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Патент USA US2411258

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Nov. 19, 1946.
w. s. GALLOWAY ET AL
2,411,258
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed Sept. 6, 1945
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NOV- 19, 1946.
w. s. GALLOWAY ET AL
2,411,258
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed Sept. 6, 1945
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2,411,258
Patented Nov. 19, 1946
UNITED’ STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,258
HYDRAULIC MACHINE‘
William Shearer Galloway and James Anderson,
Glasgow, Scotland, assignors to Joy Manufac
turing Company, Franklin, P3.
Application September 6, 1945, Serial No. 614,770
1
In Great Britain March 9, 1944
6 Claims; (01. 262-8)
This invention refers to hydraulic machines of
2
on resistance to the operation of the unit increas
the ram type.
ing above a pre-determincd limit the valve auto
A machine has been proposed for mining coal
matically changes over and directs the liquid from
such that cutting of the coal at the coal face is
the pump to the intensi?er whence a supply of
effected by a direct shearing action, the machine 5 liquid at nigh pressure issues to the unit.
comprising one or more hydraulic ram with a
in one construction, the second or low pres
shearing head of wedge-like form adapted to be
thrust by the ram directly into the coal to shear
sure hydraulic unit is a double-acting ram with a
passage extending from the front face of the pis
it away. A modi?cation of this mining machine
ton rearwards through the piston rod to the out
comprises, in association with the wedge-like 10 side of the cylinder whence it is connected to the
head, a cutter of cutter-chain or cutter-disc type
intensi?er and the automatic valve, in addition
which moves bodily with the head but in advance
to which the pump is connected to a hand-oper
thereof so as to make a more or less vertical lon
ated control valve and that valve is connected to
gitudinal incision in the coal into which incision
both ends of the cylinder of the second unit and
the head enters and splits the coal from the seam, 15 to a reservoir from which the pump draws liquid.
see the Speci?cation of co-pending Application
The arrangement is such that, assuming the pis
for United States Patent Serial No. 545,432 in the
ton to be at the forward end of the cylinder of
name of John Bridie Mavor. In their usual form
the second unit with a quantity of liquid trapped
such mining machines comprise a hydraulic jack
at the rear of the piston, and the hand valve ap
element which is adapted to jam between the 20 propriately set, liquid under pressure from the
roof and the ?oor of the mine to take the reac
pump is supplied to the front of that cylinder,
tion of the hydraulic ram as the latter thrusts
passes through the piston rod passage and, by way
the head forward. That is, the machine com
of the automatic valve, passes to the ?rst hydrau
prises two hydraulic units, viz. the jack element
lic unit which it operates until a high resistance
and the thrusting ram, and it is desirable that the 25 is encountered by that unit whereupon the auto
liquid pressure in the jack element while a thrust
matic valve brings the hydraulic intensi?er into
ing stroke of the hydraulic ram is being made
action to amplify the pressure of liquid supplied
should be considerably higher than the pressure
to the ?rst unit, pressure then building up at the
provided for in the ram.
front of the cylinder‘ of the second unit ready,
The present invention is concerned with the 30 on release of the trapped liquid by the hand valve,
supply and control of liquid under pressure from
to thrust the piston and cylinder relative to one
a pump to two associated hydraulic units, such
another to the other end of their stroke from
as the jack element and the ram of the mining
which they can be returned by connecting the
machines above described.
front of the second unit cylinder to the reservoir
According to this invention, in a hydraulic ma 35 and the rear of said cylinder to the pump.
‘ chine comprising two hydraulic units and a pump,
In applying the invention to a mining machine
the hydraulic system provides ‘for a supply of
of the kind described, the ?rst hydraulic unit
liquid to the ?rst unit by way of the second unit
is the jack element, the second hydraulic unit
at a pressure as delivered from the pump followed
.is the hydraulic ram with the wedge-like head,
automatically, on resistance to the operation of 40 and one part of the ram, usually the piston rod,
that unit increasing beyond a predetermined
is connected at its rear to the jack element.
limit, by a supply of liquid at a substantially high
Liquid under pressure supplied from the pump
er pressure, while the liquid operating the sec
?rst of all brings the jack into contact with the
ond unit is at the delivery pressure from the
whereupon it encounters high resistance,
pump, both units being in operation simultane 45 roof
and intensi?ed pressure is then applied in the
ously only for the period during which the higher
pressure is acting in the ?rst unit, the second unit
being held against operation during the building
jack, ensuring its being properly jammed, where
after the ram makes its thrusting, stroke. 0n
the completion of this stroke and the head re
up of pressure in the ?rst unit until release of a
maining stationary, admission of pressure to the '
quantity of liquid trapped in the second unit;
60 rear of the ram cylinder and release of pressure
In carrying the invention into practice, the
from the front of the ram cylinder frees the jack
liquid supply system for the ?rst unit may include
and causes it to be drawn forward ready for the
a pressure-operated valve and a. hydraulic in
next thrusting stroke. This allows the jack ele
tensi?er so arranged that initially liquid from the
ment to make a. comparatively long stroke under ,
pump passes to that unit by way 01' the valve but, 86 low pressure and quick delivery, followed by a
2,411,268
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final short stroke, to tighten up, under higher
matic valve it which directs the oil to the jack
pressure. During the working stroke of the ram,
the pressure exerted by the Jack element on roof
cylinder", The intensi?er II is by~passed. The
jack. pis one are lifted. against their weight until
the Jae meet the mine root. Thereupon the
pressur in the system rapidly rises and. when a
pre-det rminedpressurc is reached the automatic
valve I0 changes over to bring the intensi?er into
and ?oor remains in a fixed ratio to the hori
zontal pressure of the ram so that no more force
is applied to roof or floor than is. required to
sustain the working thrust.
-
The invention will now be described with ref
erence to the accompanying drawings, in which:
circuitj cutting out the direct supply of oil through
the .valve I0 to the jack'cylinders. @il as deliv=
Figure 1 is a side view showing diagrammati 10 ered from the pump is admitted to the low pres=
cally a mining machine in accordance with the
sure end of the intensifier and oil under high
invention,
‘ _
Figure 2 is a diagram showing the hydraulic
pressure is forced from the high pressure end to
the jack cylinders. As a result the lacks become
,
firmly jammed against the roof. The pressure
Figures 3 and 4 are sectional views showing 15' increases at the front of the ram piston and the
system of the machine, and '
v,in detail the pressure-operated. valve and the
hand-operated valve, respectively.
Referring to Figure 1, the machine comprises
operator moves the hand valve 8 in such a way
as to release the oil trapped at the rear of the
piston. The pressure of oil at the front of the
a Jack element A and a head element B, with a
piston then drives the cylinder and the head ele
hydraulic ram C connecting them. The jack 20 ment forward and a working stroke is made. On
element has two Jacks a side by side with a skid
the completion of a working stroke, the operator
base I. The head element B comprises a wedge
changes over the ehandvalve 8 so as to connect
part 2 and a scoop or shovel 3, the head element
the front of the ram cylinder with the oil reser
resting on the ?oor. The cylinder of the ram
voir 1 and the rear of the cylinder with the pump.
C is secured to the head element and the piston 25 The head and the ram cylinder remain stationary
rod of the ram extends rearwardly and is pivotal
under their own weight and the pressure at the
ly secured at-4 to the jack element. On admisé
rear of the cylinder thrusts the piston and piston
sion of liquid, usually oil, under pressure to the
rod forward relative to the cylinder, drawing the
forward end of the ram cylinder the head ele
jack element forward with them, the jack ele
ment B is driven forward to make a working 30 ment having been released on release of the oil
stroke, the jacks a being jammed in position and
pressure from the front of the cylinder. The
taking the backward reaction. At the end of the
working stroke, the jacks are released and pres
.sure admitted to the rear of the ram cylinder
machine is then in condition for a further work
further working stroke.
of the cylinder should the operator omit to open
ing stroke.
The jamming‘ pressure in the jacks may be
with the result that the jack element is drawn 35 about 6000 lbs. per square inch and the pressure
forward relative to the head element, the weight
in the ram about 2,500 lbs. per square inch.
of the head element maintaining that element
A spring-loaded relief valve is shown at 9, its
stationary. The machine is then ready for a
function being to relieve the pressure at the rear
_
The hydraulic system comprises, in addition to 40 the hand valve 8 and release the oil. A mains
the parts already referred to, a motor 5, an oil
relief valve is shown at I6I.
‘
pump Ii driven by the motor, an oil reservoir 1,
Referring now to Figure 3 illustrating the pres
a hand-operated control valve 8, an automatic
sure-operated valve I0, this valve comprises a
pressure-operated valve I0, and a hydraulic in
valve body I5, plunger I6, spring I'I thrusting the
tensi?er I I. These parts are connected by piping 45 plunger I6 towards the right, inlet passage I8,
as shown in Figure 2, the intensi?er I I and valve
outlet passage I9, and branch passages 20. Oil
II) being carried by the jack element and the
from the ?exible piping I3 enters through the
other parts by the head element. A passage I2
passage I8 at low pressure and, with the plunger
extends axially through the piston and piston
rod of the hydraulic ram and then radially out
wards at a position behind the rear of the ram
cylinder, the ram being double-acting. A ?exible
pipe I3 connects the passage I2 to the valve III.
The hand-operated control valve 8 is of piston
valve type and is movable into any one of four
different positions. A hand lever for operating
this valve 8 is indicated at I4. The intensi?er II
has a low pressure end, viz. the right hand end,
and a high pressure end, viz. the left hand end,
Figure 2.
>
The operation of the system is as follows. As
suming the parts to be in the initial condition
I6 in the position shown, proceeds to the jack
50 element through the passage I9.
Oil pressure
builds up as already explained. When the jacks
have taken hold on the roof the pressure in the
jacks is transmitted back through the passage
I9 to the passage I8 and into the branch passages
20. Theright hand end of the plunger I6 having
a larger effective area than the left handv end,
there is a resultant thrust to the left and when
this overcomes the spring thrust the valve is closed
anl the oil directed to the intensi?er. When the '
hand valve 8 is opened to exhaust, the plunger I6
returns to its original position.
‘Figure 4 shows the hand-operated valve 8. It
comprises a valve body 2|, plunger 22, and oil
passages 23, 24, 25 and 26. The left hand part
shown in Figure 1, the pump‘ 8 draws oil from
the reservoir ‘I and delivers it to the hand valve
8, which, in the idling position returns it to the 65 of the plunger 22 has an axial passage 21 with
reservoir, no pressure being generated by the
which radial ports 28 communicatej The valve
pump. The piston of the ram is at the forward
has four positions, indicated 1, II, III and IV at,
end of its ‘cylinder. It is assumed that all pipes,
the handle I4. The ?gure shows the valve in
passages and spaces remain at all times full of position II, the idling or circulating position. Oil
oil. ‘The operator moves the lever I4 to admit 70 from the pump enters at 23 and proceeds through
oil from the pump to the front of the ram cylinder
the ports 28 and axial passage 21 to 26 and so
while maintaining the seal on the oil behind the
back to the reservoir. In position I, oil enters at
piston? A small pressure builds up on both sides
23 and passes out at 24 and thence to the rear of
of the piston and oil passes rearwards through
the ram cylinder, the oil at the front of the cyl
the passage I2 and ?exible piping I3 to the auto 75 inder exhausting through 25, radial ports 28 and
2,411,268
.
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'
axial passages 21 and-'26. in position m‘ oil
leasing said trapped ?uid from said cylinder to
enters at 23 and passes out at 2! to the front of -
permit said ?uid pressure in the other end 0! the
the ram cylinder. At the same time 24 is closed,
thereby‘ trapping the oil at the rear of the cyl
cylinder to force said shearing head forward away'
inder. In position IV oil enters at 23 and passes
out at}! to the front ‘of the cylinder, the oil at
‘ pressure from vthe cylinder and jack unit; and
from the jack-unit, means for releasing said ?uid
means for directing ?uid under pressure to said
rod end oi! the cylinder to draw the released jack
unit forward toward the shearing head.
4, A mining machine comprising a hydraulic
1. A mining machine comprising a hydraulic
jack unit adapted to jam between mine roof and 10 Jack unit adapted to jam between mine root and
the rear of the cylinder exhausting through 24. '
We claim:
'
?oor, a shearing head unit of wedge-form, a hy
‘ ?oor, a shearing head unit of wedge-like form, a ‘
hydraulic cylinder'connected to one or said units.
a piston in the cylinder, a piston rod connecting
the piston to the other unit, means for supplying
the piston to the other unit, means for supplying
?uid under pressure to the end of the cylinder at 1,5 ?uid under pressure to the end or the cylinder at
the free end of the piston, conduit means to con; .‘ the free end of the piston, the piston and rod
draulic cylinder connected to one or said units, a '
a piston in the cylinder, a piston rod connecting
duct said ?uid under pressure to said jack unit, a
normally open ?uid pressure operated valve in
said conduit means, a hydraulic pressure intensi
fier for said jack unit connected‘ to said conduit
means on opposite sides of said valve and adaptedv
to ‘operate automatically when rising ?uid pres- i
sure in the jack unit closes the valve, means for
being provided with a ?uid passage connecting -
said end of the cylinder with the outside or’ the
cylinder, a conduit connecting the outer end of
said passage with said‘ Jack unit, a normally open
?uid pressure operated valve in said conduit‘, a
hydraulic pressure intensi?er for said jack unit
connected to said conduit on opposite sides of said
valve and adapted to operate automatically when
trapping ?uid in the cylinder at the rod end of
the piston to lock the piston and cylinder against 25 rising ?uid pressure in the lack unit closes the
relative movement until said intensi?er increases
valve, means for trapping ?uid in the cylinder
the ?uid pressure in the jack unit, and means for
at the rod end of the pistonto lock the piston and
releasing said trapped ?uid from said cylinder to
cylinder against relative movement until said
permit said ?uid pressure in the other end of the
intensi?er increases the ?uid pressure in the jack
cylinder to force said shearing head forward away 30 unit. and means for releasing, said trapped ?uid
from said cylinder to permit said ?uid pressure
from the Jack unit.
2. A mining machine comprising a hydraulic
in the other end or the cylinder to force said
jack unit adapted to jam between mine roof and
shearing head forward away from the jack unit.
?oor, a shearing head unit‘ of wedge-like form, a
5. A mining machine comprising a hydraulic
hydraulic cylinder connected to one of said units, 85 jack unit adapted to jam between mine root and
a piston in the cylinder, a piston rod connecting
?oor, a shearing head unit of wedge-like form, a
the piston to the other unit, means for supplying
hydraulic cylinder connected to one of said units,
?uid under pressure to the end of the cylinder
a piston in the cylinder, 9. piston rod connect
at the free end of the piston, conduit means to
ing the piston to the other unit, means for supply
conduct said ?uid under pressure to said lack
ing ?uid under pressure to the opposite ends of
unit, a normally open ?uid pressure operated valve
the cylinder, a multiple position manual valve for
in said conduit means, a hydraulic pressure inten
controlling the ?ow oi ?uid to and from the cylin
si?er for said jack unit connectedto said con
der, one position of the valve admitting ?uid un
duit means on opposite sides of said valve and
der pressure to the end of the cylinder at the free
adapted to operate automatically when rising ?uid 45 end of the piston while trapping ?uid in the other
pressure in the Jack unit closes the valve, means
end of the cylinder, conduit means to conduct
for trapping ?uid in the cylinder at the rod end
?uid under pressure from said ?rst-mentioned
of the piston to lock the piston and cylinder
end of the cylinder to said :Iack unit, a normally
against relative movement until said intensi?er
open ?uid pressure operated valve in said con
increases the ?uid pressure in the jack unit, means 50 duit means, and a hydraulic pressure intensi?er
for releasing said trapped ?uid from said cylinder
for said jack unit connected to said conduit means
to permit said ?uid pressure in the other end of
on opposite sides 01' said pressure valve and
adapted to operate automatically when rising ?uid
pressure in the lack unit closes the pressure valve,
ing said ?uid pressure from the cylinder and jack 55 another position of said manual valve releasing
said-trapped ?uid from said cylinder after said
unit.
v 3. A. mining machine comprising a hydraulic
intensi?er has increased the ?uid pressure in the
jack unit adapted to jam between mine roof and
jack unit, whereby to permit said ?uid pressure
?oor, a shearing head unit of wedge-like form, a
in the other end of the cylinder to force. said
hydraulic cylinder connected to one of said units, 60 shearing head forward away from the jack unit.
a piston in the cylinder, a piston rod connecting
6. A mining machine comprising a hydraulic
the piston to the other unit, means for supplying
jack unit adapted to jam between mine root and
?uid under pressure'to the end of the cylinder
?oor, a shearing head unit of wedge-like form, a
hydraulic cylinder connected to one of said units,
at the free end of the piston, conduit means to
conduct said ?uid under pressure to said jack unit, 65 a piston in the cylinder, a piston rod connecting
the cylinder to force said shearing head forward
away from the jack unit, and means for releas
a normally open ?uid pressure operated valve in
said conduit means a hydraulic pressure intensi
the-piston to the other unit, a source of ?uid
under pressure, a multiple position manual valve
for selectively connecting the opposite ends; of the
?er for said jack unit connected to said conduit
means on opposite sides of said valve and adapted ' cylinder with said source and with exhaust, one
to operate automatically when rising ?uid pres 70 position of the valve connecting said source to the
end of the cylinder at the free end of the piston
sure in the Jack unit closes the valve, means for
trapping ?uid in the cylinder at the rod end of the
while trapping ?uid in the other end of the 071
piston to lock the piston and cylinder against
inder,.conduit means to conduct ?uid under pres
sure from said ?rst-mentioned end of the cylin
relative movement until said intensifier increases
the ?uid pressure in the jack unit, means for re- 75 der to said jack unit, a normally open ?uid pres
2,411,968
sure operated valve in said conduit means, a hy
draulic pressure intensi?er for said jack unit con
nected to said conduit means on opposite sides
of said pressure valve and adapted to operate au
toniatically when rising ?uid pressure in the jack 5
unit closes the pressure valve, another position
or said manual valve connecting said trapped ?uid
with exhaust after said intensi?er has increased
.the ?uid pressurejn the jack unit, whereby to per
mit said ?uid pressure in the other end of the 10
i
cylinder to force said shearing head forward away
_ from the iack unit. andeethird position or the
manual valve connecting the Jack unit and the
end 01' the cylinder at the free end of the piston
with exhaust and simultaneously connecting said
source of ?uid under pressure to the rod end of
' the cylinder to draw the jack unit i'orward toward
the shearing head.
WILLIAM SHEARER GALLOWAY.
JAMES ANDERSON.
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