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Патент USA US2411146

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_ NOV. 19,1946.
L Q CLEMENT
'
SOUND SIGNALING APPARATUS
'
2,411,146
‘
Original Filed June 14, 1933
INVHQTOR.
Ivan C. CLEMENT
2,411,146 r
Patented Nov. 19,‘ 1946
UNETED
srnrss '
2,411,146
SOUND SIGNALING APPARATUS
Ivan C. Clement,>Greenwood, Mass., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Submarine Signal Com- "
pany, Boston, Mass, a corporation'of Delaware
Original application June 14, 1933,- Serial No.
675,700. Divided and this application Septem
ber 29, 1936, Serial No. 103,163
8 Claims. (01.177-386)
1 .
central piece 2 at thebottom of the casing. This
The present invention is a division of my c0-L
pending application Serial No. 675,700, ?led June
use of compressional waves in a frequency range
support may be circular so that the whole device
canbe mounted in a bearing and rotated vabout
a vertical axis. The casing I, which may be of
metal, is provided with a heavy back plate 3
which tapers somewhat to the top of the ap
paratus as shown more particularly in Fig. 2.
above or near the upper limit of audibility of the
I Within the back plate 3 is a recess within which
14, 1933.
a
v
The present invention relates to an apparatus
for transmitting and receiving submarine or sub
aqueous signals, and more in particular to the '
a plurality of piezo-electric crystals is mounted.
The invention further relates to the transmis 10 Each of the crystals 25 is supported by rubber
corners 26, 21 and ‘28 into which the‘ corners of
sion of a directive beam of compressional waves
human
ear.
_
’
'
the crystal ?t. Each crystal is provided with
electrodes 29 and 30 on opposite sides thereof.
The electrode 29, as indicated, may be connected
with the use of piezo-electric crystals which may .
be quartz. but preferably areRochelle-salt crys
tals or crystals having similar piezo-electric prop
erties.
‘
-
'
'
In the present invention crystals of. the
15 to conductor 3i and the electrode 30' to the con
. ductor 32. All the crystals may in this manner be
connected in parallel with each other or in some
Rochelle-salt type are ‘not used purely as a so
other desired manner. The corners 28, 21 and 28
called compressional crystal in which a compres
supporting the three comers of the crystal may
sion between two faces of the crystal s'ets'up an
electrical potential in a direction parallel to the 20 be of any yielding material such as molded rub
ber but I prefer to use the substance which is
faces and normal to the opposite faces, but the
known as “glyptal” and is a synthetic rubber
crystals are used as bending crystals, and in this
possessing the desirable quality that it. is yielding
connection the method of support and the method
but has only slight elasticity.
of applying the vibratory energy to the crystal
are substantially di?erent. The crystals as indi
-
.1
The crystals with the molded comers attached
are held in position in the casing i by means of
the plate 33 which is supported on a, shoulder 34
in the cttsing by means of the screws 35. The
25
cated may be used individually or they may be
mounted in groups in face-to-face relation; the
outer electrodes being connected together and
serving as one pair of electrodes while the inner
plate 33 is perforated at points corresponding to
face-to-face electrodes serve as the common 30 the free corners of the crystals‘ and throughv
\
these perforations the rods 36, 31, 38, etc., operate
electrode.
The device of the-present application may in
_ transmitting acoustic vibrations to the' free
corners of the crystals. The rods themselves may
particular be used to receive supersonic waves
be of rubber or other molded material or they‘
within a broad range-of frequencies and by the
use of a plurality of crystals substantially aligned .35 may be metallic. The rods are by one end ?rmly
attached to the crystals and by the other end to
in the same plane covering a large surface as
a diaphragm 39 which is preferably made of soft
compared with the wave length of the wave
'
rubber. The diaphragm 39 can be held in place
which is being transmitted or received. A di
by a clamping ring 20 suitably fastened to the
rectional beam may be transmitted when the de
vice is used as a transmitter orthe device may 40 back of the casing by means of the screws 2| ar
. ranged around the periphery of the casing.
act as a directional receiver, in which case it
In the operation of the device the sound wave
receives waves from substantially one direction.
.energy impressed vupon the diaphragm 39 is
The apparatus will be more fully described in
transmitted through the rods 36, etc., to free por
connection with they description of the embodi
tions of the crystals, thereby causing‘ a bending
45
' ment illustrated in the drawings in which Fig. 1
of the crystals between the free and supported
shows a plan view of the apparatus with the
corners. This bending creates a potential dif
diaphragm and cover plate removed; Fig. 2 shows
ference between the faces of the crystals which
a sectional view along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig.
is detected in the receiver or receiving circuit.
3 shows an enlarged perspective‘ view of the ar
rangement of ‘an individual crystal; and Fig. 4 50 If the device is used as a transmitter, electrical
energy is applied to the electrodes of the crystals
shows a perspective view of a modi?cation of
Fig. 3.
and the latter are made to bend in the same man
-
ner as they are bent when excited by compres
With reference to Figs. 1, 2 and 3 of the draw
' sional waves. It will be noted that the crystals
ings a plurality of crystals 25 is mounted w ‘thin
a casing -l- which is supported preferably by a 59) are placed in substantially the same plane and
‘w
- ~
time:
2,411,146
4
3
4. A submarine transceiver including a casing
having a rigid back element, a plurality of piezo
electric crystals having two parallel ?at surfaces
of quadrilateral shape, means for holding said
crystals by three corners in substantially the same
plane, a diaphragm and a plurality of rods each
that the rods connecting the diaphragm with
the crystals end in substantially a single plane.
With this arrangement the sound energy ap
proaching normal to the surface of the diaphragm
excites all of the crystals in the same phase while
the sound energy approaching from any but a
secured to the free corners of each of said crys
normal direction excites the crystals out of phase.
tals and to said diaphragm.
In this way it will be readily understood that
5. A- submarine transceiver including a casing
the device is highly directional in a direction nor
10 having a rigid back element and a recess in one
mal to the surface of the diaphragm.
face thereof, a plurality of piezo-electric crystals
In Fig. 4 a slightly di?erent form of crystal
of prismatic shape, means for mounting said
structure is shown. In this ?gure two similar
crystals in said recess leaving at least one comer
crystals 40 and M are mounted in face to face
of each crystal free, a diaphragm secured to said
contact with an electrode between them. The
crystals are arranged so that the same polarity 15 casing and adapted to cover said recess and means
for connecting the free corners of the crystals to
is produced at the top and bottom electrodes of
said diaphragm.
the combination with the other polarity on the
6. A submarine transceiver including a casing
common electrode between the two crystals. The
having a rigid back element and a recess in one
crystal structure or unit illustrated in this ?gure
may be substituted for that shown in Fig. 3 and 20 face thereof. a plurality of piezo-electric crystals
of prismatic shape, means for mounting said crys
will operate and act in substantially the-same way
tals in said recess leaving at least one corner of
but with an enhanced effect.
.
_ Having now described my invention, I claim:
each crystal free, a plurality of rods, one secured
to a free portion of each crystal, a plate having a
1. A submarine transceiver including a casing
having a rigid back element, a plurality of piezo 25 plurality of apertures therein adapted to fit over
said rods in non-contiguous relation thereto and
electric crystals of the Rochelle salt type having
adapted to be secured to said casing and a dia
two parallel flat surfaces of polygonal shape,
phragm secured to each of said rods and to said
means for mountingsaid crystals in said casing
casing for acoustically connecting the rods to the
in substantially the same plane, supporting the
same at some of the corners thereof and means 30 sound propagating medium. ‘
7. An electromechanical,interchanging device,
acoustically connecting said crystals to the propa'—
gating medium to exert acoustic vibrations on at
least one of the unsupported corners thereof.
comprising in combination, a diaphragm, a cas
ing, a plurality of piezo-electric crystal units,
2. A submarine transceiver including a'casing
having a rigid back element, a plurality of-piezo 35
electric crystals of the Rochelle salt type having
two parallel ?at surfaces of polygonal shape,
means for mounting said crystals in said casing
in substantially the same plane, said means in
cluding corner elements for holding said crystals 40
and means holding said corner elements in place,
and means acoustically connecting said crystals
to the propagating medium to exert acoustic vi-,
brations on the unsupported corners thereof.
3. A submarine transceiver including a casing 45
having a rigid back element, a plurality of piezo
electric crystals having two parallel ?at surfaces
of polygonal shape, means for mounting said
crystals in said casing in substantially the same
means for mounting said crystal units within said
casing substantially in the same plane for flex
ural movement with at least a portion of each
unit free from the mounting means and indi
vidual means for connecting said units‘ at least
at the unsupported portions thereof to the dia
phragm at a plurality of spaced points over the‘
same.
8. An electromechanical energy interchanging
device comprising, in combination, a diaphragm,
a casing, a plurality of piezoelectric crystal units,
means mounting and supporting said crystal. units
in some areas near the side edges thereof within
said casing with the crystal units positioned sub
stantially in the same plane, and individual means
connecting each of said crystal units in areas at
plane, said means including comer elements for 50 other side edges thereof to the diaphragm at a
plurality of spaced points over the same, said
crystal units being otherwise unsupported in said
last-mentioned areas whereby said crystal units
holding said crystals, means for holding said
corner elements in place and means acoustically
connecting said crystals to the propagating me
dium to exert acoustic vibrations on unsupported
portions of said crystals.
are operated with a ?exural movement.
55
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IVAN C. CLEMENT.
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