Патент USA US2411188код для вставки
Nov.- 19,1946. E, M, 50m; ‘ 2,411,188 METHOD OF PRESERVING FISH Filed Feb. 17, ‘1942 5&1 ‘cant-‘11.1.5; DIPPIN‘ now/2 ._‘ ___.____.__________ '___r__..__\‘ 1 ( l4 7: ‘ rim" ‘ \ \ v t (/0 ____'___,/I . I»; _______ ____ _______ ___._, ' I": 1‘ ‘ INVENTOR [W020 17. 50/26 Patented Nev. 19, 1946 2,411,188 ‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE - 2,411,188 METHOD OF PRESEBVING FISH Edward M. Borg, Seattle, ‘Wash. Application February 17, 1942, Serial No. 431,255 ‘ ‘ 6 Claims. (Cl. 99—187) 2 This invention relates to the preserving and canning of ?sh and it has reference more par treatment, and the subsequent displacement or ticularly to improved methods for the canning the meat in a desirable degree of solidity. extraction of the liquid by pressure that leaves of such ?sh as halibut, sole, cod and other ?sh , , It is also an object of this invention to insure ‘which, to my knowledge, it has heretofore been Cl against the dissipation of the desirable ?avors impossible to preserve or can with any degree of " and vitamins from the compressed meat after it . success due to the fact that the texture of the has been sealed in vacuum in the can, by the meat and certain substances contained therein ?lling of the can with a vegetable oil or other invariably cause the meat, after being canned, to“ suitable liquid. either become mushy, discolored, rancid or of an 10 In accomplishing the above mentioned and obnoxious odor, to such extent that it is neither other objects of the invention, I have provided palatable nor desirable for human consumption. the improved method, the various steps of which, The exact reasons, scienti?c or otherwise, for and means for their accomplishment will herein ‘the deterioration, or discoloration of the product after vbe described. ~ that is incident to its being calmed, is not entirely To better explain the present process, and its clear-.to me beyond the fact that the objection means of accomplishment, I. have provided the able results above mentioned apparently are due accompanying drawing, wherein to the presence of certain substances comprised Fig. 1 diagrammatically illustrates an arrange in the liquid content of the ?sh. I conclude this ment machines, and the progression of the because of having quite satisfactorily demon 20 cannedofproduct through the various machines in strated that when the liquid content of the meat, the completion of the process. to a de?nite amount, is extracted prior to the Fig. 2 is a, sectional detail, illustrating one product being hermetically sealed in the can, the means for the extraction of the liquid content canned meat will then remain palatable and ex from the ?sh as placed in a container. ceptionally tasty, and will be very desirable for Fig. 3 is a similar, sectional view of an alter human consumption for an inde?nitely extended 2.5 native means for the extraction of liquid content. period. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated It is quite well known in the ?sh canning in that with proper seasoning prior to canning, the dustry that certain kinds of ?sh have not here product will get more tasty and palatable as time tofore been considered desirable for canning, goes on. ' The objects of the present invention therefore are thefollowing: _ 30 while others are desirable and are canned in great quantity. For example, the.canning of salmon is an enormous industry, while halibut, cod, sole, First, to provide ‘an improved method, or proc dog?sh and other ?sh abundant in quantity, are ess, for the preserving of ?sh, particularly ?sh not now used or commercialized except in fresh such as halibut, whereby to overcome the possi 35 or frozen state, uncanned. It is a generally ac-> bilities of deterioration, discoloration or rancidity, ‘ cepted fact by ?sh canners that such ?sh as hali and to improve the palatability and tastiness of but, sole, sandabs and other similar ?sh which the canned product. _ come under the general clas-si?cation‘of “bottom Second, to provide a commercially practicable ?sh,” also some other ?sh, such as dog?sh, be method of canning halibut, and other kinds of cause of the particular formation of the grain or ?sh which, for substantially the same reasons as texture of the meat layers, and by reason of cer halibut, have heretofore been unsatisfactory in a tain liquid content thereof, are undesirable for canned condition. canningvby the ordinary processes such as now More speci?cally ‘stated, the objects of the presgenerally used for the successful canning of ent invention reside in the improved preservative 45 salmon. . treatment for halibut, and those other ?sh which In my experimentation with the canning of heretofore could not for the same reasons ‘ “bottom fish," of which halibut has been selected be satisfactorily preserved, which comprises the as typical insofar as the objects of this invention extraction of liquid content from the meat, prior are I have observed that the canned ‘:0 freezing or the'hermetic sealing of the product 50 meatconcerned, becomes more watery or soggy as time goes p containers. The process, in its more complete on, and with the increase of sogginess, it becomes sequence of operations, or steps, includes an initial more undesirable for human consumption. , JOt water treatment that prepares the meat for The present process also can be applied quite easy extraction of liquid content, and also in-’ advantageously to the canning of tunaafish and :ludes a water cooling process, after the hot water greatly reduces the time and expense normally . 9,411,188 4.“ ‘, I the point described excep that the hot water involved. Likewise, as above stated, it is applica pproximately thirty minutes and the cooling treatment ,that follows ble to dog?sh and other ?sh which are not strictly classed as “bottom ?sh” or considered treatment is extended for may be eliminated. ‘ suitable for canning because of the after results. Likewise, the method is made applicable to the Since _I have'demonstrated that the present l process is quite effective for‘ the canning of many kinds of ?sh, in the following speci?cation, and in the claims terminating the speci?cation, the use of the term “?sh” is intended to designate successful canning and preservation of dog?sh by the slight modi?cation which comprises ex 4 tending the period of heat treatment to approxi .mately-thirty minutes, or. double that ‘required and to apply'toall ?sh, or the like,the-1neat of for, halibut and like '?sh. .which contains those particular ingredients, or is of such structure as to make it undesirablev particularly the undesirable liquid content, vari for use after being canned by ordinary processes, but which can be canned and kept in a palatable ous types of machines-or devices might be em ployed.- The means now employed by me, and . For the removal or extraction‘ of‘ the water and ‘ and otherwise satisfactory state of preservation considered practical from the commercial stand , by the present methods of canning. 7 point; is a-machine, slightly modified, made ac cording to the machine of U. S. Patent No. 1,891, The method or process, in itspresent preferredv sequence of steps or operations, as applied v,to the 830, known as a can ?ller. In using this particu lar machine, or any similar machine for the greatest number of different kinds of ?sh, is as 20 present purpose of liquid displacement or extrac-' tion, the ?lled cans, with the top ends open as First, the fresh ?sh is cleaned; then, as may received from the dipping machine followingthe be found necessary for ordinary canning, is cut previously described heating and cooling treat into pieces of suitable size, then ?lled into the ments, are individually carried into the machine, cans or containers in which it is ?nally to be her \metically sealed. Preferably, but not necessarily, 25 each is received within a pocket of a rotary tux’ ret, and then reciprocating plungers, which, in the ?sh are‘skinned and boned, and that dark the use of the machine as a can'?ller, operate to fatty substance sometimes found between the follows: _ l ' . force meat into the cans, are caused, by a reset skin and meat, is discarded. The cans, ordi ting or reforming of the original plunger actu narily, are ?lled to the top with the prepared ?sh, and then the ?lled cans, with the top ends open, 30 ating cam, to move to such additional extent are passed through a dipping machine in which a treatment is given the meat whereby to facili that, in this particular use, they will enter the tate the extraction or displacement of liquid con ter, thus to force ‘the'desi‘red amount of liquid cans against the meat and will compress the lat content out vfrom the meat. At present, “for the tent therefrom as heretofore mentioned. canning of halibut, the original content of the full can is compressed to about seven-eighths its The dipping machine may be of the type of any of those now commonly used in the canning original volume,‘ but this might be varied to a greater or, lesser amount, depending upon the kind of ?sh being canned. The pressing, or ply of water from 210° F. to 212°,F. is maintained, and conveyors of suitable kind, for support of 40 extracting operation‘ is relativelyv ‘slow‘so that industry. The typical dipping machine is formed with a reservoir, or compartment wherein a sup the cans in upright position, are employed therein _ the ‘liquid that is displaced will have‘su?i'cient for conveying the ?lled‘ cans through the water while entirely immersed. -The cans, and their time to drain from the can. 'Furthermore,the pressing ‘action of the plunger so compresses the ?sh content, are retained in this hot water for a period of approximately ?fteen minutes, more or meat that it then has a desired degree of solidity. ‘ less, depending somewhat‘ upon the particular kind of ?sh being treated, and are then removed therefrom by the conveyor. ’ » It will here be explained that the above men- ' tioned hot water treatment is not a cooking proc ess, but is only intended to effect a certain ten Another method and means of extraction of liquid from the meat anticipates the use of’a tubular plunger arranged to enter the open end of the can in a manner similar to the action of the plunger of the machine above described, and 50 to be advanced against the contents of the can to the same extent. The end of such a tubular derization of the tissues, which will allow the plunger would be substantially of the same diam layers of meat to separate and the cell structure eter as the can. .However, the end would be cov ered by a perforated plate or sheet ‘of ?ne mesh: thereof to somewhat open up as a means of facili-' tating the subsequent step of extracting or dis4 65 The outer end of the tubular plunger then pref erably would have connection with a suction tube placing of that undesirable liquid content of the through which the water that is forced out of ?sh which renders itv unsuitable for canning by the meat by the advancement of the plunger into ordinary methods.~ F the can would be carried away. " From the ‘foregoing hot water treatment, or Still another means; of extracting the liquid dipping operation, the cans of ?sh are conveyed 60 anticipates use of a spinning machine on which vdirectly into a similar dipping ~machine, or what the cans are placed for rotation to effect the dis, preferably comprises a separate compartment of placement- of liquid by centrifugal action. , » the ?rst machine, containing water at 50° F., for After the extraction of liquid from .and r the cooling the product. . The cans are similarly con veyéd while entirely immersed in the cooling 65 compression of the meat, by any ofthemean‘s as above recited, the cans of meat are passed to water, for a period of from four to seven minutes,v a salter, which may be any of the typeslnow gen and are then carried out‘of the chamber to the erally used in the canning industry, for the drop means herein provided for the extraction of the ping of a,’ speci?ed amount of ,saltand/or other‘ excess water content from the ?sh. It will here be mentioned that present-day 70 seasoning material into the open end of the can ' upon the compressed meat. Then it is a featurel methodsv of canning tuna ?sh are expensive and slow by reason of a certain pre-cooking treat of this process that the can be'?lled to the max» imum level in the head space as permitted for» ment, generally believed to be necessary. The satisfactory sealing. with a suitable vegetable oil, present method is well adapted to the canning of tuna ?sh and is like that for halibut up to 75 or the like, to give additional flavor and palata 9,411,188 . - 5 bility‘to the product. This liquid ?lling also pre vents any possibility of the favors" and vitamins belngextracted alter sealing the can, that would , being carried out mainly by the use of machines. it is to be understood that all operations might result if‘ any vacuum space was left in thereon talner. . ' . other words, the ?sh, Finally, the top ends or closures areapplied to 5 ‘after being cleaned, could be placed by‘ hand in - the cans. and these, if or the usual kind, are hot water for the desired heat treatment, then clinched to the can bodies preparatory to sealing lifted out by hand and placed in the cooling bath. the can in vacuum. . Next, they could be placed by hand in ant7 suitable Referring now more particularly to the draw 10 type of container and pressure applied there ing against for e?’ecting the displacement of the Fig. 1 diagrammatically shows a preferred and liquid content from the meat, and to compress satisfactory arrangement of devices for practis the meat to the desired ?rmness. Finally, the ing the present method. In this view, I0 desig meat could be placed in containers of any suit nates what may be any suitable type of ?ller for able kind,’ such as the well known mason Jars, ‘ putting the cleaned ?sh in the cans. However, 15 and hand sealed. hand ?lling of cans might be employed if such It is to be understood that the seasoning of should be'necessary or found desirable. Numeral H designates, in its entirety. a combined dipping the meat is only to render the product more palati-ble, and is not necessarily required for the machine and cooler, divided into separate com 20 preservation of the meat after it has been canned partments l2 and I3, respectively, for the supply by this process. It is extremely desirable, how ever, that prior to sealing the can in vacuum, of hot water from 210° F. to 212° F. and that at the head space of the, can created by the step 50° F. for cooling. Filled cans are delivered from of liquid extraction, be ?lled with a suitable the ?lling machine it through a guideway M, liquid such as vegetable oil. , 4 and are picked upand conveyed through the dip ping machine H by a travelling conveyor belt, 25 It is to be understood further that the gist of the present invention resides in the novel proc indicated generally by reference numeral 55, and ess, or method of canning ?sh which preferably, driven by any suitable means, not shown. Final but not necessarily, includes the ‘initial heat ly, the cans of ?sh are delivered from the ma chine ii, along a-guideway it to the extractor 30 treatment to loosen meat for a better and easier extraction of the device ii for the withdrawal of free water and the ‘undesirable liquid 'content from the ?sh. From the extractor, the cans, with the contents liquid content, compressed therein, move along a guideway 58 ‘ Finally the seasoning, ?lling the head space with to the salter it, then to the clincher 2t and ?nal ,ly to the vacuum seamer 2i, and are discharged oil, and then hermetic sealing of the meat in its container. This process applies especially to» from the latter through the‘ chute 22. The oil that is added to ?ll the head space, may be “bottom poured in by hand or mechanically or by ma chine immediately after the salting operation. If it is not desired to use vegetable oil as the ?ller, then distilled water or other suitable sub isfactory for crab meat and abalone. The various, steps in the process might be modi ?ed to some extent, or some eliminated, dependent arrangement of parts in the extractor device for elimination of liquid from the meat while in 45 upon the particular type of ?sh being canned, but in a general way would be used in its entirety for the cans. In this view, 25 designates a part of all ?sh of this general classi?cation. the can carrying turret of the extractor. 26 is a base plate against which the bottom end wall of the can is ?tted during the extracting opera tion, and El designates a plunger that is oper able toward the plate and against the contents stance may be employed. ‘ i i In Fig. 2, I have shown a detail of a preferred steps of hermetically scaling in cans. of the can to compress the meat to the desired uct, however, when in cold storage, is packed in extent necessary for the displacement or extrac tion of the liquid. Clearance between the can 55 suitable containers or cartons. .Having thus described my, invention, what I Wall and the plunger is provided as required for the escape of this liquid, but without loss of solid claim as new therein and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: matter. 1.‘ The method of preserving ?sh, comprising In Fig. 3, I have shown an alternative means for effecting the extraction of the water‘ or liquid content from the meat. In this view, 38 desig- ' nates a support for the can, at is a tubular ' plunger adapted to be projected downwardly into , the can and covered at the end which enters the from the meat, and ?nally compressing the product'in a con can, by a ?ne mesh plate 32. 33 designates a 65 tainer. suction tube attached to the outer end of the plunger passage, whereby the water, or liquid that is pressed from the meat, may .be withdrawn. The plunger in this instance, would be actuated 2. The method of canning ?sh, comprising sub jecting the cleaned ?sh to a hot water bath at a by any suitable means, and a spring pressed col lar 35 is here shown as being applied about the plunger So that when it is withdrawn from the can, the can will be retained againstthe base plate. . from, While I have described the present method as 75 3. The method of canning ?sh, comprising im» 8,411,188 , 7 mersing the cleaned ?sh in hot water, at a tem- Y perature of from 210° 1-". to 212° F. for a period‘ - su?icient to effect separation or loosening of the meat layers and tissues without cooking,- cooling - the product in a water bath, and subsequently, by 1 vcompression, displacing therefrom a substantial proportion of the liquid content of the meat, and ?nally. packing the product in containers. time interval su?icient'to cause loosening ‘of the meat layers and tissues, then conveyingcthe open‘ cans throush a bath of cooling water, subsequently displacing the free water from the cans and ex tractin'g a substantial amountvoi the liquid con tent from the meat by compressing it in the cans, , and ?nally hermetically sealing the product in ‘containers. . 6., The method of canning ?sh, comprising pre 4. The method of canning ?sh, comprising plac- . paring and placing the ?sh in open-end cans, then ing the cleaned ?sh in open cans, immersing the ll) immersing the cans of cleaned ?sh in hot water, cans of ?sh in‘ a hot water bath to cause slight at a temperature of from 210° F. to 212° F. ior a loosening of the meat layers without cooking, then cooling the meat in a water bath. subses' quently effecting displacement of free water from the cans and a forcible extraction of a substantial amount of the liquid content oi the meat, and ?nally hermetically sealing the product in con tainers. ‘ r o , - period su?icient to e?ect loosening of the meat. layers without cooking, then conveying the open ‘ cans through va cooling bath or water at 50° F., and subsequently, by compression of the meat, dis- ‘ placing therefrom a substantial proportion of the ' liquid content of the meat, and?nally ?lling the head ‘space oi’ the can with a sterile‘ liquid for 5. The method of canning ?sh, comprising plac ing the.cleaned ?sh in open cans, conveying the so ?avoring, and hermetically sealing the meat in cans of ?sh through a hot water bath at atem- _ perature. insu?icient to e?ect cooking, and for a the cans. - -' . '4 EDWARD M. BORG.