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Патент USA US2411188

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Nov.- 19,1946.
E, M, 50m; ‘
2,411,188
METHOD OF PRESERVING FISH
Filed Feb. 17, ‘1942
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INVENTOR
[W020 17. 50/26
Patented Nev. 19, 1946
2,411,188
‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
- 2,411,188
METHOD OF PRESEBVING FISH
Edward M. Borg, Seattle, ‘Wash.
Application February 17, 1942, Serial No. 431,255
‘
‘
6 Claims.
(Cl. 99—187)
2
This invention relates to the preserving and
canning of ?sh and it has reference more par
treatment, and the subsequent displacement or
ticularly to improved methods for the canning
the meat in a desirable degree of solidity.
extraction of the liquid by pressure that leaves
of such ?sh as halibut, sole, cod and other ?sh ,
,
It is also an object of this invention to insure
‘which, to my knowledge, it has heretofore been Cl against
the dissipation of the desirable ?avors
impossible to preserve or can with any degree of
" and vitamins from the compressed meat after it
. success due to the fact that the texture of the
has been sealed in vacuum in the can, by the
meat and certain substances contained therein
?lling of the can with a vegetable oil or other
invariably cause the meat, after being canned, to“
suitable liquid.
either become mushy, discolored, rancid or of an 10
In accomplishing the above mentioned and
obnoxious odor, to such extent that it is neither
other
objects of the invention, I have provided
palatable nor desirable for human consumption.
the improved method, the various steps of which,
The exact reasons, scienti?c or otherwise, for
and means for their accomplishment will herein
‘the deterioration, or discoloration of the product
after vbe described.
~
that is incident to its being calmed, is not entirely
To better explain the present process, and its
clear-.to me beyond the fact that the objection
means of accomplishment, I. have provided the
able results above mentioned apparently are due
accompanying drawing, wherein
to the presence of certain substances comprised
Fig. 1 diagrammatically illustrates an arrange
in the liquid content of the ?sh. I conclude this
ment
machines, and the progression of the
because of having quite satisfactorily demon 20 cannedofproduct
through the various machines in
strated that when the liquid content of the meat,
the completion of the process.
to a de?nite amount, is extracted prior to the
Fig. 2 is a, sectional detail, illustrating one
product being hermetically sealed in the can, the
means
for the extraction of the liquid content
canned meat will then remain palatable and ex
from the ?sh as placed in a container.
ceptionally tasty, and will be very desirable for
Fig. 3 is a similar, sectional view of an alter
human consumption for an inde?nitely extended 2.5 native
means for the extraction of liquid content.
period. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated
It is quite well known in the ?sh canning in
that with proper seasoning prior to canning, the
dustry that certain kinds of ?sh have not here
product will get more tasty and palatable as time
tofore been considered desirable for canning,
goes on.
'
The objects of the present invention therefore
are thefollowing:
_
30 while others are desirable and are canned in great
quantity. For example, the.canning of salmon is
an enormous industry, while halibut, cod, sole,
First, to provide ‘an improved method, or proc
dog?sh and other ?sh abundant in quantity, are
ess, for the preserving of ?sh, particularly ?sh
not now used or commercialized except in fresh
such as halibut, whereby to overcome the possi 35 or frozen state, uncanned. It is a generally ac->
bilities of deterioration, discoloration or rancidity, ‘
cepted fact by ?sh canners that such ?sh as hali
and to improve the palatability and tastiness of
but, sole, sandabs and other similar ?sh which
the canned product.
_
come under the general clas-si?cation‘of “bottom
Second, to provide a commercially practicable
?sh,” also some other ?sh, such as dog?sh, be
method of canning halibut, and other kinds of
cause of the particular formation of the grain or
?sh which, for substantially the same reasons as
texture of the meat layers, and by reason of cer
halibut, have heretofore been unsatisfactory in a
tain liquid content thereof, are undesirable for
canned condition.
canningvby the ordinary processes such as now
More speci?cally ‘stated, the objects of the presgenerally used for the successful canning of
ent invention reside in the improved preservative 45 salmon.
.
treatment for halibut, and those other ?sh which
In my experimentation with the canning of
heretofore could not for the same reasons
‘ “bottom fish," of which halibut has been selected
be satisfactorily preserved, which comprises the
as typical insofar as the objects of this invention
extraction of liquid content from the meat, prior
are
I have observed that the canned
‘:0 freezing or the'hermetic sealing of the product 50 meatconcerned,
becomes more watery or soggy as time goes
p containers. The process, in its more complete
on, and with the increase of sogginess, it becomes
sequence of operations, or steps, includes an initial
more undesirable for human consumption.
,
JOt water treatment that prepares the meat for
The present process also can be applied quite
easy extraction of liquid content, and also in-’
advantageously to the canning of tunaafish and
:ludes a water cooling process, after the hot water
greatly reduces the time and expense normally
.
9,411,188
4.“
‘,
I the point described excep that the hot water
involved. Likewise, as above stated, it is applica
pproximately thirty
minutes and the cooling treatment ,that follows
ble to dog?sh and other ?sh which are not
strictly classed as “bottom ?sh” or considered
treatment is extended for
may be eliminated.
‘ suitable for canning because of the after results.
Likewise, the method is made applicable to the
Since _I have'demonstrated that the present
l process is quite effective for‘ the canning of many
kinds of ?sh, in the following speci?cation, and
in the claims terminating the speci?cation, the
use of the term “?sh” is intended to designate
successful canning and preservation of dog?sh
by the slight modi?cation which comprises ex
4 tending the period of heat treatment to approxi
.mately-thirty minutes, or. double that ‘required
and to apply'toall ?sh, or the like,the-1neat of
for, halibut and like '?sh.
.which contains those particular ingredients, or
is of such structure as to make it undesirablev
particularly the undesirable liquid content, vari
for use after being canned by ordinary processes,
but which can be canned and kept in a palatable
ous types of machines-or devices might be em
ployed.- The means now employed by me, and
. For the removal or extraction‘ of‘ the water and ‘
and otherwise satisfactory state of preservation
considered practical from the commercial stand
, by the present methods of canning.
7 point; is a-machine, slightly modified, made ac
cording to the machine of U. S. Patent No. 1,891,
The method or process, in itspresent preferredv
sequence of steps or operations, as applied v,to the
830, known as a can ?ller. In using this particu
lar machine, or any similar machine for the
greatest number of different kinds of ?sh, is as
20 present purpose of liquid displacement or extrac-'
tion, the ?lled cans, with the top ends open as
First, the fresh ?sh is cleaned; then, as may
received from the dipping machine followingthe
be found necessary for ordinary canning, is cut
previously described heating and cooling treat
into pieces of suitable size, then ?lled into the
ments, are individually carried into the machine,
cans or containers in which it is ?nally to be her
\metically sealed. Preferably, but not necessarily, 25 each is received within a pocket of a rotary tux’
ret, and then reciprocating plungers, which, in
the ?sh are‘skinned and boned, and that dark
the use of the machine as a can'?ller, operate to
fatty substance sometimes found between the
follows:
_
l
'
.
force meat into the cans, are caused, by a reset
skin and meat, is discarded. The cans, ordi
ting or reforming of the original plunger actu
narily, are ?lled to the top with the prepared ?sh,
and then the ?lled cans, with the top ends open, 30 ating cam, to move to such additional extent
are passed through a dipping machine in which
a treatment is given the meat whereby to facili
that, in this particular use, they will enter the
tate the extraction or displacement of liquid con
ter, thus to force ‘the'desi‘red amount of liquid
cans against the meat and will compress the lat
content out vfrom the meat. At present, “for the
tent therefrom as heretofore mentioned.
canning of halibut, the original content of the
full can is compressed to about seven-eighths its
The dipping machine may be of the type of
any of those now commonly used in the canning
original volume,‘ but this might be varied to a
greater or, lesser amount, depending upon the
kind of ?sh being canned. The pressing, or
ply of water from 210° F. to 212°,F. is maintained,
and conveyors of suitable kind, for support of 40 extracting operation‘ is relativelyv ‘slow‘so that
industry. The typical dipping machine is formed
with a reservoir, or compartment wherein a sup
the cans in upright position, are employed therein _
the ‘liquid that is displaced will have‘su?i'cient
for conveying the ?lled‘ cans through the water
while entirely immersed. -The cans, and their
time to drain from the can. 'Furthermore,the
pressing ‘action of the plunger so compresses the
?sh content, are retained in this hot water for a
period of approximately ?fteen minutes, more or
meat that it then has a desired degree of solidity. ‘
less, depending somewhat‘ upon the particular
kind of ?sh being treated, and are then removed
therefrom by the conveyor.
’
»
It will here be explained that the above men- '
tioned hot water treatment is not a cooking proc
ess, but is only intended to effect a certain ten
Another method and means of extraction of
liquid from the meat anticipates the use of’a
tubular plunger arranged to enter the open end
of the can in a manner similar to the action of
the plunger of the machine above described, and
50 to be advanced against the contents of the can
to the same extent. The end of such a tubular
derization of the tissues, which will allow the
plunger would be substantially of the same diam
layers of meat to separate and the cell structure
eter as the can. .However, the end would be cov
ered by a perforated plate or sheet ‘of ?ne mesh:
thereof to somewhat open up as a means of facili-'
tating the subsequent step of extracting or dis4 65 The outer end of the tubular plunger then pref
erably would have connection with a suction tube
placing of that undesirable liquid content of the
through which the water that is forced out of
?sh which renders itv unsuitable for canning by
the meat by the advancement of the plunger into
ordinary methods.~
F
the can would be carried away.
"
From the ‘foregoing hot water treatment, or
Still another means; of extracting the liquid
dipping operation, the cans of ?sh are conveyed 60
anticipates use of a spinning machine on which
vdirectly into a similar dipping ~machine, or what
the cans are placed for rotation to effect the dis,
preferably comprises a separate compartment of
placement- of liquid by centrifugal action. ,
»
the ?rst machine, containing water at 50° F., for
After the extraction of liquid from .and r the
cooling the product. . The cans are similarly con
veyéd while entirely immersed in the cooling 65 compression of the meat, by any ofthemean‘s
as above recited, the cans of meat are passed to
water, for a period of from four to seven minutes,v
a salter, which may be any of the typeslnow gen
and are then carried out‘of the chamber to the
erally used in the canning industry, for the drop
means herein provided for the extraction of the
ping of a,’ speci?ed amount of ,saltand/or other‘
excess water content from the ?sh.
It will here be mentioned that present-day 70 seasoning material into the open end of the can '
upon the compressed meat. Then it is a featurel
methodsv of canning tuna ?sh are expensive and
slow by reason of a certain pre-cooking treat
of this process that the can be'?lled to the max»
imum level in the head space as permitted for»
ment, generally believed to be necessary. The
satisfactory sealing. with a suitable vegetable oil,
present method is well adapted to the canning
of tuna ?sh and is like that for halibut up to 75 or the like, to give additional flavor and palata
9,411,188
.
-
5
bility‘to the product. This liquid ?lling also pre
vents any possibility of the favors" and vitamins
belngextracted alter sealing the can, that would
, being carried out mainly by the use of machines.
it is to be understood that all operations might
result if‘ any vacuum space was left in thereon
talner.
.
'
.
other words, the ?sh,
Finally, the top ends or closures areapplied to 5 ‘after being cleaned, could be placed by‘ hand in
- the cans. and these, if or the usual kind, are
hot water for the desired heat treatment, then
clinched to the can bodies preparatory to sealing
lifted out by hand and placed in the cooling bath.
the can in vacuum.
.
Next, they could be placed by hand in ant7 suitable
Referring now more particularly to the draw 10 type of container and pressure applied there
ing
against for e?’ecting the displacement of the
Fig. 1 diagrammatically shows a preferred and
liquid content from the meat, and to compress
satisfactory arrangement of devices for practis
the meat to the desired ?rmness. Finally, the
ing the present method. In this view, I0 desig
meat could be placed in containers of any suit
nates what may be any suitable type of ?ller for
able kind,’ such as the well known mason Jars,
‘
putting the cleaned ?sh in the cans. However, 15 and hand sealed.
hand ?lling of cans might be employed if such
It is to be understood that the seasoning of
should be'necessary or found desirable. Numeral
H designates, in its entirety. a combined dipping
the meat is only to render the product more
palati-ble, and is not necessarily required for the
machine and cooler, divided into separate com 20 preservation of the meat after it has been canned
partments l2 and I3, respectively, for the supply
by this process. It is extremely desirable, how
ever, that prior to sealing the can in vacuum,
of hot water from 210° F. to 212° F. and that at
the head space of the, can created by the step
50° F. for cooling. Filled cans are delivered from
of liquid extraction, be ?lled with a suitable
the ?lling machine it through a guideway M,
liquid such as vegetable oil.
,
4
and are picked upand conveyed through the dip
ping machine H by a travelling conveyor belt, 25 It is to be understood further that the gist of
the present invention resides in the novel proc
indicated generally by reference numeral 55, and
ess, or method of canning ?sh which preferably,
driven by any suitable means, not shown. Final
but not necessarily, includes the ‘initial heat
ly, the cans of ?sh are delivered from the ma
chine ii, along a-guideway it to the extractor 30 treatment to loosen
meat for a better and easier extraction of the
device ii for the withdrawal of free water and
the ‘undesirable liquid 'content from the ?sh.
From the extractor, the cans, with the contents
liquid content,
compressed therein, move along a guideway 58
‘
Finally
the seasoning, ?lling the head space with
to the salter it, then to the clincher 2t and ?nal
,ly to the vacuum seamer 2i, and are discharged
oil, and then hermetic sealing of the meat in
its container. This process applies especially to»
from the latter through the‘ chute 22. The oil
that is added to ?ll the head space, may be
“bottom
poured in by hand or mechanically or by ma
chine immediately after the salting operation.
If it is not desired to use vegetable oil as the
?ller, then distilled water or other suitable sub
isfactory for crab meat and abalone.
The various, steps in the process might be modi
?ed to some extent, or some eliminated, dependent
arrangement of parts in the extractor device
for elimination of liquid from the meat while in 45 upon the particular type of ?sh being canned, but
in a general way would be used in its entirety for
the cans. In this view, 25 designates a part of
all ?sh of this general classi?cation.
the can carrying turret of the extractor. 26 is
a base plate against which the bottom end wall
of the can is ?tted during the extracting opera
tion, and El designates a plunger that is oper
able toward the plate and against the contents
stance may be employed.
‘
i
i
In Fig. 2, I have shown a detail of a preferred
steps of hermetically scaling in cans.
of the can to compress the meat to the desired
uct, however, when in cold storage, is packed in
extent necessary for the displacement or extrac
tion of the liquid. Clearance between the can 55 suitable containers or cartons.
.Having thus described my, invention, what I
Wall and the plunger is provided as required for
the escape of this liquid, but without loss of solid
claim as new therein and desire to secure by
Letters Patent is:
matter.
1.‘ The method of preserving ?sh, comprising
In Fig. 3, I have shown an alternative means
for effecting the extraction of the water‘ or liquid
content from the meat. In this view, 38 desig- '
nates a support for the can, at is a tubular '
plunger adapted to be projected downwardly into ,
the can and covered at the end which enters the
from the meat,
and ?nally compressing the product'in a con
can, by a ?ne mesh plate 32. 33 designates a 65 tainer.
suction tube attached to the outer end of the
plunger passage, whereby the water, or liquid
that is pressed from the meat, may .be withdrawn.
The plunger in this instance, would be actuated
2. The method of canning ?sh, comprising sub
jecting the cleaned ?sh
to a hot water bath at a
by any suitable means, and a spring pressed col
lar 35 is here shown as being applied about the
plunger So that when it is withdrawn from the
can, the can will be retained againstthe base
plate.
.
from,
While I have described the present method as
75
3. The method of canning ?sh, comprising im»
8,411,188 ,
7
mersing the cleaned ?sh in hot water, at a tem- Y
perature of from 210° 1-". to 212° F. for a period‘ -
su?icient to effect separation or loosening of the
meat layers and tissues without cooking,- cooling
-
the product in a water bath, and subsequently, by 1
vcompression, displacing therefrom a substantial
proportion of the liquid content of the meat, and
?nally. packing the product in containers.
time interval su?icient'to cause loosening ‘of the
meat layers and tissues, then conveyingcthe open‘
cans throush a bath of cooling water, subsequently
displacing the free water from the cans and ex
tractin'g a substantial amountvoi the liquid con
tent from the meat by compressing it in the cans,
, and ?nally hermetically sealing the product in
‘containers.
.
6., The method of canning ?sh, comprising pre
4. The method of canning ?sh, comprising plac- . paring and placing the ?sh in open-end cans, then
ing the cleaned ?sh in open cans, immersing the ll) immersing the cans of cleaned ?sh in hot water,
cans of ?sh in‘ a hot water bath to cause slight
at a temperature of from 210° F. to 212° F. ior a
loosening of the meat layers without cooking,
then cooling the meat in a water bath. subses'
quently effecting displacement of free water from
the cans and a forcible extraction of a substantial
amount of the liquid content oi the meat, and
?nally hermetically sealing the product in con
tainers.
‘
r
o
,
-
period su?icient to e?ect loosening of the meat.
layers without cooking, then conveying the open ‘
cans through va cooling bath or water at 50° F.,
and subsequently, by compression of the meat, dis- ‘ placing therefrom a substantial proportion of the
' liquid content of the meat, and?nally ?lling the
head ‘space oi’ the can with a sterile‘ liquid for
5. The method of canning ?sh, comprising plac
ing the.cleaned ?sh in open cans, conveying the so ?avoring, and hermetically sealing the meat in
cans of ?sh through a hot water bath at atem- _
perature. insu?icient to e?ect cooking, and for a
the cans.
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-'
.
'4
EDWARD
M. BORG.
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