of a like kind of yarn directly to the
after setting of the direct twist but also to create 15 same twist in the ?nal yarn and normally re- '
in the yarn an inherent tendency to twist in the
maining after setting of the direct twist and also
direction of the ?rst-named twist, and setting
to create in the yarn an-inherent tendency to
the twist suf?ciently to maintain in the yarn
twist in the direction of the ?rst-named twist,
.a' tendency to twist in the direction of the ?rst
and setting the twist sufficiently to maintain in
named twist and to substantially inhibit the yarn 20 the yarn a tendency to twist in‘ the direction of
from curling, kinking, snarling or ?ying during.
the ?rst-named twist and to substantially inhibit
operations subsequent to twisting, knitting or
the yarn from curling, kinking, snarling or ?ying
weaving thereof and the crepeing, shrinking,
during operations subsequent to twisting, knitting
curling, or twisting on a bias of the fabric formed
‘or weaving thereof and the crepeing, shrinking,
from said yarn.
‘
_
'
25 curling, or twisting on a bias of the fabric formed
7- A method of producing straight, compact,
from said yarn.
twisted rayon yarns which comprises subjecting,
>
-
'
10. A method of producing straight, compact,
a yam to a twisting operationin one direction to _ V twisted rayon yarns which comprises subjecting
produce a rayon yarn having a
'
‘
. a rayon yarn to a twisting operation in one direc
(a strength
sizeXtwist
)
X elongation
30 tion to produce a yarn having a
‘
strengthXelongation
' sizeXtwist
factor of from approximately 3% to 60% in ex
cess of 75, setting the twist, subjecting the yarn
factor of from approximately 3% to 60% in ex
to a twisting operation in the opposite direction 35 cess of 75, setting the twist, subjecting the yarn a number of turns sumcient to produce ,a yarn
to a twisting operation in the opposite direction
having a
a number of turns su?icient to produce a yarn
(strength
sizeXtwist
)
X elongation
having a‘
Y
'
'
(strength
sizeXtwist
)
X elongation
factor not less than 75 and substantially free of 40
the objectionable active and latent torsional
forces which normally result from subjecting a
‘
factor not less than 75 and active and latent
torsional forces which normally result i’romtwist-lv
yarn of like kind directly to the same twist in
the ?nal yarn and normally remaining after the
ing a yarn of like kind directly to a l
(strength
sizeXtwist
X elongation
setting of said direct twist, to thereby substan
tially inhibit the tendency of the yarn to curl,
kink, snarl or ?y during operations subsequent
-
'
,
factor of 60 or less and normally remaining after
the setting of said direct twist, to substantially
to twisting, knitting or weaving thereof and the '
crepeing, shrinking, curling or twisting on a bias 50 inhibit the yarn from curling, kinking, snarling
of the fabric formed from said yarn.
or flying during operations subsequent to twist
8. A method of producing straight, ‘compact,
twisted rayon yarns which comprises subjecting
ing, knitting or weaving and the crepeing, shrink
ing, curling, or twisting on a bias of the fabric
a rayon yarn to a twisting operation in one direc
formed fromsaid yarn to at least substantially
tion to produce a yarn having a
55 the same as that possessed by a like yarn directly
(strength
sizeXXtwist
)
elongation
twisted to a
’
.
(strength
sizeXtwist
)
X elongation
factor of from approximately 3% to 60% in ex
cess of 75, setting the twist, subjecting said yarn
factor of approximately not more than ‘60.
to a twisting operation in, the opposite direction 60
11. A method of preparing a straight, compact,
to produce a yarn having a
size X twist
strength X elongation
(
)
‘
twisted rayon yarn which, when tested by con
ventional twist-testing methods, shows twist in
one direction only, which comprises twisting
rayon yarn in one direction to produce a yarn
factor not 1 ss than '75 and also to create in the 65 having a
yarn an active torsional force in the desired di-'
size X twist
rection, and setting the twist suf?ciently to main
strengthXelongation
tain said active torsional force in the yarn and
to substantially inhibit the yarn from curling,
factor of approximately l35,'setting said twist in
kinking, snarling or ?ying during operations sub 70 the yarn, subjecting the yarn to a twisting opera
sequent to twisting, knitting or weavingthereof _ tion in thevopposite direction to produce. a yarn
and the crepeing, shrinking, curling or twisting - ‘ having a
on a bias of the fabric formed from said yam.
9. A method of producing straight, compact,‘ -
twisted knitting or weaving yarns which come‘
- (
‘
sizeXtwist
strength X elongation
I 2,411,182
.15
factor of approximately 83.3 and setting the twist.
twist is‘ set by subjecting said yam' for two hours
12. A method as set forth in claim 11 wherein
the original twist is set by subjecting the yarn .
one hour in an atmosphere of 180° F. (dry bulb
temperature) and 170° F. (wet bulb temperature)
and the twist in the yarn after the second twist
. to an atmosphere 0! 180° F. (dry bulb tempera
ture) and 170° F. (wet bulb temperature) and
the yarn resulting'rrom the second twisting oper- '
ation set by subjecting said yarn for one hour in
an atmosphere of 140° F. (dry bulb temperature)
ing operation is set by subjectingthe yarn for 10
and 130° F. (wet bulb temperature).
15. A‘ yarn resulting from the method de?ned
minutes in an atmosphere of 140° F. (dry bulb I
temperature) and 130° F. (wet bulb temperature). - in claim 1.
I
_ 13. A method of preparing a straight, compact, 10
16. A yarn resulting from'the method de?ned
twisted rayon yarn which, when tested by con
‘ventional twist-testing methods, shows twist in
one direction‘ only, which comprises twisting
in claim 8.
in claim 4.,
15
'
si'zeXtwist
)
strength X elongation
factor of approximately from 107 to 120, setting
said twist in the yarn, subjecting the yarn to a 20
‘ twisting 'operationin the opposite direction to
produce a yarn having a
size X twist
‘
'
'
in claim 5.
,
‘
19. A yarn resulting from the method de?ned
in claim 6.
20. A yarn resulting from the method de?ned
in claim '7.
,
_
21. A yarn resulting-from the method de?ned
in claim 9.
'
22. A yarn resulting from the method de?ned
in claim 11.
) g
.
18. A yarn resulting from the method de?ned
rayon yarn in one direction to produce a yarn
having a
'
_ 17. A yarn resulting from the'method de?ned
.
-
23. A yarn resulting from the method de?ned
'25 in claim 13.
factor of approximately from 75 to 87, and setting
BERKELEY L. HATHORNE.
the twist.
ROBERT W. SEEM,
' strength X elongation
_
14. A method as set forth in claim 13 wherein
the twist in the yarn resulting from the original
By WARREN A. SEEM,
Y
Attorney in fact.
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