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Патент USA US2411181

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Nov. 19,' 1946.
H. A. ALToRFER
2,411,131
COIBUSTION TURBINE BURNER
med April 1o. 194:5A
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INVENTOR
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53, E „kumar-Ea
2,411,181
A Patented Nov. 1e, >um;
EMME@ S'ITATESl PATENT OFFICE
'
ZAlLlSl.
CGMBUSTION TURBLNE BURNER
l
Hans A. dltorfer, Wauwatosa, Wis., assignor to
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Mil
waukee, Wis., a corporation of Delaware
Application April l0, 1943, Serial No. 482,561
(El. 158-4@
_
i Claims.
y
_
,
bustion oi iiuìd fuel and is directed toward and
contemplates the construction of a fluid fuel
burning apparatussuitable for use in combus
tion gas turbine and other high temperature fluid
systems.
2
detailed description, reference being had to the
accornpeu‘lyingl drawingV illustrating an embodi
ment of the invention and in which:
Fig. l is a partial longitudinal section through
This invention relates generally to the com
a combustion chamber embodying a burner and
air directing parts combined in accordance with
‘
the present invention; and
Fig. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal section
The primary object of this invention is to mini
mize the erratic operation o! combustion appa
ratus heretofore experienced and considered as
through the burner proper. ,
Referring to the drawing, it is seen that appa
being attributable, at least in part, to variations 10
ratos embodying the invention may include a
in the rate of fuel ?ow caused by a relative expan
sion or contraction of the nozzle and body por
ycylindrical combustion chamber forming shell l
having kan air admission connection 2, a coaxial
mixing chamber 3 defined by a tube i and axially
spaced inwardly extending annular inner and
15
mixing oi atomized fuel and combustion support
outer Wall portions 6 and 1, respectively, forming
ing air at a point immediately adjacent the burner
therebetween an annular air passage B; guide
venes 9 disposed between and connecting the
More particularly, the present invention is di
outer portions of the walls 6 and l, and a burner
rected toward and has as an object the provision
of a combustion apparatus including a ñuid fuel v20 H coaxially disposed Within said mixing cham
ber with its nozzle portion extending through and
burner and air directing parts operatively com
terminating
a short distance beyond the coaxial
bined to eñect an increase in the rapidity and
opening
formed
by the inner peripheral edge of
extent to which primary air is mixed with atom
inner wall 6. The tube 4 is coaxially supported
ized fuel immediately adjacent'the burner nozzle.
combustion chamber l by means of radially
The hereinabove mentioned combining of 25 within
extending coacting lugs or brackets l2 and I3 and
burner and air directing `parts to effect an increase
boltsit, only one set of which is shown in the
in the rapidity and extent to which primary air is
interest of simplicity, and wall E is spaced from
' inbred with atomized fuel immediately adjacent
tions of the burner, and/or to a, non-uniform Y
'atomization of the fuel, and/or to an incomplete
nozzle.
-
'
and secured to the rear Wall i6 of combustion
the burner nozzle affords a material advantage
i by means of brackets I'! and tap bolts
irrespective of the particular burner construc 30 chamber
i8; the burner being also removably mounted on
tion employed. However, best results are ob
rear wall IG by'V means of a plurality of tap bolts ,
tained by employing a burner embodying parts
i9. The annular outer wall 1
addition to being
constructed and combined to minimize variations
connected to inner wall 6 by means of guide varies
in the rate of fuel flow caused by a relative expan
il is provided adjacent its outer periphery with a,
sion or contraction of the nozzle ,and body portions 35y coaxial
collar br flange 2i telescopically engagm
of the burner, and/or to a. non-uniform atomiza
ing the adjacent end of mixing tube t for support
tion oi the fuel. And although such a burner is
_
herein shown and described as comprising an ele
thereon.
Annular Wall l extends radially inward for a
short distance and then forward in coaxial
parallel relation to the tube l, whereas wall t
ment oi the combination deiined by the appended
claims, the burner is oi 4general application andl
embodies features of construction which have
been made the subject oi! a. divisional application'
Serial No. 649,721, :bled February, 23. 1946, to
which reference may be had for a .better under-
standing of the construction and coaction oi
extends inwardly and forwardly toward the
burner with its inner peripheral edge terminating
. short of and surrounding the nozzle end oi’ the
e.
various parts thereof.
Combustion apparatus constructed in accord
ance with this invention may also embody parts
constructed and combined in a manner considered' `
burner in passage forming relation therewith.
The interior of combustion chamber l is provided
with an inwardly extending annular air directing
Bange 22 positioned to divert some of the air enter
ing through the connection Z into the passage
ci special importance with respect to compact 50 8 and into the passage 23 formed between annular
ness, durability and reduced manufacturing cost, '
and accordingly the invention consists ci the veri
` ous details ci’ construction, combinations oi ele
inner wall o and the rear wall £6 of combustion
chamber i from which the air flows along'the
burner and through the opening 2t formed be
tween the inner peripheral edge. oi wall' e and
ments and arrangements of parts as is more fully
set forth in Vthe appended claims and in the 551 the nozzle portion oi burner it; the remainder
3
2,411,181
,of the` air entering through the connection 2 being
diverted by the Iiange 22 into and forwardly
throughthe coaxial annular space 26 provided
between shell I and mixing tube 4. In this _con
nection, it should be noted (s_ee Fig. 1) that the
inner annular air diverting and directing wall 6
is shaped and arranged to form with the nozzle
portion of the burner an inner annular air pas
sage of decreasing cross sectional area in the
direction of air ñow therethrough to thereby sur
round the oriñce end of the nozzle portion with
a high velocity air stream. The air flowing
through space 26> may be used solely as cooling
air or some or all of it may be subsequently
mixed with the combustion products formed in
mixing chamber 3. However,
minating adjacent the enlarged ` portion 42 of
bore 38, and a transverse bore 53 terminating in
the óuter end of -bore 52 and having its outer end
threaded and' connected with a fuel supply pipe
54.
~
'
Nozzle portion 28 includes a ñrst tubular mem- `
ber 56 having axially spaced outwardly extending
projections 51 and 58 and having an inner reduced
end portion provided with axially spaced series
of ducts 59 and 6| extending transversely there
through. And a second tubular member 65 sur
rounds member 56 and is in general spaced there
from through engagement with the projections
51 and 58. The space between members 56 and 65
provides a passage 66 in continuous communica
thîs feature forms ,
tion with coaxial bores 41 in body member 44.
no part ofy the invention, and a further descrip
Member 65 has an externally threaded inner end
tion in this connection is deemed unnecessary for
and has its outer end internally threaded and
a complete understanding of same. Annular
inner Wall 6 in addition to directing some of the 20 secured to the externally lthreaded inner end
portion of body member 44. An o‘riñce member
incoming air through the opening 24 also func
61 abuts the linner end of member 56 and is
.tions to direct the air entering passage 8 for
held clamped thereagainst by a tubular member
wardly in an annular stream surrounding the
'68 having an internallythreaded outer end por
nozzle end of the burner.
K
Referring to Fig. 2, it is .seen that burner Il 25 tion secured to the externally threaded inner end
portion of member 65. And it should be obvious
embodies united‘body and nozzle portions 21 and
that the purpose of member 68 is to secure
28, respectively, surrounded by a tubular radiant
` oriñce member 61 and member 56 in coaxial abut
heat reflecting shield 29 which may be chromium
ting relation with the outer end of member 56
plated or otherwise treated to provide a .suitable
' reflecting surface and which is radially spaced 30 engaging the inner end of body member 44, as
shown. A set screw 69 locks member 68 in'its
from and secured to the portions 21 and 28 by
clamping position just speciñed. A tubular valve
means of spacing blocks 3| welded to body por
'tion 21 and screws 32 and by having circumfer- ~
entially spaced portions 33 of its nozzle _end bent
inward to engage the oriñce end of the nozzle
portion. The remaining coaxially extending noz
element 1| is disposed within nozzle member 56 `
and has an externally threaded intermediate por
tion 12 engaged with an internally threaded inter
mediate portion of member 56 to thereby render
elementl 1| rotatably axially movable therein.
zle end portions 34 of shield 29 support an annular
Element 1| has a coaxial bore 13 extending from
member 36 in surrounding passage forming rela
its outer end, which projects intol the central
tion tothe orifice end oi’ nozzle portion 28 and in
axially spaced relation to the inner peripheral 40 passage 48 in body member 44, to a point adjacent
its inner or oriñce end, and has a plurality of
edge' of annular wall 6; member 36 having a
transverse bores 14 extending outwardly there
diameter approximately equal to the diameter of
through from the inner end portion of bore 13.
the inner peripheral edge of wall 6 and being
kOrifice member 61 is provided with a valve seat secured to the shield portions 34 in any suitable
manner such as by welding. Member 36 is posi 45 "16 adapted‘to be engaged by the orifice end of
tioned and shaped to divert and direct the air . valve element 1| to close the orifice 11 therein..
The adjacent cylindrical portion of element 1|
flowing through the opening 24 provided between
also closing the series of ducts 6| in the nozzle' end
, the .inner peripheral edge of wall 6 and shield 29
oi’ tubular member 56. 'I'he inner ends of the
and the inner portion of the forwardly directed
transverse ducts 5,9 in tubular member 56 ter-Í
annular stream issuing from passage 8 inwardly
‘against vthe fuel spray lemitted from the nozzle 50 minate in a coaxial enlargement 18 of the central
passage 64 therein and the outer ends of the bores
'orifice at a p'oint immediately adjacent thereto.
14 in valve element 1| also terminate in said
Body portion 21 comprises a mounting block 31
enlargement to thereby maintain the coaxial bore
having a bore 38 extending coaxially there
13 in valve element 1| in continuous communica
through which 4has enlarged or counterbored
tion with the space or passage 66 irrespective of
outer and inner ends 39 and`4l, respectively, and
whether said valve element is in its closed or fully
an'enlarged intermediate portion 42, a tubular
open position.' The outer end of valve element
member 43 which is coaxially seated in counter
- 1|, thatis, the portion extending within the cen
bore 4| and forms a continuation of bore‘38 and
which is welded or otherwise permanently secured 60 tral passage 48 in body member 44, is provided
with a radially extending coaxial key 19. and the
to the block 31, and a second tubular member 44
actuation of said element is accomplished by
rhavingr a peripheral flange 46 intermediate its
means of a coaxial rod 8| which extends into bore
. ends abutting and welded to the inner end of tubu
38 in block 31 and terminates within the enlarged
.lar member 43 with’its outer end portion tele->
sCoped therein, having its inner end portion ex 65 portion 42 thereof and a tube 82 which is secured
to the inner end of rod 8| for angular movement
ternally threaded, and- having a series of bores 41
therewith and ~ extendsI coaxially through the
. exteníding coaxially therethrough about the cen
inner portion of vbore, 38, the- counterbore 4|, the
tral lpassage 48 therein; the bores 41 and pas
tube member 43 and into the central passage 48 in
Vsage :48 forming `continuations of the central
passage 4'in tubular member 43. Block 31 also has 70 tube member 4,4 rwith its inner end telescoping
the outer end of valve element 1|; the key 19 on
'.formed therein. a transverse. bore -49 which ter
said valve element being disposed within a coaxial
Vminates .1in-«the v,enlarged portion 4.2 of bore- 38
4slot 83 formed on the inner surface of said tube4
>andAhas its outer end threaded and connected
to thereby render said element axially movable
with a fuel return pipe 5|, a bore 52 extending
axially outward from counterbore 4| antiter 75 relative to said tube and angularly movable there
with. The outer end of rod 8| is provided with a
- 2,411,181
5
handle 84 for .rotating same andthe counterbored
portion 39 of bore 38 is filled with packing 86
which is held in place by a coaxial jam member
to--which the primary air mixes with A:the atom
tube 82 is provided with ducts 89 extending trans
through. However, the primary aix-_ directing
means improves the operating characteristics of
ized fuel issuing from the nozzle orifice and there
' by effects complete combustion of the resulting
mixture in a space or combustion chamber of
8l secured to the outer face of block- member '
short length in the direction of gas flow there
3l by means' of tap bolts 88. 'I‘he outer end of
versely therethrough and placing the interior of
said tube in communication with the enlarged
portion 42 which in turn communicates with the
fuel return pipe 5l through the bore 49; the pipe 10
5| being preferably provided with a suitable valve
9| as shown in Fig. 1.
With the burner parts positioned asshown in
Fig. 2 and the valve 9i in the return pipe opened,
any type of atomizing burner, and its use is not
in any manner limited to the particular type of
burner herein shown and described.
The feature of- mounting the valve element 1|
in and for axial movement relative to a member
Y fixed in the nozzle portion of the burner for
movement therewith is also of particular impor
tance
as it prevents an appreciable movement of
fuel under pressure from a suitable source (not 15
the nozzle portion relative to the valve element
shown) will iiow from supply pipe lill into bore
and thereby the variation in the degree of fuel
53, through bore 52 into the annular passage 93
feedV and/or orifice opening which always occurs
formed between tube 82 and the surrounding tu
when the nozzle valve is carried by the relatively
bular body member 43, through the coaxial bores
‘
4l in body member 4H into the passage 6€» formed 20 cool body portion of the burner.
The invention is applicable to fluid fuel burn
between nozzle elements 56 and 65, through ducts
ers generally, and although a particular applica
59 in element '56, through ducts ‘ld in valve‘- ele
:tion has been illustrated and described in detail,
ment 1l into the coaxial bore 13 therein, through
it should be understood that it is not desired to
tube 82 and ducts 89 therein into the surround
ing chamber formed by enlargement [i2 in block 25 limit the invention to the exact details of con
struction herein shown and described, as various
member 3l, and then through bore de into re
modifications within the scope of the appended
turn pipe 5i. This arrangement permits fuel oil
claims may occur to persons skilled in the art.
to be circulated through the burner -after opera
It is claimed and desired to secure by Letters
tion ceases in order to keep the burner cool; the
circulation of oil therethrough being preferably 30
` controlled by a valve Si in return pipe di.
When it is desired to operate the burner, the
handle BA1 is turned in a direction to withdraw
valve element ‘ll from its seat 'it on oriñce mem
ber 5l. thereby opening said oriñce and, depend
ing upon the extent of the withdrawal, wholly or
partially opening the series of ducts 6i in the
orifice end of valve carrying element t6; the ori
flce end of valve` element li forming with the
opposed surface of orifice member tl a‘coaxlal
fuel receiving chamber of variable axial length
determined by the extent to which element ‘ii is
Patent:
'
`
i. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner
having a nozzle portion provided with an orifice
effective to produce a diverging fuel spray,
means defining a chamber surrounding said burn.
35 er and including an inner annular air diverting
and directing wall shaped and arranged to forni
with the nozzle portion of the burner an inner
annular air passage of decreasing cross sectional
area in the direction of air iiow therethrough,
and an inner member ~surrounding the orifice
end of said nozzle portion in passage forming re
lation therewith, said member being axially
spaced from the inner peripheral edge of said
withdrawn from` its said seat. >It is unnecessary
annular wall in the direction of air ñow to divert
at any time to supply an excess of fuel to the
burner nozzle even for cooling purposes since the 45 and direct a portion of the air issuing from said
inner passage inwardly against said fuel spray
fuel for combustion flows through an outer sur
at a point immediately adjacent said orifice.
rounding passage, thereby effectively cooling the
2. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner
burner during normal operation; it being under
having a nozzle portion provided with an orifice`
stood that during normal operation the valve 9i
in return pipe bl is kept fully closed and that 50 eifective to produce a dlverging fuel spray, means
defining a chamber surrounding' said burner and
said valve is opened when combustion ceases in
including an inner annular air diverting and
order to continue the cooling action for a time
.interval sufñcient to prevent carbonization of
fuel in the nozzle portion of the burner. How
directing wall shaped and arranged to form with
the nozzle portion of theburner an inner an
nular air passage of decreasing cross sectional
area in the direction of air flow therethrough
operating under conditions effecting extremely
and an outer annular wall forming with said
high temperatures, the valve 9i may -be opened
inner 'wall a 'surrounding annular air passage
to permit some of the fuel to return through the
which merges with said inner passage adjacent
inner passage as previously described.
the oriñce end of said nozzle portion, and an in
60
The degree of atomization effected by passing
ner member surrounding the orifice end of said
a whirling mass of fuel through a coaxial orifice
nozzle portion in passage forming relation there
varies materially with changes in the whirling
with, said member being axially spaced from the
energy of the mass which in turn varies with
inner peripheral edge of said inner wall in the
changes 'in the velocity with which the fuel en
ters the whirling or receiving chamber. And in 65 direction of'air flow to divert and direct a por
tion of the air issuing from said inner passage
this connection, it has been determined that the
inwardly against said fuel spray at a point im
use of a- coaxial whirling or receiving chamber,
mediately adjacent said oriñce.
the size of which is increased and decreased as
3. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner
the quantity of fuel entering same is increased
and decreased, respectively, produces results 70 having a nozzle portion provided with an orifice
effective to produce a diverging fuel spray, a tu
' which are uniformly excellent for all operating
bular radiant heat reflecting shield surround
conditions. In addition, the correlation of this
ing the nozzle portion of' said burner, means de
feature with the primary air directing means
fining a, chamber surrounding said shield and
comprising annular wall 6 and annular member
36 increases both the rapidity and the extent 76 including an inner annular air diverting and
ever, if additional cooling should be desired when
2,411,181
directing wall shaped and arranged to form with>
said shield an inner annular air passage of de
creasing cross sectional area in the direction of
air ilow therethrough, and an'annular member
carried by the Aoriñce end clfA said shield in sur
rounding passage forming relation with respect
. to the orifice end of said nozzle portion, said
er
`
Y 8
ì
a chamber surrounding said shield and includ»
ing an inner annular air diverting and directing
wall shaped and arranged to form with said
shield an inner annular air passage of decreasing ¢
cross sectional area in the direction of air ñow
therethrough, said shield having at its oriñce end
a plurality of inwardly bent lingers engaging said
member having a diameter approximately equal
nozzlel portion adjacent said orifice and a plu- to the diameter of the inner peripheral edge of
said inner wall and being axially spaced from 10 ' rality of axially extending ñngers, and an annu
lar member carried by said axially extending ñn
said edge in the direction of air ñow to divert and
gers in surrounding passage forming relation
direct a portion of the air issuing from said inner
with respect to the oriiice end of said nozzle por
passage inwardly against said fuell spray at à
tion, said member -being axially spaced from the
point immediately adjacent said orifice.
inner peripheral edge of said annular wall in the
4. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner
direction of air ñow to divert and direct a por
having a nozzle portion provided with an orifice
tion of the air issuing from said inner passage
effective to produce a diverging fuel spray, a tu
inwardly against the fuel spray at a point imme
bular radiant heat reilecting shield surrounding
diately adjacent said oritlce.
A
t-he nozzle portion of said burner, means deñning
HANS A. ALTORFER.
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