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Патент USA US2411201

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Patented Nov. 19, 1946
2,41 1,201
UNITED STATES - PATENT-.- OFFICE
’
PROCESS FOR IDIPROVING FATS AND OILS
BY . ADDITION
OF OLIVE AND COCONUT
_
COLOR, ODOR AND FLAVOR DERIVED
FROM OLIVE AND COCONUT JUICES AND
THE RESULTANT PRODUCT
.John Hood Forkner, Fresno, Calif.
No Drawing.- Application June 17, 1946,
Serial No. 677,410
_ 5
30 Claims. ‘(ores-'11s)
-
This invention relates primarily to the treat
ment of fatty materials, such as re?ned edible
2
oils and fats by infusion with a by-product, name
improved natural'?avored, colored and odorized
soap possessing desirable qualities present nat
1y, presently discarded juice of certain products
Although the objects make only speci?c ref
urally in olive or coconut oils.
of plant origin, such as oil seeds or nuts to'im 5 erence to olive and coconut oils, it is contem
part a desired ?avor, color and aroma to the
Dlated that certain other oils and extracts are
re?ned oil.
'
equally eifective when subjected to the same new
More speci?cally, the invention relates to a
and improved procedure.
novel method of altering or changing the char
acteristics of odor, ?avor or color of fatty mate
rials by treating the same with the, normally dis
‘ It isrecognized that ground olive products have
for centuries been commonly used as ?avors. In
recent years, since the re?ning of oils has been
developed, it has been natural to ?avor these oils
substances, such as, for example, olives and coco
with pastes made ‘of fresh, salted or dehydrated
nuts, and to the productresulting therefrom.
olives. However, beyond the fact that my new
An object of the-invention is to provide a new 15 and improved’ process described herein is eco
and improved method of imparting a coconut
nomical and effective, it differs from prior knowl
carded juice of oil-and-iuice-bearing vegetable,
?avor or aroma to re?ned edible oils.
>
edge or practice in that it can create olive char
Another object' is to provide a new and im
proved method of imparting an olive ?avor, color
or odor to a re?ned oil.
acteristics in oils without making any part of the
oil an olive oil.
20
-
'
»
Again, the olive characteristics of poor olive
oils can be increased without being forced to
Another object of the invention is to produce
a new and improved olive-like or coconut-like oil
or fat wherein the oil or fat is of an origin other
blend with ‘higher grade olive oils including those
than that of olive or coconut, but wherein the
Yet again, the ?avor of commercial olive oils
oils contained in olives or olive paste.
oil or fat has imparted to it one or more of the 25
may be vastly enhanced or standardized beyond
characteristics of odor, taste and color of natural
possibilities of the prior art which depends upon
mixing in whole or concentrated olive pastes.
Fundamentally, the best olive oil commands
olive or coconut oil.
Again, when necessary to remove the free fatty
acids, foots ‘or undesirable fractions from oliveor
coconut oil by processing and re?ning, it is an
the‘ highest price, and thesuperior quality of the
oil depends principally upon color, odor and taste.
object to provide a new and improved method of
‘ Commercially, Mediterranean olive oil is more
. recreating in the oil a ?avor, odor and color'sim
universally desiredibecause of its characteristic
ulating, respectively, the natural olive or coco
nut ?avor, color and- odor.
' qualities of color, odor or taste, or a combination
of those qualities, and therefore commands a
Another object is to provide a new and im 35 higher price. If these qualities present in Med
proved method of imparting an olive or coconut
iterranean olive oils can be imparted to Ameri
?avor to solvent extracted oils by ?rst re?ning
can olive oils, the desirability, universal appeal
said oil and subsequently adding only the olive
and value will be greatly enhanced. The high
‘
I am particularly desirous of improving the 40 .yield ‘per acre of American growing technique
could then enjoy the added value of highly ac
?avor and odor of American olive oils by impart
ceptable color, odor and ?avor which heretofore
ing to them the superior or desired ?avor of the
has been to some extent lacking.
Mediterranean olive.
.
The distinctions of many olive oils is readily
A further object of my invention is to pro
vide a new and'lmproved method for imparting 45 traceable to the manner of growing the olives and
in the variety of olives. Olives from unirrigated
to re?ned ?sh oils olive oil characteristics.
districts frequently are superior with respect to
‘It, therefore, is an object of the invention to
produce an edible oil no part of which is olive oil
odor, color and taste to olives from irrigated dis
or coconut taste, odor or color.
yet having all the desirable characteristics of .
Numbered, also, among the objects is a process
adapted to improve materially the ,?avor, odor
or color of an olive oil without adding it to an
other oliveloil.
tricts.
50
_ olive oil.
'
-
.'
Many oils other than olive oil, of course, are
equally capable of the uses to which olive oil is
put, but they‘ are not always acceptable purely
a by reason of their lacking some combination of
the color, odor and ?avor of olive ‘oil. If those
A still further object islthe production of an 55. other oils could be given the highly desired olive
2,411,201
.4
enhanced immeasurably.
I
.
.
The term "characteristic” when used herein
oil characteristics, their acceptability would be
has special reference to odor, color or ?avor and
not to other qualities of the oil.
-
Obviously, the prior art method, which teaches
By “juice” is meant the watery liquid result
ing after the crushing, grinding or macerating and
the pressing and separating of most of the oil
?avor by incorporating a substantial olive oil
from the olive or coconut. When reference is
content in the product to be ?avored. For exam
made to “oliveseed” the whole olive is ordinarily
ple, the oil soluble portion of fresh olive paste
meant, both ?esh and pit. The juice used may be
is about 16% to 23%, of salted olives as much
from the olive seed, namely, the entire ground
10
as 35% and of dehydrated olive paste as much as
whole olive, or the juice resulting from pressing
50%. To this extent and to the amount used
of the fresh olives after removal of the pits. The
there may be added olive oil to the oil with which
fresh olive juice herein referred to is essentially
they are mixed. I have found that by trans
juice from olives which have a major part of their
ferring the ?avor through the olive juice I can
original moisture remaining in them. The juice
impart the olive characteristics without neces 15 is substantially free of oil, or in other words,v
sarily incorporatingv any olive oil. Also, I trans
the juice may be said to be a water solution or
mit essentially the natural ?avor and color of,
mixture of substances other than free oil. Coco
the original olive. The weight added to the
nuts are usually classed as nuts and constitute
treated oil by the natural ?avor and color agents
both ?esh and juice within a hard-shelled ex
20
present in the juice is undetectable in commer
terior.
cial quantities.
The coconut milk from the center of the coco
Contrastingly, a ton of fresh olive paste added
nut is good, but I ?nd that the juice pressed
to a ton of cotton seed refined oil and the mass
from coconut ?esh is most desirable. I can use
filtered and oil separated would yield a combined
the use of fresh or salted or dehydrated olives
‘as a ?avoring, is a method-of imparting enhanced
oil approximating 2,000 pounds of cotton seed 25 fresh, pasteurized or otherwise properly pre
served or condensed coconut or olive juice.
oil and 300 pounds of olive oil. Beyond this ob
Essentially, pure fresh juice is preferred, but-my
vious and frequently unpractical high cost of
process is workable with certain adulterated juices
imparting ?avor it is often undesirable to have
or partial concentrates.
'
oil which is neither cotton seed nor olive but a I
By Mediterranean olive juice I naturally mean
30
mixture of both.
juice from olives grown in the Mediterranean
I can produce a similar ?avored and colored oil
area, but the process results are of special merit
and, if desired, a much richer olive-charactered
"when utilizing juice obtained from olives from
oil, without adding any olive oil to the cotton
select groves and harvestings of Italy, Spain and
seed oil and at a fraction=of the usual cost, with
35
Greece.
_
the added advantage of using an olive agent (olive
The essence of my invention is to intimately
juice) now discarded by the industry.
_
mix re?ned oils and fats with coconut or olive
Likewise, instead of improving the characteris
juice andthen separate‘ the two ingredients and
tics of olive oil by mixing it with other olive
by this process creating or enhancing the 0000- '
oil, either before or after removal from the olive,
I can effectively and economically fortify certain 40 nut or olive flavor, odor and color in the oil so‘
treated.
olive oils with olive characteristics by transmis
Ordinarily, in ‘the manufacture of olive oil,
sion of improved characteristics through the
olives are first crushed whole in a suitable grinder
juices from select olives.
.
‘or stone mill. The mass is placed in’ a hydraulic
‘ To achieve partially the desired results here
press in press cloths and pressed to as much as
45
tofore olive processors have ground good olives
2,000 pounds pressure per square inch. Both the
to create a ?avoring agent. They have mixed
juice and oil are expelled into a tank, and after
high grade olive pastes and oils with less valu
proper allowance of ‘time for settling the oils are
able oils. Through my process olive oil proces
decanted off the surface, leaving the essentially
sors may grade up and standardize their olive
oils with olive juice now universally discarded. 50 pure fresh juice in the settling tank. , It is this
juice that I' prefer to use in the process herein
In addition, they will impart olive characteris
described. Virtually all ofv the juice in the olive
' tics to other oils by utilization of this waste juice.
pressing industry and essentially all of the juice
My objective is to use this valuable, now wasted‘
juice to utilize more completely the olive.
in the coconut processing industry are presently
Other objects will appear obvious in the use of 55 unused and discarded._
oils thustreated, particularly in ,the manufacture
of mayonnaise, salad oil and dressing, hydro
genated fats and butter and oleo-margarine. For.
the most part in this description examples of
The most valuable juices of ,myprocess come
from high quality olives which produce the best
quality oils, and, naturally, the least valuable
juices come from oils of poor quality olives.
either olive or coconut are illustrated individually, 60 Quality can vary between regions‘, climatic con
ditions at a given season, types of olives, disease,
and farming variations.- As an example, the color
variation found in olives between early and late
crop varieties is apparent from a color analysis
olive oil and re?ned glyceride oils, particularly
of their oils. The University of California’s re
65
re?ned olive, coconut, cotton seed,- soya bean,
port
entitled “A discussion of some of the physi
corn, peanut. sunflower, grape and lard oils. and
cal and chemical constants of olive oil from olives
also butter fats and milk solids, olein and ?sh
at different stages of maturity,'of different vari
oils, by way of example, which have been treated
eties, and from different localities,” by Nichols
to cheer more of the processes of causticizing,
bleaching, Winterizing, deodorizing or hydrogen 70 and Friar (published in the Fruit Products J our
nal, New York, N. Y., August 1939 issue, vol. 18,
I ating. The process is sometimes applicable to
No. 12, pp. 361-364; 375) discusses the‘ change in .
soap; fats and oils after their saponi?cation.
but it is understood that the same‘ technique
applies to either olives or coconuts.
The oils to which this process refer are virgin
The term “fatty materia ” as used herein is to be
understood as including at least the aforemen
tioned oils and fats.
'
color of olive oil withadvancing maturity and
states in part: “There was a reduction of the pig
75 ments transmitting yellow and blue, while those
2,411,201
5
6
. . . The
pending upon the properties desired to be im
color changes are so marked as to be readily
parted to the treated oil or fat.
Some people familiar with the olive oil indus
try feel that my treatment imparts to the oil cer
transmitting
red
increased
slightly.‘
observed in a roughly relative way even without
reference to color standards. Compared in this
way, the oil obtained early in the season appears
distinctly greenish in color, while the later sam- ,
pies are predominantly golden. On the basis of
the designation of Lovibond color glasses the ‘ex
treme variations in yellow found were from 98.5 to
60, in red from ‘7.4 to 0.6, and in blue from 6.0 10
to 0.0.”
‘
In view of these color variations, which in
herently occur in virgin olive oil, it will be clear
that one.of the most valuable contributions of
tain anti-rancidity features. My personal experi
ments do not encourage any commercial value '
to this prospect. I recognize here these potential
merits‘ only as a general treatment of the known
art.
The basic concept is to mix certain oils and
fats with the juice of the best types of olives or
coconuts, and thereafter separate the treated oil
or fat, which will have absorbed apparently all
of,‘ or at least to a large extent, the true, natural
- my invention to the present art is the blending 15 fruit ?avor, color and odor from such juices, with
of colors through the use‘ of olive juices.
the result that the treated oil or fat will have '
My experiments show that ?avors, odors and '
had imparted thereto the natural ?avor, aroma,
colors of olive and coconut appear to be water
and color of the best representative types of virgin
soluble and to ‘be largely present in the liquid
olive or coconut oil. The following formulas ex
juice pressed from the seeds or nuts. The ?avors, 20 emplify many valued and practical uses of this
odors and colors may be further imparted par
process.
ticularly to certain olive oils themselves by a
series of one or more exposures of the olive oil to
Illustrative formulas
1. 100 grams of re?ned cotton seed oil inti
mately mixed with 50 grams of olive juice; decant
the juice.‘ The ?avor, odor and color, as the
case may be, is particularly returnable to re?ned 25
the oil; ?lter.
olive oil by this process. These ?avors, odors
2. 100 grams of poorly ?avored olive oil inti
and colors may be imparted in a substantial
mately mixed with four successive washes of 100
manner to almost any oil so mixed with the
grams each of olive juice; ?nal decanting and
respective juice. This is particularly true 'of
?ltering.
bland processed edible oils above named.
30
3. 100 grams of solvent extracted and're?ned
My treatment Mconceives of mixing the desired
olive oils intimately‘mixed with four successive
oil or fat with either coconut or olive'juice. A
washes of 100 grams each of olive juice; ?nal
combination of coconut and olive juice may on
decanting and ?ltering.
ocoasions be acceptable. Generally, I mix equal
4-100 grams ofsolvent extracted and re?ned
parts of juice and oil. Sometimes I dilute the
coconut oils intimately mixed with four succes
juice with water, the extent of dilution obviously
sive washes of 100v grams each of coconut juice; ‘
depending upon the degree of change in charac—
?nal decanting and ?ltering.
ter desired in'the material to be treated. I ?nd
5. 100 grams of specially high ?avored olive oil
that in degree, the ?avor, color and odor of olives
are generally more ‘effectively imparted to certain 40 for ?sh use intimately mixed with four successive
washes of 100 grams each of olive juice; ?nal
oils or fats than coconut which, though satis
‘ decanting and ?ltering.
factory, yields a less dominant ?avor and odor.
6. Treat 100 grams of California olive oil with
-The green olive color is, of course; more obvious
50 grams of imported olive juice.
in oil treated with olive juice than color imparted
'7. 100 grams of re?ned ?sh oil and. 100 grams
45
.from coconut juice.
each of olive juice for four successive washings
I also may treat the oil to a series of mixing
wherein the tank is agitated ten minutes at each
operations facilitated by use of several tanks.
washing.
This operation involves decanting oil off the top
8. 100 grams selected high color juice of mild
of one tank of juice and oil, and pumping‘the
oil into the bottom of another tank of juice. ‘50 ?avor and aroma mixed with 100 grams of olive
oil which requires color forti?cation without en
The mix may be agitated either mechanically or
hanced ?avoring, mixing, decanting. ?ltering. If
by bubble, colloid mill, live steam or ‘other com
trouble is experienced in de-emulsifying, add
mon methods of agitation. The desired ?avor,
twenty grams of salt.
‘
odor and color in said juices can be extracted,
9.
100
grams
of
saponi?ed
deodorized
coconut
01
5.
also, by oils through the common process of liq
‘oil mixed with 100 grams of prepared coconut
uideliquid counter current extraction.
juice. Remove soap stock from liquid mass; allow
Likewise, I may separate the treated oil and
to dry and form.
,
juice by ?otation and subsequent decanting, by
10. Take 100 grams of sesame oil hydrogen
‘centrifuging or other simple means. In ?nal
ated to a 28° C. oongealingpoint and deodorize.
separation of treated oil and juice I ?nd it some
Add 200 grams of selected ?ltered olive juice. ‘
times advantageous to add calcium chloride, salt
Warm mass to 150° F.; agitate in Waring blender
or other oil-insoluble compounds in order to effect
for three minutes. Allow to settle. Pour in suit
a more complete and rapid breaking of the emul
able centrifuge tubes. Spin ?ve minutes at 5,000
sion. _ _It is sometimes desirable to heat the mix 65 R. P. M. Pour off supernatant liquid. Pour oil
at a temperature slightly above its melting point
ture of oil and juice to a temperaturaprefer
ably below the boiling point of water, i. e., a tem
on a {metal surface; cool to 50° F. and subse
quently mix to incorporate approximately 10%
perature of 70° F. to 210° F. for a period of from
air, thus effecting plastisizing, resulting in olive
?ve to twenty minutes to effect a more complete
?avoring of the oil. Thereafter, the juice and oil 70 ?avored shortening.
11. Ferment 100 grams of olive juice by expos
are separated by centrifuging or decantation.
ing in- a warm room. After fermenting mix with
Preferably, Iheat the mixture of oil orfat and
100 grams of refined corn oil. Separate the corn
juice to a temperature of 125° F. to 175° F. for a
oil with Sharples centrifuge. Filter the oil.
I period of from ?ve to twenty minutes. . The juice
12. Mix 100 grams of butterfat or margarine
’ employed may be either fresh or fermented, de 75
2,411,201
with 100 grams of coconut juice, said juice being
a combination of equal vquantities of the juice of
the center of a coconut and the juice obtained
by pressing the coconut. Centrifuge out the
solids. If desired, dry further on a drum dryer.
13. Mix 100'grams of soap stock, such as a
detergent of the character of sodium lauryl sul—
phat-e, with 100 grams of coconut juice. Sepa
ever, produces a bland olive oillacking in com
_ mercially desirable qualities of ?avor, color and
odor. These may be readily and effectively re
imparted by subjecting the re?ned oil to treat
ment with selected olive juice and then separat
ing the oil from the juice.
By treating the juice by dilution or boiling or
by other simple means I can give an oil or fat
treated thereby a greater or lesser ?avor in rela
rate this detergent from the juice through a cen
10 tion to odor or color, or combinations thereof,
trifugal separator.
and can use said juice to impart or partially alter
14. Mix 100 grams of the oil extracted from
the ?avor, odor or color already present in an oil
Queen type olives with 100 grams of juice ex
tracted from Leccino type olives; decent and
or fat.
.
I can produce a novel ?avored oil by controlled
?lter the oil,
A different, desirable and by many standards 15 fermenting of the juice prior to mixing it with
the oil. In this respect I ?nd a noticeable vari
ance in the respective intensity of color, odor or ,
?avor relative to each other among certain se
Mediterranean juice. The juice may be fresh,
lected olive or coconut juices. By careful blend
pasteurized or otherwise preserved. As previ
ously indicated, it is recognized that Mediter 20 ing and selection I can treat oil to stress individ
ually the factors of color, ?avor or odor desired.
ranean olives are different from, and frequently
Some olive juices impart outstanding - color
superior to, California olives or olive oil with re
improved American olive oil may be produced by
intimately mixing the oil with imported, selected
change without material alteration of odor or
?avor of certain edible oils. Likewise, one can
odor. This difference is a result of the culture,
climate and soil pertaining to Mediterranean 25 effect marked alterations in odor or ?avor With
spect to, desirable qualities of ?avor, color and
groves, particularly those of Italy, Spain, France
out essentially changing the color.
and Greece. The American growers favor irriga
My process is particularly applicable in the
treatment of re?ned oils prior to their incor
poration in the manufacture of edible foods, such
tion-—a Mediterranean rarity. Mediterranean
growers have the labor to pick olives at maxi
mum perfection of ?avor and to select their olives 30 as olive ?avor and odor in mayonnaise, salad oil
most carefully. Atmosphere and moisture of the
Mediterranean area creates a ?ne ?avored olive.
European olives are grown primarily for oil and
and dressing, hydrogenized oils and fats, coconut
oil and ?avor designed for confections and
bakery products.
are frequently small, hardy varieties too costly
Similarly, bene?cial results in color, ?avor and
or otherwise impractical to grow in the United
States. I refer to such Spanish varieties as Arbe
odor are possible in the treatment of certain soap .
quina, Sevillenca or Italian oil olives such as Leo
cino, Corregido or Morinello. I can take waters
lauryl sulphate, sulphonated or sulphated oil,
particularly after-substantial re?ning and mill
ing of the soap stock. With certain detergents
stocks, including detergents, such as, sodium
(juices) from these olives and alter or improve
*
the oil of California. varieties, as Queens and the 40 the juice ?oats.
Coconut juice as a ?avoring and odor-produc
oils from normal pickling olives.
ing ingredient can be mixed with cream, whole
These and other factors yield certain crops of
milk or milk concentrates. The mass may then
olives whose ?avor is desired and by some people
be centrifuged, preferably through a common
thought lacking in most American oils. This
Sharples continuous cream separator, removing
?avor, I ?nd, can be imparted to American oils
the non-soluble, non-oleaginous substances
by subjecting the oils to the selected Mediter
which may have been added with the juice. If
ranean juice, and the high nutritive value of the
desired, the resultant ?uid can ultimately be
American oil is advantageously supplemented.
dried, for instance, with a spray dryer. Use of
By use of the novel process described herein
olive juice, however, has not been found accept
olive oils may be manufactured with improved
able in treatment of foods of the foregoing
uniform standards by subjecting the oils to one
variety, apparently due to the presence of tannic
or more selected controlled olive juice or juices.
acid in the olive juice.
For the ?rst time it will be practical to more ac
The merits of the process herein described may
curately establish and maintain uniform grades
55 be taken advantage of in preparation of mineral
of olive and olive ?avored oils.
or animal oils destined for cosmetic use where
Olive oils of insu?icient ?avor may be brought
certain characteristics of olive or coconut are
up to a more desirable standard of value and ap
desired.
pearance by subjecting the oils to'my process.
One can attain valuable improvement in color,
I refer to choosing olive waters for their particu
lar aroma or color and subjecting the low grade 60 odor or ?avor of oils or fats by the judicious use
of olive juice and to a lesser extent coconut juice.
oils to these selected juices. Moreover, olive or
The relationship of juices to oil may be as little
coconut oils having undesirable characteristics
as 10%. The percentage of juice mixed with oils
may, as a part of my method, be re?ned and the
may be raised to almost any amount. 'With se
free fatty acids and foreign ?avors removed.
The resulting bland oil may then be given an 65 lected juice, and particularly bland re?ned oil,
even mixing of as little as 5% juice to 95% oil
odor, color or ?avor of the most highly accept
is effective.
able character.
'
The process is of special import in enhancing
In removal by solvent extraction of olive oils
the olive flavor and odor of oils for addition toor
from press cake the solvent imparts a ?avor detri
mental to the quality of the oil. Such oils usually 70 incorporation with ?sh for canning. An olive oil
or other glyceride oil can be treated by my proc
have a high, free fatty acid content and are dis
ess so that it more effectively dominates or blends
colored. The solvent ?avor and the fatty acids
and improves the ?avor and aroma of the canned
and discoloration may be removed as above sug
?sh product. Similar treatment will make other
gested and the oil clari?ed and deodorized by
oils and fats more desirable in ?avor and aroma
customary methods of re?ning. Re?ning. how
2,411,201
'10
9
to incorporate with ?sh or with individual ?sh
fatty material with a substantially oil-free mix
ture of olive and coconut/Juices’; and separat-I
ing the juice from the fatty material.
oils. Fish oils may also be mixed ?rst with olive
‘juice prior to canning with ?sh.
The result of the process herein disclosed and
- 11. The method of treating an olive oil, com
not heretofore known is the production of re?ned
oils having olive characteristics with respect to
?avor, odor and color imparted to them by olive
prising the steps of: treating an olive oil obtained
from olives of one variety with the substantially
juice or by the practice of an oleaginous proc
ess making possible the production of refined
other variety; and separating said juice and
oil-free olive juice obtained from olives of an
oils having corresponding coconut characteristics,
10
said ?avored oils containing no more than a trace
of olive or coconut oil.
.
treated olive oil.
12. A new product, comprising: a iatty mate
rial of an origin‘othe'r than olive and coconut, and
containing natural odor, , ?avor and color ex
‘
The invention having been herein described,
what is claimed and sought to be secured by Let
substantially oil-freejuice selected from the group
ters Patent is:
consisting of olive juice and coconut juice; - ' a
tracted by said fatty material from at least one
V
1. The method of treating a fatty material to
13. A new» product, comprising: a fatty mate.
improve at least a selected one of its characteris
rial of an origin-other than olive and coconut, and
tics of ?avor, color and odor, comprising the
containing natural. odor, ?avor and color ex
steps of: intimately mixing a fatty material with
tracted by said fatty material from a mixture of
at least one substantially ~oil-free juice selected 20 substantially oil-free olive and'coconut juices.
from the group consisting of olive juice and coco
14. An olive oil, comprising: a re?ned olive
nut juice; and effecting separation of the juice
oil initially de?cient in at least one of its char
and treated fatty material.
>
acteristics of odor, ?avor and color, and contain
2. A method as de?ned in claim 1, including
ing natural material extracted by said re?ned oil
the step of : fermenting the juice prior to mixing 25 from a substantially oil-freev olive juice capable
'
of enhancing at least the de?cient characteristic.
with the fatty material.
3. A method as defined in claim 1, including
15. An olive oil, comprising: a solvent-ex
the steps of fermenting the juice prior to mixing
with the fatty material, and heating the mixture
to a temperature of substantially 70° F. to 210°
F. for a period of from ?ve to twenty minutes
prior to separation of the juice and treated'fatty
tracted, re?ned olive oil initially de?cient in odor,
flavor and color, and containing natural odor,
?avor and color absorbed by said solvent-ex-. ‘
tracted, re?ned oil from a substantially oil-free
olive juice.
-
16. An olive oil, comprising: an olive oil de
4. The method de?ned in claim 1, including
rived from one variety of olives and initially ‘de
' the step of‘ diluting the juice with water prior 35 ?cient in at least one of its characteristics of odor,
to mixing with the fatty material.
?avor and color, and containing natural material
material.
_
,
-
_ 5. The method of treating a fatty material to ‘
extracted by said olive oil from a substantially
impart a. desirable ?avor, odor, and color thereto,
oil-free olive juice derived from another variety
which comprises the steps of : treating a ‘given
of olives and capable of enhancing at least the
volume of a fatty material with at least 5% by 40 de?cient characteristic.
volume of at least one substantially oil-free juice
17. An improved coconut oil, comprising: a co
selected from the group consisting of olive juice
conut oil initially de?cientin at least one of its
and coconut juice; and e?ecting separation of the
characteristics of odor, ?avor and color, and con
juice and treated fatty material.
taining natural material extracted by said 0000-,
6. The method of treating fatty material to
nut'oil from a substantially oil-free coconut juice
impart a desirable ?avor, odor, and color thereto,
which comprises the steps of: treating ‘a ‘given
derived Irom relatively superior coconuts capable
of enhancing at least the de?cient characteristic.
volume of a fatty material with a substantially
' .18.‘ An improved corn oil, comprising: a corn
equal volume of at least one oil-free juice selected’
oil. initially de?cient- inat'least‘lone'of its char
from the group consisting of olive juice and coco 50 acteristics of odor, ?a'vorlandcolor, and contain
nut juice; and e?ecting separation of the juice
ing natural materiahextractedby said corn oil
from the treated fatty material.
.
7. The method of treating a re?ned glyceri-de * 1
from a substantially oil-‘free olive juic'ecapable of
enhancing at, least ‘the. de?cient characteristic.
oil to impart improved characteristics thereto,
which comprises the steps of: subjecting a re?ned
glyceride oil to treatment by the substantially
oil-free juice of olives; and e?ecting separation
of the olive juice from the treated glyceride oil.
19. The .method vof treating an edible fatty
material to improve at IeastYa-Zselected one of its
characteristics of ‘flavor, color, and odor, com
prising the steps of: intimately mixing an edible
fatty material with at least ‘one substantially
oil-free juice selected from th'e'r‘group consisting
of olive juice and coconut juice; and effecting
separation of the juice'from the treated edible
8., The method of treating an olive oil to im
prove at least its color, which comprises the steps
of: intimately mixing an olive oil with a substan
tiatlly oil-free olive juice derived from olives
fatty material.
yielding an oil of at least relatively superior color; ,
and separating the olive juice from the mixture.
9. The method of treating an inferior coconut 65
‘ oil to enhance at least a selected one of its, char
acteristics of odor, ?avor and color, which com- ' '
relatively superior coconut oil; and separating the
coconut juice from the‘ mixture.
>
10. The method of treating a fatty material to
. impart at least a desired odor and color thereto,
which comprises the steps of: intimately mixing a
:1 ,
"
'
21. A method as de?ned in claim 19 ‘wherein
the edible fatty material'is coconut oil.
prises'the steps of: intimately mixing coconut oil
of inferior quality with a substantiallyoil-iree
coconut juice derived from coconuts yielding a
‘
20. A'method as de?ned-in ‘claim 19 wherein
the edible fatty material is olive oil.
70
22. A method as de?ned in claim 19 wherein ‘
‘the edible fatty material is corn oil.
23. The method of imparting to an edible fatty
material a given standard of quality with re
spect to at least a selected one of its charac
teristics of‘ color, odor and taste, comprising the
steps of: intimately mixing an edible fatty mate
rial with at least one substantially oil-free juice
selected from the group consisting of olive juice
11
2,441,201
the edible fatty material, and repeating the mix
ing and separating steps until said given stand
ard is ‘matched.
24. The method of treating a fatty material
12
color and odor characteristics, selectively ex
tracting therefrom the olive oil and olive juice,
mixing the olive juice with an inferior olive oil,
and coconut juice, then separating the juice from
in
to improve at least a selected one of its charac
"teristics of ?avor, color and odor, comprising the
steps of: subjecting a fatty material to treatment
by at least one substantially oil-free juice selected
and then : zparating the olive juice from the mix
ture.
2*7. The method of improving an inferior coco
nut oil by accentuating at least one of its char
acteristics of ?avor, color and odor, comprising
the steps of: crushing the meat of coconuts of
from the group consisting of olive juice and coco 10 superior ?avor, color and odor characteristics,
selectively extracting therefrom the coconut oil
nut juice in the presence of heat between tem-'
and coconut juice, mixing the coconut juice with
peratures of substantially 70° F. and 210° F. for
a period of from ?ve to twenty minutes, and then
separating the juice from the treated fatty mate
an inferior coconut oil, and then separating the
coconut juice from the mixture.
28. A new product, comprising: a fatty material
15
rial.
containing natural odor, ?avor and color, ab
25. The method of treating a fatty material
sorbed by said fatty material from at least one
to improve at least a selected one of its charac
substantially oil-free juice selected from the group
teristics of ?avor, color and odor, comprising the
consisting of olive juice and coconut juice;
steps of: intimately mixing a fatty material with
29. A new product, comprising: a fatty mate
at least one substantially oil-free juice selected 20
rial containing natural odor, ?avor and color,
from the group consisting of olive juice and coco
absorbed by said fatty material from a mixture of
nut juice in the presence of heat between tem
substantially oil-free olive and coconut juices.
peratures of substantially 120° F. to 175° F. for
30. A new product, comprising: a re?ned glyc
a period of from ?ve to twenty minutes, and then
separating the juice from the treated fatty mate 25 eride oil containing natural odor, ?avor and color
extracted by said re?ned glyceride oil from at least
rial.
.
one substantially oil-free juice selected from the
26. The method of improving an ‘inferior olive
group consisting of olive juice and coconut juice.
oil by accentuating at least one of its charac
teristics of color, odor and taste, comprising the
steps of: crushing olive seeds of superior ?avor, 30
1
JOHN HOOD FORKNER.
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