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Патент USA US2411184

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Nov. 19, 1946.
His Attorney.
Nov, 19, 1946.
‘ 2,411,184
Fiied July 2, 1942
' /30
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 «
Patented Nov. 19,~ 1946
‘James E. Boggs, Scotia, N. Y., assîgnor to General
`Electric Company, a corporation of New York
‘ Application July 2, 1942, Serial No. 449,391
15 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5)
This is a continuation-impart of my copend
ing application, Serial No. 436,633, filed March
`28, 1941, and assigned to the General Electric
Company, a corporation of New York.
The present invention relates to the fabrica
tion of electronic discharge devices and more par
ticularly to a process for obtaining a precise spac
ing of the electrodes of such devices.
In connection with vacuum tubes for use in
tional steps in the process of completing the fab
rlcation of the tube of Fig. 1~; Figs. 6 and 'l show
an alternative method of procedure accordingto
the invention; Fig. 8 illustrates the application of
the invention to a form of device somewhat dif
ferent from that illustrated in Fig. 1; Figs. 9
and 10 are enlarged detail views which illustrate
various aspects of the structure of Fig. 8; Fig. 11
is a sectional view of a diode of a type which
the ultra-high frequency range it is important 10 may be produced in accordance with the inven
that the interelectrode distances be uniformly
tion, and Fig. l2 shows an intermediate step in
4maintained from tube to tube with a deviation
not materially in excess of a fraction of a mil.
Any deviation greater than this, especially with
reference to the spacing between the cathode and
grid electrodes, results in inconsistent and un
predictable operating characteristics and is,
therefore, highly undesirable.
It is an object of the present invention to pro
vide a method of tube fabrication by which tol
erances as close as those specified can be readily
One aspect of the invention which is important
in the attainment of the foregoing object involves
the fabrication of the tube of Fig. 11.
Referring particularlyto Fig. l the discharge
tube there illustrated includes a series of three
circular metal members I Il, II and I2 which are
arranged in spaced relation and which are mu
tually separated by vitreous `(e. g'. glass) cylinders
I3 and I4 sealed between them. Both the metal
members ID to I2 and the cylinders I3 and I4 ‘
are of progressively decreasing diameter from one
end of the tube to the other so that the tube as
a whole has a step-wise coniiguration.
The metallic part I2 includes a planar portion
I8 having a central opening I 9 and a circular rim
making at least one of the electrodes employed of 25 2U which extends away from the main body of
deformable construction, installing the electrode
in approximately its desired location in the tube
structure, and thereafter deforming the electrode
in situ to bring its active part more precisely into
the desired relationship with the other electrodes 30
the discharge enclosure. Within the opening I9
there is provided a cathode structure which in
cludes a supporting part 24 and an active part
consisting of a metal disk 21, a cylindrical sleeve
of the tube.
29 Which depends from the disk. The disk is
preferably coated on its upper'surface with an
activating coating such as a layer of barium and
Another important feature consists in the use
of an arrangement and procedure by which ad
justment of the deformable electrode serves con
28 secured to the disk 21 and a flanged sleeve
Strontium’carbonates, and a ñlamentary heater
currently to establish the proper relationship be 35 32 arranged within the cathode structure serves
tween the remaining electrodes of the tube.
' to maintain the disk at a temperature of ther
A still further feature, which is ancillary to
mionic emission. In the use of the device, the
those specified above, comprises the use of a
heat developed by the filament 32 is conveyed to
multipart cathode construction of such nature
the emissive disk 21 both by direct radiation and
that relative adjustment of the respective parts 40 by conduction through the sleeve 2g. 'I'he sleeve
affords ‘an effective means for bringing the active
29 serves the further function of minimizing ra
component of the cathode into precisely the
diation of heat to the other parts of the cathode
proper correlation with the other electrodes.
` The features which I desire to protect herein
` The part 28, by which the emissive disk 21 is
are pointed out in the appended claims. The in 45 directly supported, is preferably constituted of
vention itself, together with further objects and
a thin foil of a metal of low thermal conductivity
‘advantages thereof may best be understood by
such, for example, as a nickel-iron-cobalt alloy
reference to the following description taken in
(Fernico) ._ Because of the relatively limited heat
connection with the accompanying drawings in
conduction path‘j provided by the foil, Whichmay
`which Fig. l represents in section a three-ele 50 be on the order of a few tenths of a mil in thick
ment discharge tubeßof a type which may suit
ness, the loss of heatf from the disk 21 to the
ably;Y be constructed in accordance with the in
vention; Figs. 2 and 3 represent successive steps
other part of the cathode structure is relatively
slight, and eflicient operation‘of .the cathode is
in the process 4ofi’abricating a tube such as that
assured. The part 28 is of such dimensions that
illustrated in Fig. 1; Figs. 4 and 5 represent op 55 it may slide over the part 24,‘being prevented from
welded connection to it.
surfaces shall be perfectly clean and resistant to
moving with respect to that part, however, by a
(The cathode structure
The disk II which is sealed to the upper ex
tremity of the cylinder I4 is provided with a
bination of the heat shield 29 and the part 23
which provides high resistance to heat flow, is DI central opening 5S and supports a mesh grid 51
just specified, including particularly the com
more fully described and is claimed in my co
covering this opening, the grid being spaced only
pending application Serial No. 453,158, filed
a few mils from the active surface of the cathode
disk l21. Above the grid and in cooperative
relation with respect to the grid ’and cathode,
August 1, 1942, and assigned to the General Elec
tric Company, a corporation of New York.)
For the purpose of supporting the cathode
structure, a Series of relatively rigid conductors
38 are attached to the lower surface of va. circu
there is supported an anode in the form of a
This extends through an
solid cylinder 6B.
_opening formed centrally in the disk I2 and con
lar flange 25 formed on the part 24. The part
25 is arranged in face to face relation with the
lower surface of the partlß but is maintained at
a fixed spacing with respect to this part by the
nects above the disk with a cylindrical terminal
6I which, as shown, is of smaller diameter than
interposition of a sheet or layer of a dielectric
produced between the terminal 6I and the disk
substance 42 consisting, for example, of mica or
other inorganic insulating material. As a result
of this arrangement the cathode structureA is in
sulated from the part I2 with respect to unidirec
tional currents while being effectively connected
to -it (e. g. through the capacity between the op
posed surfaces of the parts I8 and 25) as far
as high frequency currents are concerned. As
a consequence, the part I2 is adapted to serve
as a high frequency terminal for the cathode
the disk Iil, although of larger diameter than
the hole formed in the disk. A fused metal joint
IIJ, as indicated at 62 renders this end of the tube
vacuum-tight and completes the enclosure of the
In connection with a tube such as that de
scribed, it is extremely important that the spac
ing established between the various electrodes
and especially the spacing between the cathode
disk 21 and the grid 51, be maintained within
very close tolerances and be substantially< in
variable from tube to tube. In order to fulfill
this condition in a manner which is consistent
' structure.
-Unidirectional potential may be supplied to
with the requirements of quantity production
the cathode and heating current may be sup- t
plied to the filament 32 by means of the con
ductors 38 and additional Vconductors 43. con
methods, the present invention makes use of a
procedure such as is illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3.
In the first of these ñgures there are shown
nected-to the terminals of the ñlament. In the
certain tube parts which correspond to various
ductors are sealed through a metallic closure .
parts illustrated in Fig. 1 and which are similarly
numbered. These include particularly the en
member 44 which is hermetically sealed by a
soldered joint 415 to the lower edge of the cir
cular rim 20. Individual glass-to-metal seals
41` corresponding in number to the lead-in con
ductors, serve to maintain the conductors in in 40
the cathode parts 24 to 29.
The parts IU to I4 and the grid 51 are already
assembled in the relationship they are expected
to occupy in the ñnished device. 'I‘hese parts,
these various
closure-forming parts I0 to I4, the grid 51, and
sulatingly spaced relation With'respect to the
part 44. The externally extending extremities
of the lead-in conductors are soldered into tubu
lar contact prongs 52, and these in turn are sup
ported in an insulating adaptor 53 which is suit
posed between the cathode disk 21 and the grid
ably secured in engagement with the closure
'member 44. VA centering pin 55 which depends
from the kadaptor 53 serves to facilitate the orien
tation of the tube in a cooperating socket.
, The class cylinder I4 is sealed to the upper ,
surface of the planar wall part I8 in a region
.surrounding the cathode structure, the joint be
tween these parts being vacuum-tight. In order
to facilitate the production of a joint of this kind
it is expedient to -form the part I2 as well as '
>the disks I0 and II of iron and to use for the
cylinders I3 and' i4 a glass which is capable of
cathode structure and a spacing cap "B9 inter
51, are mounted upon a fabricating jig having
an outer cylinder 10 which bears upon the
cathode part 25 and a retractable plunger 1I
which engages the lower extremity of the part
29. (At Vthis point no joint exists between the
cathode parts 24 and 28, so that relative motion
of these parts is possible.) A spring 13 located
within the’interior of the jig structure tends to
press the plunger 1I upwardly while a set screw
14 affords a convenient means for locking the
plunger in a. particular location with respect t0
the body of the jig. The jig as a whole, and the
parts which it carries are supported upon a fixed
arm 16 extending outwardly from a bench 11V or
other immovable working surface.
being sealed to iron, such glasses being described,
In place of the anode 60 referred to in conf
for example, inV Hull and Navias Patent No.
2,272,747, granted February 10, 1942. To make 60 nection with Fig. 1 the upper part of the tube
contains a'location-determining agency 80 which
VJthe sealing process easier, the various metallic
is in substantially the same form as the anode
parts in question are preliminarily coat-ed with
60 but'which differs in length from the anode
copper, which has they further effect of increas
by an amount corresponding to the spacing de
ing the’ surface conductivity of these members
with respect to high frequency currents. The 65 sired to exist between the active surface of the
anode and the active portion of the , grid 5,1.
The part 8i) is provided at its upper end with an
'enlarged cap 82 which determines the distance
this oxide before putting .inv place the cathode
which the part BIJ> can project ’ intoï Athe
structure and Ythe closure member 44 upon
which the cathode ` structure is mounted. 70 tube enclosure. The cap 82-has a still larger
part 82’ whichV is engaged by' a recess formed in
’As a further preliminary" to evacuation of the
_copper is to some extent oxidized during the
sealing >procedure and it is desirable to remove
device and sealing in of the closure Amember it
.has been found helpfulin some -cases to silver
a movable arm 84, and at its opposite ,end the
or gold plate the internal andr external surfaces
,a plunger 85 which is attached to anjoperator
arm 34 is secured -to the upper extremity of
of the parts I0", II and I2 -to assure that these 75 controlled pedal or actuator indicated at 81.
The `pedal 81 acts against‘a spring 88 so that
the plunger 815 is normally biased in the upward
direction, but when pressure is applied to the
pedal, -the plunger and consequently the part
80 are :moved downwardly. Assuming the set
screw 'I4 to be in a retracted position, the part
80 acting on the grid 51 will overcome the action
of the spring ‘I3 and will move the discharge
enclosure downwardly until the part i8`comes
to rest upon the upper surface of the insulator 42.
When this condition is Vattained the sup
parts of the cathode structure together, some
slight displacement of these parts may occur in
spite of the fact that they are‘retained very close
ly in their proper relationship‘by the jig elements
10 and 7l. If any displacement of this kindlhap-`
pens, it can be readily rectified by replacingythe
cathode structure in the lining up assembly shown
in Figs. 2 and 3. If this is done and the part 80
is again forced downwardly into its lowest pos-_
sible position, it will reestablish the 'desired re
iationship of the various elements. »In some cases
it may be desirable to substitute for the element
"it a similar element having a length a fewgmils
reference tothe tube as a whole. Since further
greater so that it is capable of producing a slight
downward motion of the tube is impossible un 15 additional deformation of the >grid 5l. When
der ‘the vcircumstances ‘ assumed, continued
such a longer element is forced down into the tube
porting part 24 of the cathode structure
is in substantially its intended relationship with
motion of the part 80 can occur only as a result
of downward deformation of the grid 51 as in
dicated in Fig. 3. ifA the lforce applied is suffi
cient to cause such deformation to occur, the
assembly it will obviously seat the grid firmly
upon the spacer 69 even if some slight shrinking
or- deformation of the cathode structurehas oc
curred. If no such shrinkage exists, the slight
additional displacement of the grid will be taken
the capV 82 is seated upon the upper surface of
up by a correspondingly slight deformation >or
the disk It. If subsequently the part 80 is re
compliance of the foil of which the cathode part
placed by an anode which diiîers from it only
28 is constituted. It is assumed that‘the cath
in being a: mils shorter, it is clear that a spacing
ode parts 2e and 28 are welded in iixed relation
of exactly :c mils will exist between the anode
ship at this point so that relative displacement
andthe deformed central portion of the grid 5l.
between them is no longer possible, The details
This then affords an extremely accurate method
of this realigning step are indicated in Figs. 4`and
of obtaining a desired spacing between the grid
5 in which the displacement between the"dotted
and anode in a construction such as that illus
30 lines a and b represents the difference inv length
tratedY in Fig. 1. In a particular case a spacing
between the location determining agency ' 8i)
of about 13"mils has been found appropriate.
originally employed and theslightly longer ele
To obtain an equally accurate spacing between
ment 8d’ employed in the realigning‘proces's;
the grid and the active part of the cathode struc
Spot weids joining the cathode part 28' tothe
ture, it is only necessary to make the cathode-grid
part 2d are indicated at 95 in Fig.
` `
spacer 69 of the proper dimensions. In general,
After the assembly of the cathode parts and
. it is found desirable to apply the activating coat
the rechecking of the cathode to grid spacing has
ing to the cathode disk [il after the cathode as
been accomplished, the cathode filament 32 (Fig.
sembly is completed so that the spacer E9 should
l.) is inserted in its proper location and the cath
part 8i) will eventually reach the point at which
have a thickness equal to the desired cathode to
40 ode structure as a whole is mounted upon the
grid spacing (say, 4 mils) plus one or two mils to
closure member 44 (i. e. by means of the con-`
take into account the expected thickness of the
ductors 38 and d3). Finally the closure member
subsequently deposited layer of activatingmate
is soldered to the lower edge of the circular flange
Eil by a mass of solder 45 as previously specified.
‘ With the spacer 69 in place, the upward pres
- The flange 2i) is of such dimensions with relation
sureof the spring 'i3 (Fig. 2) serves to maintain
to the length of the `conductors Sethat it does not
the spacer clamped between the grid and cathode
seat upon the surface of the closure part 44 but
surfaces as the grid is deformed downwardly and
remains slightly spaced from it while the soldered
thus holds a constant spacing between these sur
Joint is being produced. This means that the
faces. This spacingwill he retained even when 150A cathode part 25 can lbe forced firmly against the
'the ’part 80 moves to its lowest permitted posi
insulating disk ¿i2 and' that the disk iny turn can I
tion (i. e. the positionillustrated in Fig. 3). Ac
be seated solidly upon the envelope part i8. Ác
cordingly, if the cathode structure is frozen in
cordingly, assurance is provided that the cathode
the relationship which it then occupies, the` de
structure as a whole occupies precisely the rela
sired relationship between the cathode and the 55 tionship which it had during its preliminary' ad
grid and anode elements will have beenestab
justment (i. e. during the performance of the‘pro
lished. ¿This “freezing” of the cathode parts can
cedural steps illustrated> in Figs. 2 and 3.)
be accomplished by adjusting the set screw 14 so
In some Vcases itis desirable to omit the insu
that it clamps the parts 7G and 'H in fixed spatial
relationship and then removing these elements 60 lating disk «l2 and to solder thecathode part 25
directly to the envelope part I8. Where this is
from the tube assembly together with the cathode
parts which they respectively support. Without
disturbing this arrangement, the cathode foil 28
done, the preliminary line-up procedure will be
the same as that described in the foregoing eX
cept thatthe part 25 will be seated against the
may then be welded to the outer surface of the
part 2d ‘so that no subsequent displacement be 65 part la during the deformation of the grid 5l.
tween them is possible. The spacer 69 may then
It is not necessary that the means employed to
be 'removed and the cathode Vreinserted into the
determine thespacing between the anode and the
tube assembly with the certainty that its active
grid 51 shall take the precise Aform represented in
surface will occupy the desired relationship with
Figs. 2 and 3. Alternatively, one may employ the
respect to the grid 51. (The fact that the part 42` 70 anode` itself in connection with a spacer‘of ap
abuts ñatly against the under surface of the part`
propriate dimensions‘used in the manner of the
25lmakes it certain that the earlier disposition of
spacer 69. Of course,.where such a spacer isern
the cathode structure in the discharge enclosure
ployed, it must be capableof attachmentto the
lower extremity'of the anode andthe opening
`It occasionally happens that in welding the 75 formed in the disk. i0 `must be of sufficientdiar'nef-k
can be accurately reestablished.)
ter'to `permit the introduction through it of the
the cathode so that it lies flat upon the filament
spacer and its >attaching means.
As a further alternative-to forming the grid
by use of an anode-simulating element, as de
underlying mica ring I|5. As in the procedure
scribed in connection with Fig. 2, the same func
I |3_, being supported through the iilamentbyi the
described in connection with Fig. 2,'a location- _
determining agency |40 having a particular di
mensional relationship to the anode which is to
be used in the tube is forced down against the
grid |35 to produce a predetermined deformation
of it. After this operation is performed, the cath
ode parts ||0 and ||| are locked in the position
which they then occupy by means of a jig having an
outer component |42 and an inner, relatively mov
tionmay be accomplished by appropriate manip
ulation of the cathode parts as indicated in Fig. 6.
(In this figure, parts corresponding to elements
previously described bear similar reference nu
merals differentiated by priming.) In the in
tended location of the anode there is provided a
location determining agency |00 which diiiers
from lthe anode in by an amount corresponding
to the desired spacing between the anode and
able component |43, these being adapted to be
‘ secured in ñXed relation by a set screw or other
means, not shown. With the jig in locked rela
tion, the cathode structure (after adjustment)
is removed from the tube assembly and its parits
welded together in the manner previously de
scribed. Thereafter, upon removal of the spacer'upon the cathode sleeve 29'. This drives the ac 20 cap |38 and restoration of the cathode structure
toits original position in the tube assembly, the
tive part of the cathode structure in an upward
desired fixed spacing between the cathode »fila
direction, carrying with it a spacer 69’ which acts
ment and the grid |35 will have Vbeen attained.
against the lower surface of the grid to deform
The desired spacing between the anode and the
it. Upward pressure is applied to the jig 10’ and
downward pressure to the part |00, as indicated by 25 grid is, of course, produced by substituting for
grid, the intended length of the anode being
indicated by the dotted line I0|. The grid 51’ is
pressed upwardly against the lower extremity of
the element |00 by pressure suitably applied to
the lower extremity of a plunger 1|' which acts
the arrows A and B respectively, so that all the
elements of the tube structure are placed under
A completed discharge device
the location-determining element |40 an anode
whose length differs from that of the element by
the desired amount.
Certain aspects of the invention are Valso ap
formed in accordance with the procedure illus
trated in Fig. 6 is shown in Fig. '1, the lower part 30 plicable in connection with the fabrication of two Y
element 'discharge tubes. This is illustrated in
of the tube being broken away to conserve space.
The invention may also be applied in connec
Figs. 11 and 12 which show respectively a oom
pleted diode of a type described in my Vcopending
tion with the fabrication of a tube in which the
application S. N. 436,633, and an intermediate
cathode takes the form of a directly heated fila
ment rather than an indirectly heated construc 35 step in the manufacture of such a diode.
The tube referred to includes an apertured cir
tion as in Fig. 1. This possibility is illustrated for
cular part |48 having an indirectly heated cath
example, in Figs. 8, 9 and 10, the last two ñgures
ode extending through its central opening. As
showing the structuralv details of a completed
in the construction of Fig. 1, the cathode com
cathode structure of the type in question.
As appears most clearly in Fig. 10` the cathode 40 prises an active disk |40 to which is secured a de
pending sleeve |50 and a cylinder of metal foil
includes a supporting part IIII which is in tele
I5|, the cylinder being telescoped over and weld
scoping relation with a metallic sleeve I I | form
ed to a correspondingly shaped suporting part
ing the lower component of the active part of
|52. A iilamentary heater |53 is provided within
the »cathode structure. The emissive portion of
the cathode is in the form of a V-shaped ñlament 45 the interior of the cathode, being supplied With
heating current by means of lead-in terminals
||3 (Fig. 9) which extends across the upper face
|55. Additional lead-in conductors |56 are pro
of the cathode structure. The ñlaments which
vided for the purpose of supporting the cathode
make up the sides of the V rest at their extremities
structure and supplying it with unidirectional po
upon the upper surface of a mica washer ||5
which is held in place by the fact that the edge 50 tential.` Close capacitive coupling between the
cathode Vstructure and the part |50 is provided'
of the part ||| is crimped over to provide a re
taining means as indicated at IIS.
(The upper
edge of the part ||| -is cut away at appropriate
regions to avoid interference with the filament
by means of a flat metallic member |55 which is
connected to the cathode and which is insulat
ingly spaced from the part |50 by means of a@V
| I3.) ` The apex of the filament V is engaged by a 55 mica spacer |60.
spring arm I |8, whereas the extremities of the V
are attached appropriately formed terminals ||9
and |20. These terminals are »clamped between
the mica washer | I5 and a second similarly shaped
mica washer |22 positioned below it, the in
wardly extending parts of the terminals being
shown in Fig. 10. Current is supplied to the fila
ment by wires |24 which connect with lead-in
conductors |25 shown only in part. The sup
The lower opening of the circular member |48`
is closed .by means of a generally cup-shaped part
I5! which is reverse'ly bent to provide a circum
ferentially extending‘trough portion |52.V This
latter portionA is adapted to receive the extreme
edge Vof the member |40 and when filled with
solder as indicated at |03 provides a vacuum-tight
seal -for the tube enclosure. The lead-in wires
|55 and |56 are‘sealed through the part |6I by
porting structure for the cathode is quite similar 65 means'of a plurality of glass-to-metal'seals shown
at |64.
to that described in connection with Fig. l and
` The> lower edgeof the cup-shaped part IBI is
includes a circular flange |30 which bears against
provided with bent-in tabsV |06 which serve to
an insulating washer I3 I , the washer in turn being
engageand'retain a socket adapter |61 consti
pressed against the lower vsurface of a metallic
envelope part |32. The upper end of the cathode, 70 tuted of a suitable insulating material, such as a
synthetic resin. The adapter is provided with aspecifically the filament ||3, is, in the completed
form of the tube, desired to be spaced a particular
distance from the grid |35 (Fig. 8). In order
to produce the desired grid-to-cathode spacing,
a’spacer capl |38 is placed over the upper end of 75
centering lug |61" and supports a number of hol
low contact prongs |58 towhich the Vextremities'l
of the conductors |55 and |56 are attached.
The anode of the device' comprises- ‘a disk |60
which is- supported in fixed spaced relation with
respect tothe active surface of the cathode by
' 4; Afmethod of fabricating an electric discharge
device having a first electrode structure and a sec
ond electrodestructure which includes an active
part and a supporting part; which method com
being sealed to the end of a glass cylinder |10.
In the fabrication of the tube the anode |69
and the base part |48 are first sealed to the re
prises installing said ñrst electrode structure in
spective extremities of the glass cylinder |'|0.
its desired location in the device, placing said sec
Thereafter these elements and the loosely assem
ond‘structure in approximately its desired loca
bled cathode parts are positioned in a line-up jig
tion in the device and with its parts in loose
having a fixed part |80 and two concentric mov
` assembly, moving said parts relative to one an
able parts |8| and |82. (See Fig. 12.) At this 10 other into precisely their desired relationship
stage, the insulating disk |00 is omitted for a
with respect to said first structure, and thereafter
reason which will shortly appear. By pushing
joining said parts in fixedassembly to assure the
the jig parts IBI and |02 concurrently in the up
subsequent preservation of the said relationship.
Ward direction, the ñange of the cathode part
5,. The method of fabricating a discharge device
|52 is caused to seat ñatly against the under sur
having a first electrode structure of deformable
face of the part |48 `and the cathode cap |49 is
character and a second electrode structure which
pressed against the anode |69.
includes the assembly of an active part and a sup
A Thereafter, the cathode assembly is “frozen”
(by Vlocking the jig parts `|8| and |82 together)
and withdrawn from the >tube so that the cath
ode parts may be welded in ñxed relationship
Finally, the cathode is mounted on the base |"6|
and reinserted in the tubein the arrangement
porting part; which method comprises installing
said first structure in approximately its desired
20 location in the device, installing said second
structure in approximately the desired relation
ship with the ñrst structure and with its parts
in loose assembly, deforming the said first struc
shown in Fig. 11, the insulating washer |60 be
ture to bring it more precisely into the desired 1o
ing now included. By comparing Figs. 11 and 25 cation, modifying the assembly of said second
12 it will be seen that the resultant spacing of
the cathode with respect to the anode |69 cor
responds precisely to the thickness of the Washer,
structure to bring its active part more precisely
into the desired relationship with the iirst struc
ture, _and thereafter fixing the assembly of the
which may be made asgreat as is desired for
second structure to preserve the said desired re
the particular application at hand.
In cases where the cathodestructure and the
base part |50 of Fig. 11 are desired to be at the
sameÍ potential, a metal Washer may be used as
a spacer in place of the insulating disk |60. As
a still further variant, in a case where the anode
is of the type employed in the construction of
Fig. l, the desired anode-cathode spacing` may
be obtained by inserting a washer of proper
thickness under the anode terminal cap after the
anode and cathode have been brought into abut
ting relation and the cathode parts joined in ac
cordance with a procedure such as that just de
While the invention has been described by spec
ifying various procedural steps as being taken in
a particular order, it will be understood that a
considerable variation in the order of procedure
is possible, and I aim in the appended claims to
6. The method of fabricating a discharge de
vice having a generally planar grid constituted
ofV deformable material and a cathode which in-V
cludes a supporting part and an electrically active
part; which method comprises installing said grid
in approximatelyl its desired location in the de
vice, placing said cathode in approximately its de
sired relationship with respect to the grid and
with its said parts in loose assembly, deforming
the said grid to cause its active portion to occupy
a plane more nearly at‘the desired location, mod
ifyingthe cathode assembly by relative motion of
its parts to cause the said active part to assume
a desired spacing with respectto the said active
. grid portion, and thereafter ñxing the assembly
of said parts to assure the preservation of the
cover all such equivalent variations as come with
said spacing.
'7. A method of fabricating a discharge device
having an envelope, an anode, agrid of deform
in the true spirit and scope of the foregoing dis
able material and a cathode which includes active
and supporting parts capable of being assembled
in engaging relation; which method comprises in
stalling said grid in said envelope, positioning
said active cathode part in substantially its proper
VWhat I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A process of fabricating a discharge device
having an electrode of deformable construction, ,
which process comprises installing the electrode
approximately in its desired location in the de
vice and thereafter deforming the electrode in
situ to bring its active part more precisely into
the desired location.
2. A process of fabricating a discharge device
having a grid constituted of deformable mate
rial, which process comprises installing the grid
relation to said grid, `arranging said supporting
part of the cathode in its intended location with
respect to said envelope and in loosely engaging
relation with said active part, deforming said grid
to bring it more precisely into its desired location,
bringing the active part of said cathode struc
ture more precisely into its proper relation to said
grid by adjustment of such part with reference
to the said supporting part, securing said cathode
approximately in its desired location in the de
parts to one another in the relation which they
vice, and thereafter deforming the grid in situ to 65 then occupy, and finally completing the assembly
of said device.
bring its active part more precisely into the de
sired location.
8. A method of fabricating a discharge device
3. A methodl of fabricating a discharge device
having an envelope, an anode, a grid »of deform
having an electrode of deformable construction,
able material and a cathode which includes sepa
which method comprises installing said electrode 70 rate active and supporting parts capable of being
in approximately its desired location in the de
mutually joined; which method comprises the
vice, positioning location-determining agencies on
following steps, installing the grid in said enve- »
opposite sides, of said electrode, and deformingA
the electrode by said agencies, thereby to effect
lcpe in substantially its intended location, posi
tioning the active cathode part in proximity to
a more precise location of a part of said electrode. 75 said grid with a spacer of predetermined thick
2,41 1,184
ness between them, arranging said supporting
part in its intended location with respect to said
envelope and in proximityvto said active part, de
forming a portion of said grid to bring it more
preciselyinto its desired location, moving said
active cathode part with reference to said sup
porting part to establish between said active cath
ode part and the deformed portion of said grid‘a
spacing determined by the thickness of sald
thickness between them, adding to said >assem-bly on the anode side of said grid an agency
having a surface which vcan be located with cer
tainty'in a plane which is a iixed distance from
the desired location of the active part of‘said
anode, moving said surface against» the grid to
bring the active part of the grid into the said
plane while concurrently deforming said cath-y
ode by the action of- said spacer to preserve-a:
spacer, joining saidv cathode parts in the relation 10 fixed spacing between the grid and cathode and
thereafter withdrawing said spacer andV said>
which they then occupy, removing said spacer,
agency and completing the permanent-assembly
and completing the assembly of said device.
9. A method of fabricating a discharge device
of said electrodes.
13. A method of fabricating a discharge d_e-- Y
having three electrodes, the intermediate elec
trode being a grid of deformable material, which 15 vice having a first electrode and a second electrode which includes as separable componentsy
method comprises temporarily assembling said
an active part and asupporting part; said meth
grid and a selected one of said remaining elec
od comprising the steps of disposing said-.iirst
trodes in approximately their desired relation
electrode in its desired location in said device,y
ship in the said device, interposing between said Y
electrodes a vspacer having a thickness equal to 20 disposing the supporting `part of said second.V
electrode at a fixed distance from the first elec
the desired spacing of the electrodes, adding t0
the assembly an agency having a surface which
trode and in approximately its desired relation
can be located with certainty in a plane which is
a fixed distance from the desired location of the
the active part of said second» electrode in abut
ship> with respect -to such electrode, arranging
third electrode, moving said surface against the 25 ment with said first electrode and in its desiredl
relationshiprwith respect to said supporting part,
grid to bring the active part of the grid into the
fixing said active and supporting parts in the
said plane while said spacer maintains the grid
relationship which they then occupy, displacing
in fixed relationship with respect to said one elec
the whole structure of one of saidrelectrodes from
trode, and thereafter withdrawing said spacer
and said agency and completing the permanent 30 its originally assigned location byv an> amount
corresponding to the spacing desired to exist be
assembly of the electrodes.V
tween the said active part yand the> first elec
10. A method of fabricating a discharge de
trode, Vand without subsequnt displacement of
vice having a first electrode which is of deform
the parts completing theiixed assembly of the
able character and. a second electrode, which
method comprises installing said electrodes 1n 35
14. A method of fabricating a discharge de
_ approximately the desired location in the device,
vice having a cathode which includes. an active
interposing a spacer of predetermind dimen
part and a supporting partadapted to be assem
sions between the electrodes, and moving said
bled in telescoping relation,Y a second electrode
second electrode to force said spacer against the
first electrode with resultant deformation of it, 40 adapted to cooperate with said cathode, and anl
thereby to bring the active parts of both said
electrodes more precisely into the desired loca
tion in said device while concurrently establish
ing a desired spatial relationship between them.
11. The method of -fabricating a discharge
envelope >for enclosing said cathode and saidV
second-electrode; said method comprising dis
posing said second electrode in its desired loca
tion in said envelope, disposing said cathode in
the envelope with its parts in loosely engaging
relation and with its supporting'part at a‘iixed
distance from said second electrode, moving the
active part of the cathode with reference to the
terial, which method comprises temporarily as
supporting part to bring it into abutment with
sembling said intermediate electrode and a'se
lected one of the remaining electrodes in ap 50 the second electrode, fixing said cathode parts in
the relationship which they then occupy, dis
proximately their desired relationship in thîe
placing said supporting part from its originally
said device, interposing between said electrodes
assigned location in the envelope by an amount
a Spacer having a thickness corresponding to
corresponding to the spacing desired to exist
the desired spacing of the electrodes, adding to
said assembly anagency having a surface which 55 between the anode and cathode, and without
subsequent change in ~the relationship 0i" the
can be located with certainty a` fixed distance
parts completing the permanent assembly of the
from the desired location of the active surface of
said third electrode, »moving said selected elec
l5. A method of fabricating an electric dis
trode toward said intermediate electrode with
out withdrawing said spacer, thereby by de 60 charge device having a first electrode structure
and also having a second electrode structure
formation of material to force the active por
which includes a cylindrical supporting part and
tion of said intermediate electrode against the
a conformingly cylindrical active part; which
said surface of said agency while maintaining
method comprises installing said iirst electrode
the desired spacing of said selected and inter
mediate electrodes, and thereafter withdrawing 65 structure in its desired location in the device,
said spacer and said agency completing the
placing said second structure in approximately its
permanent assembly of the electrodes.
desired location in the device with its said cylin
12. A method of fabricating a discharge de
drical parts in slidably interiitting relation, rela
vice having three electrodes including a grid and
tively sliding said parts to cause the said active
cathode of deformable character and an anode
70 part to assume precisely a desiredY spacing with
of non-deformable l character, which method
respect to said first electrode structure, and
device having three electrodes, the intermediate
electrode being constituted of deformable ma
comprises temporarily assembling said grid and
cathode in approximately their desired location
in said device with a spacer of predetermined
thereafter fixing the assembly of said parts to
assure the preservation of the said spacing.
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