Патент USA US2411181код для вставки
Nov. 19,' 1946. H. A. ALToRFER 2,411,131 COIBUSTION TURBINE BURNER med April 1o. 194:5A l mm1-l ea \ ..................................... / ì `\\\\\. 6'/ J6 â t "El »se i J4 Ä ` ` _ y 62p ¿4 ag \\`\\\\\\\ n ß ' , , i. Y y È 37 /5 \ J4 // / INVENTOR t2 53, E „kumar-Ea 2,411,181 A Patented Nov. 1e, >um; EMME@ S'ITATESl PATENT OFFICE ' ZAlLlSl. CGMBUSTION TURBLNE BURNER l Hans A. dltorfer, Wauwatosa, Wis., assignor to Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Mil waukee, Wis., a corporation of Delaware Application April l0, 1943, Serial No. 482,561 (El. 158-4@ _ i Claims. y _ , bustion oi iiuìd fuel and is directed toward and contemplates the construction of a fluid fuel burning apparatussuitable for use in combus tion gas turbine and other high temperature fluid systems. 2 detailed description, reference being had to the accornpeu‘lyingl drawingV illustrating an embodi ment of the invention and in which: Fig. l is a partial longitudinal section through This invention relates generally to the com a combustion chamber embodying a burner and air directing parts combined in accordance with ‘ the present invention; and Fig. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal section The primary object of this invention is to mini mize the erratic operation o! combustion appa ratus heretofore experienced and considered as through the burner proper. , Referring to the drawing, it is seen that appa being attributable, at least in part, to variations 10 ratos embodying the invention may include a in the rate of fuel ?ow caused by a relative expan sion or contraction of the nozzle and body por ycylindrical combustion chamber forming shell l having kan air admission connection 2, a coaxial mixing chamber 3 defined by a tube i and axially spaced inwardly extending annular inner and 15 mixing oi atomized fuel and combustion support outer Wall portions 6 and 1, respectively, forming ing air at a point immediately adjacent the burner therebetween an annular air passage B; guide venes 9 disposed between and connecting the More particularly, the present invention is di outer portions of the walls 6 and l, and a burner rected toward and has as an object the provision of a combustion apparatus including a ñuid fuel v20 H coaxially disposed Within said mixing cham ber with its nozzle portion extending through and burner and air directing parts operatively com terminating a short distance beyond the coaxial bined to eñect an increase in the rapidity and opening formed by the inner peripheral edge of extent to which primary air is mixed with atom inner wall 6. The tube 4 is coaxially supported ized fuel immediately adjacent'the burner nozzle. combustion chamber l by means of radially The hereinabove mentioned combining of 25 within extending coacting lugs or brackets l2 and I3 and burner and air directing `parts to effect an increase boltsit, only one set of which is shown in the in the rapidity and extent to which primary air is interest of simplicity, and wall E is spaced from ' inbred with atomized fuel immediately adjacent tions of the burner, and/or to a, non-uniform Y 'atomization of the fuel, and/or to an incomplete nozzle. - ' and secured to the rear Wall i6 of combustion the burner nozzle affords a material advantage i by means of brackets I'! and tap bolts irrespective of the particular burner construc 30 chamber i8; the burner being also removably mounted on tion employed. However, best results are ob rear wall IG by'V means of a plurality of tap bolts , tained by employing a burner embodying parts i9. The annular outer wall 1 addition to being constructed and combined to minimize variations connected to inner wall 6 by means of guide varies in the rate of fuel flow caused by a relative expan il is provided adjacent its outer periphery with a, sion or contraction of the nozzle ,and body portions 35y coaxial collar br flange 2i telescopically engagm of the burner, and/or to a. non-uniform atomiza ing the adjacent end of mixing tube t for support tion oi the fuel. And although such a burner is _ herein shown and described as comprising an ele thereon. Annular Wall l extends radially inward for a short distance and then forward in coaxial parallel relation to the tube l, whereas wall t ment oi the combination deiined by the appended claims, the burner is oi 4general application andl embodies features of construction which have been made the subject oi! a. divisional application' Serial No. 649,721, :bled February, 23. 1946, to which reference may be had for a .better under- standing of the construction and coaction oi extends inwardly and forwardly toward the burner with its inner peripheral edge terminating . short of and surrounding the nozzle end oi’ the e. various parts thereof. Combustion apparatus constructed in accord ance with this invention may also embody parts constructed and combined in a manner considered' ` burner in passage forming relation therewith. The interior of combustion chamber l is provided with an inwardly extending annular air directing Bange 22 positioned to divert some of the air enter ing through the connection Z into the passage ci special importance with respect to compact 50 8 and into the passage 23 formed between annular ness, durability and reduced manufacturing cost, ' and accordingly the invention consists ci the veri ` ous details ci’ construction, combinations oi ele inner wall o and the rear wall £6 of combustion chamber i from which the air flows along'the burner and through the opening 2t formed be tween the inner peripheral edge. oi wall' e and ments and arrangements of parts as is more fully set forth in Vthe appended claims and in the 551 the nozzle portion oi burner it; the remainder 3 2,411,181 ,of the` air entering through the connection 2 being diverted by the Iiange 22 into and forwardly throughthe coaxial annular space 26 provided between shell I and mixing tube 4. In this _con nection, it should be noted (s_ee Fig. 1) that the inner annular air diverting and directing wall 6 is shaped and arranged to form with the nozzle portion of the burner an inner annular air pas sage of decreasing cross sectional area in the direction of air ñow therethrough to thereby sur round the oriñce end of the nozzle portion with a high velocity air stream. The air flowing through space 26> may be used solely as cooling air or some or all of it may be subsequently mixed with the combustion products formed in mixing chamber 3. However, minating adjacent the enlarged ` portion 42 of bore 38, and a transverse bore 53 terminating in the óuter end of -bore 52 and having its outer end threaded and' connected with a fuel supply pipe 54. ~ ' Nozzle portion 28 includes a ñrst tubular mem- ` ber 56 having axially spaced outwardly extending projections 51 and 58 and having an inner reduced end portion provided with axially spaced series of ducts 59 and 6| extending transversely there through. And a second tubular member 65 sur rounds member 56 and is in general spaced there from through engagement with the projections 51 and 58. The space between members 56 and 65 provides a passage 66 in continuous communica thîs feature forms , tion with coaxial bores 41 in body member 44. no part ofy the invention, and a further descrip Member 65 has an externally threaded inner end tion in this connection is deemed unnecessary for and has its outer end internally threaded and a complete understanding of same. Annular inner Wall 6 in addition to directing some of the 20 secured to the externally lthreaded inner end portion of body member 44. An o‘riñce member incoming air through the opening 24 also func 61 abuts the linner end of member 56 and is .tions to direct the air entering passage 8 for held clamped thereagainst by a tubular member wardly in an annular stream surrounding the '68 having an internallythreaded outer end por nozzle end of the burner. K Referring to Fig. 2, it is .seen that burner Il 25 tion secured to the externally threaded inner end portion of member 65. And it should be obvious embodies united‘body and nozzle portions 21 and that the purpose of member 68 is to secure 28, respectively, surrounded by a tubular radiant ` oriñce member 61 and member 56 in coaxial abut heat reflecting shield 29 which may be chromium ting relation with the outer end of member 56 plated or otherwise treated to provide a .suitable ' reflecting surface and which is radially spaced 30 engaging the inner end of body member 44, as shown. A set screw 69 locks member 68 in'its from and secured to the portions 21 and 28 by clamping position just speciñed. A tubular valve means of spacing blocks 3| welded to body por 'tion 21 and screws 32 and by having circumfer- ~ entially spaced portions 33 of its nozzle _end bent inward to engage the oriñce end of the nozzle portion. The remaining coaxially extending noz element 1| is disposed within nozzle member 56 ` and has an externally threaded intermediate por tion 12 engaged with an internally threaded inter mediate portion of member 56 to thereby render elementl 1| rotatably axially movable therein. zle end portions 34 of shield 29 support an annular Element 1| has a coaxial bore 13 extending from member 36 in surrounding passage forming rela its outer end, which projects intol the central tion tothe orifice end oi’ nozzle portion 28 and in axially spaced relation to the inner peripheral 40 passage 48 in body member 44, to a point adjacent its inner or oriñce end, and has a plurality of edge' of annular wall 6; member 36 having a transverse bores 14 extending outwardly there diameter approximately equal to the diameter of through from the inner end portion of bore 13. the inner peripheral edge of wall 6 and being kOrifice member 61 is provided with a valve seat secured to the shield portions 34 in any suitable manner such as by welding. Member 36 is posi 45 "16 adapted‘to be engaged by the orifice end of tioned and shaped to divert and direct the air . valve element 1| to close the orifice 11 therein.. The adjacent cylindrical portion of element 1| flowing through the opening 24 provided between also closing the series of ducts 6| in the nozzle' end , the .inner peripheral edge of wall 6 and shield 29 oi’ tubular member 56. 'I'he inner ends of the and the inner portion of the forwardly directed transverse ducts 5,9 in tubular member 56 ter-Í annular stream issuing from passage 8 inwardly ‘against vthe fuel spray lemitted from the nozzle 50 minate in a coaxial enlargement 18 of the central passage 64 therein and the outer ends of the bores 'orifice at a p'oint immediately adjacent thereto. 14 in valve element 1| also terminate in said Body portion 21 comprises a mounting block 31 enlargement to thereby maintain the coaxial bore having a bore 38 extending coaxially there 13 in valve element 1| in continuous communica through which 4has enlarged or counterbored tion with the space or passage 66 irrespective of outer and inner ends 39 and`4l, respectively, and whether said valve element is in its closed or fully an'enlarged intermediate portion 42, a tubular open position.' The outer end of valve element member 43 which is coaxially seated in counter - 1|, thatis, the portion extending within the cen bore 4| and forms a continuation of bore‘38 and which is welded or otherwise permanently secured 60 tral passage 48 in body member 44, is provided with a radially extending coaxial key 19. and the to the block 31, and a second tubular member 44 actuation of said element is accomplished by rhavingr a peripheral flange 46 intermediate its means of a coaxial rod 8| which extends into bore . ends abutting and welded to the inner end of tubu 38 in block 31 and terminates within the enlarged .lar member 43 with’its outer end portion tele-> sCoped therein, having its inner end portion ex 65 portion 42 thereof and a tube 82 which is secured to the inner end of rod 8| for angular movement ternally threaded, and- having a series of bores 41 therewith and ~ extendsI coaxially through the . exteníding coaxially therethrough about the cen inner portion of vbore, 38, the- counterbore 4|, the tral lpassage 48 therein; the bores 41 and pas tube member 43 and into the central passage 48 in Vsage :48 forming `continuations of the central passage 4'in tubular member 43. Block 31 also has 70 tube member 4,4 rwith its inner end telescoping the outer end of valve element 1|; the key 19 on '.formed therein. a transverse. bore -49 which ter said valve element being disposed within a coaxial Vminates .1in-«the v,enlarged portion 4.2 of bore- 38 4slot 83 formed on the inner surface of said tube4 >andAhas its outer end threaded and connected to thereby render said element axially movable with a fuel return pipe 5|, a bore 52 extending axially outward from counterbore 4| antiter 75 relative to said tube and angularly movable there with. The outer end of rod 8| is provided with a - 2,411,181 5 handle 84 for .rotating same andthe counterbored portion 39 of bore 38 is filled with packing 86 which is held in place by a coaxial jam member to--which the primary air mixes with A:the atom tube 82 is provided with ducts 89 extending trans through. However, the primary aix-_ directing means improves the operating characteristics of ized fuel issuing from the nozzle orifice and there ' by effects complete combustion of the resulting mixture in a space or combustion chamber of 8l secured to the outer face of block- member ' short length in the direction of gas flow there 3l by means' of tap bolts 88. 'I‘he outer end of versely therethrough and placing the interior of said tube in communication with the enlarged portion 42 which in turn communicates with the fuel return pipe 5l through the bore 49; the pipe 10 5| being preferably provided with a suitable valve 9| as shown in Fig. 1. With the burner parts positioned asshown in Fig. 2 and the valve 9i in the return pipe opened, any type of atomizing burner, and its use is not in any manner limited to the particular type of burner herein shown and described. The feature of- mounting the valve element 1| in and for axial movement relative to a member Y fixed in the nozzle portion of the burner for movement therewith is also of particular impor tance as it prevents an appreciable movement of fuel under pressure from a suitable source (not 15 the nozzle portion relative to the valve element shown) will iiow from supply pipe lill into bore and thereby the variation in the degree of fuel 53, through bore 52 into the annular passage 93 feedV and/or orifice opening which always occurs formed between tube 82 and the surrounding tu when the nozzle valve is carried by the relatively bular body member 43, through the coaxial bores ‘ 4l in body member 4H into the passage 6€» formed 20 cool body portion of the burner. The invention is applicable to fluid fuel burn between nozzle elements 56 and 65, through ducts ers generally, and although a particular applica 59 in element '56, through ducts ‘ld in valve‘- ele :tion has been illustrated and described in detail, ment 1l into the coaxial bore 13 therein, through it should be understood that it is not desired to tube 82 and ducts 89 therein into the surround ing chamber formed by enlargement [i2 in block 25 limit the invention to the exact details of con struction herein shown and described, as various member 3l, and then through bore de into re modifications within the scope of the appended turn pipe 5i. This arrangement permits fuel oil claims may occur to persons skilled in the art. to be circulated through the burner -after opera It is claimed and desired to secure by Letters tion ceases in order to keep the burner cool; the circulation of oil therethrough being preferably 30 ` controlled by a valve Si in return pipe di. When it is desired to operate the burner, the handle BA1 is turned in a direction to withdraw valve element ‘ll from its seat 'it on oriñce mem ber 5l. thereby opening said oriñce and, depend ing upon the extent of the withdrawal, wholly or partially opening the series of ducts 6i in the orifice end of valve carrying element t6; the ori flce end of valve` element li forming with the opposed surface of orifice member tl a‘coaxlal fuel receiving chamber of variable axial length determined by the extent to which element ‘ii is Patent: ' ` i. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner having a nozzle portion provided with an orifice effective to produce a diverging fuel spray, means defining a chamber surrounding said burn. 35 er and including an inner annular air diverting and directing wall shaped and arranged to forni with the nozzle portion of the burner an inner annular air passage of decreasing cross sectional area in the direction of air iiow therethrough, and an inner member ~surrounding the orifice end of said nozzle portion in passage forming re lation therewith, said member being axially spaced from the inner peripheral edge of said withdrawn from` its said seat. >It is unnecessary annular wall in the direction of air ñow to divert at any time to supply an excess of fuel to the burner nozzle even for cooling purposes since the 45 and direct a portion of the air issuing from said inner passage inwardly against said fuel spray fuel for combustion flows through an outer sur at a point immediately adjacent said orifice. rounding passage, thereby effectively cooling the 2. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner burner during normal operation; it being under having a nozzle portion provided with an orifice` stood that during normal operation the valve 9i in return pipe bl is kept fully closed and that 50 eifective to produce a dlverging fuel spray, means defining a chamber surrounding' said burner and said valve is opened when combustion ceases in including an inner annular air diverting and order to continue the cooling action for a time .interval sufñcient to prevent carbonization of fuel in the nozzle portion of the burner. How directing wall shaped and arranged to form with the nozzle portion of theburner an inner an nular air passage of decreasing cross sectional area in the direction of air flow therethrough operating under conditions effecting extremely and an outer annular wall forming with said high temperatures, the valve 9i may -be opened inner 'wall a 'surrounding annular air passage to permit some of the fuel to return through the which merges with said inner passage adjacent inner passage as previously described. the oriñce end of said nozzle portion, and an in 60 The degree of atomization effected by passing ner member surrounding the orifice end of said a whirling mass of fuel through a coaxial orifice nozzle portion in passage forming relation there varies materially with changes in the whirling with, said member being axially spaced from the energy of the mass which in turn varies with inner peripheral edge of said inner wall in the changes 'in the velocity with which the fuel en ters the whirling or receiving chamber. And in 65 direction of'air flow to divert and direct a por tion of the air issuing from said inner passage this connection, it has been determined that the inwardly against said fuel spray at a point im use of a- coaxial whirling or receiving chamber, mediately adjacent said oriñce. the size of which is increased and decreased as 3. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner the quantity of fuel entering same is increased and decreased, respectively, produces results 70 having a nozzle portion provided with an orifice effective to produce a diverging fuel spray, a tu ' which are uniformly excellent for all operating bular radiant heat reflecting shield surround conditions. In addition, the correlation of this ing the nozzle portion of' said burner, means de feature with the primary air directing means fining a, chamber surrounding said shield and comprising annular wall 6 and annular member 36 increases both the rapidity and the extent 76 including an inner annular air diverting and ever, if additional cooling should be desired when 2,411,181 directing wall shaped and arranged to form with> said shield an inner annular air passage of de creasing cross sectional area in the direction of air ilow therethrough, and an'annular member carried by the Aoriñce end clfA said shield in sur rounding passage forming relation with respect . to the orifice end of said nozzle portion, said er ` Y 8 ì a chamber surrounding said shield and includ» ing an inner annular air diverting and directing wall shaped and arranged to form with said shield an inner annular air passage of decreasing ¢ cross sectional area in the direction of air ñow therethrough, said shield having at its oriñce end a plurality of inwardly bent lingers engaging said member having a diameter approximately equal nozzlel portion adjacent said orifice and a plu- to the diameter of the inner peripheral edge of said inner wall and being axially spaced from 10 ' rality of axially extending ñngers, and an annu lar member carried by said axially extending ñn said edge in the direction of air ñow to divert and gers in surrounding passage forming relation direct a portion of the air issuing from said inner with respect to the oriiice end of said nozzle por passage inwardly against said fuell spray at à tion, said member -being axially spaced from the point immediately adjacent said orifice. inner peripheral edge of said annular wall in the 4. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner direction of air ñow to divert and direct a por having a nozzle portion provided with an orifice tion of the air issuing from said inner passage effective to produce a diverging fuel spray, a tu inwardly against the fuel spray at a point imme bular radiant heat reilecting shield surrounding diately adjacent said oritlce. A t-he nozzle portion of said burner, means deñning HANS A. ALTORFER.