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Патент USA US2411139

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‘Nov. 12, 1946.,‘
STRAIN
}
N. H. ROY EI'AL
2,411,139
MEASURING AND LOAD CONTROLLING APPARATUS
Filed Nov.>l8, 1945
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INVENTORS
NerguS HRoy
Jose hLl BLsesL
A Z'TORNEY
Nov. 12, 1946.
NHROYETAL
v
'
2,411,139
STRAIN MEASURING AND LOAD CONTROLLING, APPARATUS
'
Filed Nov. 18,1943
ZSheets-Sheet 2
$514
_
INVENTOPJ
NergusHRoy
J05 h L. Bisesi,
A 'I'TORNE V
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
2,411,139
UNITED STATES" PATENT OFFICE
STRAIN MEASURING Ann LOAD
CONTROLLING APPARATUS
Nereus H. Roy, Glenbrook, Conn., and Joseph L.
Bisesi, Floral Park, N. Y. , asslgnors to The Budd
Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of
Pennsylvania
Application November~18, 1943,- Serial No. 510,110
8 Claims.
1
This invention relates to strain measuring and
load controlling apparatus and has for an object
the provision of improvements in this art.
One of the particular objects of the invention
is to provide apparatus for measuring strains
and controlling loads, which includes a strain
measuring device which is incorporated in and
becomes a part of the member under stress.
Another object is to provide a complete self
contained strain measuring device of a con
(Cl. 201-51)
a
2
reference being made to the accompanying draw
ings thereof, wherein:
>
Fig. 1 is an axial section and elevation of a
strain measuring unit mounted as an integral
part of a'load-carrying member such for example
as the tubular. push-pull rod which operates the
wing ?aps of an airplane;
Fig. 2 is a transverse section taken on the
line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
10
Fig. 3 is an enlarged side elevation, partly in
section of one of the carbon pile units; and
venient mechanical arrangement which facili
tates loading the resistance units which form
Fig. 4 is a wiring diagram of one arrangement.
the strain sensitive elements.
of the apparatus.
Another object is to provide strain measuring
For purposes oi" illustration the strain respon
and load control apparatus which is adapted 15 sive and load controlling apparatus of the present
without alteration to register either tension or
invention is shown in association with airplane
compression, strains and to control the load in
wing flap control means and the strain measur
‘ accordance with either.
ing unit I0 is shown to be mounted between the .
Another object is to provide a compression type
spaced ends we of the push~pull tube or rod 5
strain sensitive device which is so mounted and 20 which operates the wing ?aps, the pre-assembled
arranged that both compression and tension
‘ strain responsive unit thus becoming an integral
‘ strains are always transmitted to the strain sensi
part of the load-carrying member. The motor
tive element as relative or differential compres
M as indicated in Figure 4 has power connection
sion e?ects.
to gear means 6 through which the push-pull
Another object is to provide a self-contained 25 or control rod 5 is axially reciprocated.
preloaded strain sensitive unit which can be
The container or enclosure “lb of the strain
installed by simple mechanical connections as an
measuring unit i0 is shown to be a round tube of
integral part of various load carrying members.
a size to ?t the ends of the push-pull tube but it
Another object is to provide a centrally dis~
is evident that for other uses it may have other
posed strain sensitive element to which ardai 30 shapes. Within the container Nib there are
strain effects are transmitted in an arziai direc
mounted two carbon pile resistance units Ha,
iib. These carbon pile units are secured in the
-Another object is to provide such a device
tube under pro-compression and are so arranged
which is not effected by vibration in use.
that when the push-pull tube its,‘ and the con
tion.
.
'
In the measurement of strains in structures 35 tainer iii?) are loaded in tension the carbon pile
and elements of structures, it has been common
unit i It is subjected to an increase in compres
practice in the past to employ, among other
sion, and unit Ha is subjected to a decrease in
types, a carbon'resistor type of gage temporarily
compression; and when the tubes Illa and 10b
attached externally to the structure by means
are loaded in compression, unit lib is ‘subjected ‘
of screws or clamps; Due to the size and weight 40 to a decrease in compression and unit I la is subof these gages, it was often inadvisable to super- '
jected to an increase in compression; a differen
impose their relatively great weight on the struc
tial between the compression in the two carbon
ture. Moreover, the drilling of holes in the
pile units is produced in either case, and this
structure or member under test was objection
differential is a measure of the strain in the test
' able in that the use of the member for its in
tended purpose might thereby be prevented.
It is apparent therefore that if a unit con
training carbon resistance or other types of gages
can be made part of the structure or member
under test, it will be possible to eliminate the
objections to the temporary external gages. The
present invention provides such a unit,
45 member.
In the present arrangement the tube
may not be subject to compressionv at any time,
but only a variation in tension; however, that
causes a variation or diiferential between the
compression in the two carbon pile units which
serves the desired purpose.
The mounting means for the carbon pile units
in the container lob comprises a series of four
The above and other objects and advantages
plates l2, l3, l4 and I 5 and two sets of connect
will be apparent from the following description
ing rods l6 and IT. The end plates l2 and I5
of an illustrative embodiment of the invention, 55 are ?rmly secured to the tube on the inside at a
2,4_11,139 '
distance apart as by screws l8; and the inter
mediate plates l3 and ill move axially within
the tubular container in response to 1engthen~
ing' or shortening thereof.
The left ?xed plate i2 and the right floating
plate Id are secured together by the set of rods
I6; and the right ?xed plate l5 and the left
?oating plate l3 are rigidly secured together by
the set of rods l1. Each ?oating plate I3, or id;
is cut away to allow the unattached set of rods
[5 or I‘! to pass freely thereby and may be gen
erally Y or triangular shaped with three spider
arms as shown in Fig. 2.
a
BI to vary the current through the relay coil 65.
The motor M which is grounded at 69 on the
negative side of the armature has dual ?eld cir
cuit wires to the contacts 6'! and 68 of a relay
R2 through the limit switches ‘l0 and ‘ll. Each
of the switches has a spring-closed contact arm
which is adapted to be opened by the push-pull
rod operating screw member ill when'moved by
the motor to the limiting position. The movable
arm 12 of the relay R2 is pivoted at ‘l3 and con
nected to the positive side of the battery. Move
ment of the relayarm between points 67 and 68
reverses the direction of rotation of the motor.
, The relay R2 includes coils id and ‘I5 connected
The ?oating plate I3 is disposed between the
two carbon pile units I la and Nb, hence the set 15 in series with the junction point grounded, the
outer ends of the coils being connected to the
l of rods I1 embraces only the pile unit I lb, where- '
contacts 16 and ll of relay Rl. - The arm or blade
as the ?oating plate It is disposed beyond both
19 of the relay RI is biased toward the contact
pile units and its set of rods l6 embraces both
‘ll by a spring at, the ‘anchorage 8| of the spring
pile units Ila, lib. The pile units and their
plates are ,therefore held together as a self-con 20 being adjustable to vary the spring tension. The
pivot of the arm 79 is connected to bridge point
tained unit by the set of rods l6.
59. In addition to relay coil ‘it, switch contact
Initial compression on the pile‘units lla, llb
A2 is also connected to the contact ‘it of relay Rl.
may be regulated by adjustment screws 20, ‘ll
In operation, when the airplane rests on the
threaded in the plates I2 and M respectively, the
adjustment screws being held in ‘?xed position 25 ground the switches A and B are positioned at the
"off" points A3 and B3. At take-off the switches
by locknuts 22.
.
are moved to contacts Al, Bl. to energize the
Fig. 3 shows the details of one of the carbon
bridge circuit. The push-pull rod being un
pile units. It may consist of a number of carbon
strained and the bridge balanced, the relay con
plates or annular rings 25, insulating plates 28
near each end, and end plates 29 with conical 30 tacts, ‘H and 68 are closed and the flaps are low
ered by the motor M until stopped by openin
pointed thrust projections an. Electrical con
the lower limit switch ‘ll.
‘
ductors 3!, 32, 33 and 343 are secured to metal
washers 26 at the terminal carbon plates of the
‘With the flaps down, the plane takes o? and
as air speed increase the tension of the flap op- '
two pile units (Fig. 1). Two of the conductors,
crating rod It increases. This separates plates
one from each unit, may be connected to a com
l2 and is within the tubular rod and increases '
mon outside lead while the other two conductors
pass out separately. They emerge in a three
the compression on thecarbon pile unit l lb. The
compression on carbon pile unit lla is decreased.
wire cable 535 ‘from a junction box at clamped to
The bridge is unbalanced and at a predeter»
the rod id.
Referring to the wiring diagram of Fig. 4, the 40 mined point where the coil 65 overcomes the
spring so the contact ‘E5 of relay Rl is closed
carbon pile units lla, ill) in the tube are shown
in circuit with other apparatus to provide active
and the motor is energized to raisethe flaps.
When the tension pressure is relieved su?lciently
control of operating parts, as for example the
by raising the ?aps the prior connections are re
wing flaps heretofore referred to. A grounded
established and the motor again lowers the ?aps.
control box 62, which is preferably mounted to
This alternate flap movement continues until
resist shocks, is indicated in dotted outline and
the airplane is well in the air.
'
includes two resistancesv 56 and 5? connected in
The pilot then vmoves the yoked switches to
series with the carbon pile resistances Ma and
contacts A2, B2 which takes the carbon pile units
lib. These four resistances‘ lla, llb,_ 5i and 56
out of circuit and raises the flaps to their upper
constitute the four resistances of a Wheatstone
bridge circuit, current being supplied at points
53 and 59 and the output of the bridge being
measured between points at and b l.
In order to place this bridge circuit under the
control of the pilot, panel gang switches A and
B are provided, each switch having four contacts
numbered Al, A2, A3 and A63 for A and El, B2,
B3 and B6 for B. The pivot of the switch arm
52 of switch A is connected to the positive pole
of a battery, preferably the storage battery of
the airplane, with a voltage commonly of between
20 and 25 volts, the negative pole of the battery‘
being grounded. The pivot of the switch arm 63
of the switch B is connected to bridge point Ell.
' Contacts Al and A6 are connected to bridge point
59. Contact Bl is connected through a tempera
ture responsive variable resistor lid and the coil
65 ofa sensitive relay Rl to the bridge point El.
limiting position where they stay.
For landing, the same general situation as for
take-off prevails except that a higher speed and
. greater. rod tension may be permitted. The
switches are turned to contacts Ad, Eli and a
resistance 56 is cut in circuit with relay coil (55
and more unbalance between the carbon pile
units l la, l lb is required to unbalance the bridge
circuit enough to raise the flaps than the case of
take-oil.
_
'.
'
With the same arrangement, should the push=
pull rod be loaded in compression instead of ten-Q
sion the distance between the plates l2 and it
will shorten and the compression on carbon pile
unit No will be increasedwhile the compression "
on the carbon pile lib will decrease to give a
differential effect in the bridge circuit and thus
operates the controls.
'
Contact Ed is connected through resistor 65 to
It will thus be seen that the invention provides
contact Bl.
'
70 a very simple and effective strain control device
'It is thus apparent that with contacts Al and
in general and a number of speci?c improve
BI engaged by the mechanically connected switch
arms 62 and 63, power is supplied’to the bridge
circuit at points 58 and 59 and variation in bridge
balance voltage is applied at bridge points till and
ments in detail. The carbon pile units are held
together in compression as a unit in the tubular
container and the container with the pile units
is a complete entity which can be built and tested
at the factory and installed as an integral part
oi’ any desired operating mechanism. Not only
does the present apparatus measure the loads on
a member but it eilectively and immediately rea
ulates the imposedv load.
While one embodiment has been illustrated and
described it will be understood that the invention
may have various embodiments within the limits
‘ oi the prior art and the scope of the snbioined
claims.
,
What is claimed is:
1. in load controlling apparatus in combina=
tion, a load=taking member, a pair oi’ carbon’
pile electrical resistance units mounted therein,
and connections between said member and. said
units for di?’erentially affecting said, units with
change in length of said member, said connec
tions comprising spaced plates secured to said
member, ?oating plates between said fixed plates, '
and rod sets connected each to a different ?oat~
ing plate and a different ?xed plate.
2. in load controlling apparatus in combina~
tion, a load-taking member, a pair of carbon‘
pile electrical resistance units mounted therein,
and connections between saicl‘member and said
units for differentially affecting said units with
change in length of said member, said connec
tions comprising two spaced plates fixed to said
@
nail to said units, said connections comprising
two spaced, plates fixed to said member, two
floating plates between said fared plates, one
floating plate being disposed between units and
the other between a unit and one of said ?xed
plates, and rod sets connected each to a cli?erent
?xed plate and a different ?oating plate.
5. In load controlling apparatus, a unitary self
contained strain responsive unit adapted to be
inserted as a linlr of a load transmitting member
comprising a link member adapted to be con
nected at each end to the load. transmitting mem
ber for load transmission, and at least two vari
able electrical resistance elements mounted on
said link member in axial series alignment with
each other, the adjoining ends of two of said ele—
ments being attached to a ?rst common point
on said load member and the corresponding outer
ends oi said two elements being attached. to a
second point on said load member displaced from
said ?rst point.
,
6. Apparatus as set iorth in claim 5 further
characterized by the fact that said variable re
sistance element comprises a pair oi" differential
compression carbon pile units formed as a self
contained unit with two rod sets and four sup
porting plates including two end plates with the
end plates only attached to said container.
member, two ?oating plates between said ?xed.
7. In load controlling apparatus, a unitary self
plates, one ?oating plate being disposed between 30 contained strain responsive unit adapted to be
units and the other between a unit and one of
said ?xed plates, and rod sets connected each to
a di?erent ?xed plate and, a different floating
inserted as a link of a load transmitting mem
‘oer comprising two resistance elements variable
in resistance with degree of strain and. connected
in physical series, the outer ends of said series
3. In load. controlling apparatus in combina 85 elements being connected to a common ?rst point
tion, a load-taking member, a pair of carbon
on said load member and the inner ends of the
pile electrical resistance units mounted therein,
velements being connected to a common second;
and connections between said member and said
point on said load member displaced from the
plate.
units for differentially affecting said units with
change in length of said member, said connec= ,l.
tions comprising two spaced plates nixed to said
first point.
'
8. in load controlling apparatus, a unitary self
contained strain responsive unit adapted to. be
member, two floating plates between sain- fixed
plates, one ?oating plate being disposed between
inserted as a link of a load transmitting member
units and the other between a unit and one or"
resistance
comprisingwith
two degree
resistance
of pressure
elements
andvariable
connected
said fixed plates, and rod sets connected each to
a fixed plate and a ?oating plate and extending
in physical series, the outer ends of said series
elements being connected to a common first
point on said‘load member adjacent one outer
load controlling apparatus in combina=
element end and the inner ends of the elements
tubular load-taking member, a
of
being connected to a common second point on
pile electrical resistance units mounted 50 said load member displaced from the ?rst point
in axial alignment with each other, and
and adjacent the other outer element end.
by the other ?oating plate.
e. In
tion, a,
carbon
therein
.
connections between said member and
‘for differentially ailecting said units r
in length of salcl member at points
s
i'
NEREUS
ROY.
JCSEPI-Z
BISESI.
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