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NOV. 19, 19416- E. HARDESTY 2,411,269 MACHINE FOR THE APPLICATION OF CERAMIC COLOR Original Filed Aug. 50, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 k Nov“. 19, 1946. I ‘ / , ' . E. HARDESTY ‘ ' 2,411,269 MACHINE FOR THE APPLICATION OF CERAMIC COLOR Original Filed Aug. 30, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 b'ug'ezze Hardesty _ 7 Nov. 19, 1946. ' E_ HARDESTY ‘ 2,411,269’ MACHINE FOR THE APPLICATION-‘OF/CERAMIC COLOR Original Filed Aug. 30‘, 1941 42 6. 3_ Sheets-Sheet I5 36 l ‘ '2 .42 Elma/WM Bug-GHQ Patented Nov. 19, 1946 2,411,269 . UNITED STATES PATENT. orrlcs _ 2,411,269 MACHINE FOR THE APPLICATION OF CERAMIC COLOR Eugene Hardesty, New Brighton, Pa., assignor to Fuller Label & Box Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Original application August 30, 1941, Serial No. 409,105. Divided and this application April 26, 1944, Serial No. 532,837 15 Claims. (Cl. 91-37) , , 1 2 . My invention relates to the decoration of ceramic ware and related products of the ceramic industry, including articles made of glass, china, I pottery, enamelware and the like. The invention contemplates the use of novel means by which color ornamentation, or analogous surface alter ation, may be applied directly to the ware or in directly to it by application ?rst to some transfer color uniformly distributed and entirely devoid of blisters. I Certain selected embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which depict forms of mechanism that have been found satisfactory in actual operation and which will sufficiently illustrate the broad principles of the invention. medium such as decal paper or equivalent sheet In the drawings, material, or to a screen of silk, copper wire or the 10 Figure 1 is a perspective view of a machine for like. This application is a division of my copend applying ceramic color to transfer mediums of ing application Serial No. 409,105, ?led August sheet form; r 30, 1941, now Patent No. 2,383,190. Fig. 2 is an end elevational view of the machine; Primary objects of the invention are to improve Fig. 3 is a transverse section through the the quality of the decoration and to reduce the 15 machine; costs of the decorating operations. Fig. 4 is a section along 4-4 of 2; In the best prior art methods known to me, it Fig. 5 is a section through 5-5 of'Fig. 2; is customary to apply directly to the ware, or to Fig. 6 is a section along 6-6 of Fig. 2; an appropriate transfer sheet of any one of the Fig. 7 is an end elevation, partially broken away types above indicated, a coating of some adhesive 20 and in section, of the drum assembly; ‘ _ medium, such as decal ‘varnish, dextrine gum Fig. 8 is a side elevational view of a modi?ca ming or the like, conforming exactly to‘the area tion of the machine in inoperative position, and intended to be colored. A suitable ceramic color Fig. 9 is a similar view, partially in section, or oxide, including some appropriate frit, is then illustrating the machine in operative position for dusted over the sheet or ware and is retained 25 applying ceramic color directly to the wars. thereby in the coated areas only. The capacity Referring to the drawings, and ?rst to Figs. 1 of the coating to retain the applied dust is lim and 2, the machine there shown comprises a sta ited, and the results obtained upon subsequent tionary framework consisting of a pair of annular ?ring havebeen unsatisfactory by reason of pale support members I bolted by cap screws or the ness and/or unequal distribution of the color. 30 like 2 to a table bed 3 of convenient height. It Attempts have been made to overcome this dim will be understood that the annular members I ‘culty by rubbing or wiping the dust into the ad are spaced longitudinally apart with centers on hesive coating, but the results have not been com a common axis, so that they de?ne a generally mercially successful because it ‘has been impos~ cylindrical space between them. Axially through sible to cause a layer of adhesive coating of the 35 this space is positioned a shaft 4 which is jour required thinness to hold ceramic color dust in naled near its opposite ends in bearings 5 mounted su?icient quantity or uniformity of distribution. on supporting posts 6 which are rigidly secured It has also been attempted in the case of colors in the table bed. A drum 1 is fast on the shaft requiring an unusually heavy deposit to apply 4 and is rotated thereby. Any suitable pulley, successive layers of adhesive coating, each with its 40 gear on the like, coupled to appropriate power own layer of embedded ceramic color, but this (not shown), may be used to drive the shaft and has caused blistering during the ?ring operation rotate the drum. resulting from the bubbling of gases from the It will be understood that the drum ?ts between lower layers through the upper layers. I have discovered that a single layer of con ventional printed adhesive can be caused toretain an entirely adequate depth of ceramic color dust if the dust be worked down into the adhesive coat by comparatively‘ rapid vibration of a brush or the stationary frame members I and is of a di 45 ameter somewhat smaller than that of the frame members. , , ‘ Secured to the frame members I in the upper zones thereof is a’hopper trough 8 having a bot tom opening spaced slightly above the periphery analogous applicator surface, and/or of the ob-‘ 50 of the drum. A blade-like clamping member 9 iect or sheet itself. extends lengthwise along the drum periphery and Transfer sheets and ware bearing the unprece dentedly deep layer of ceramic color dust pro duced by practice of the present invention result is urged downward into the plane of that periph ery by some such means as coil springs I II en circling posts II at opposite ends of the drum and in a ?nished product having remarkably deep 55 reacting between the drum shell and rollers I2 2,411,209 3 > mounted on the inner ends of the posts. These 4 brush elements to vibrate radially, laterally and longitudinally with relation to the drum ‘when rollers, of course, travel in a circular orbit as the the vibrator element 22 is driven. " drum rotates. A frame structure I3 is bolted to An elongated coil spring 24 may be connected each of the supporting frames I and mounts an arcuate cam track I4 on which each of the rollers 5 under tension between some ‘part of the vibrat I2 rotates during part of its orbital travel. The cam tracks are made circumferentially adjust able with relation to the frames I by slotted en gagement of the bolts I5 which secure them to the frame structure I8, and each cam track is 10 ing assembly and some ?xed part of the machine. In Fig. 1 such a spring is shown connected be tween the vibrator bed 2| and a longitudinal frame element I9, while in Fig. 7‘ such a spring appropriately pro?led to lift the clamping blade 8 radially outwardly during part of each rotation the lower lengthwise frame member I9 and a point 25 on the vibrating assembly near the cor responding upper lengthwise frame member I8. In use, the vibrator 22 is driven to induce vi of the drum. , The function of the blade 9 is to receive and clamp the leading edge of a sheet of ceramic color transfer medium onto the drum. This is easily , accomplished by slipping such edge of the} sheet under the blade when the blade is spaced from the drum periphery, i. e., at a point in the ro tation of the drum reached just prior to the po 24' is shown connected between frame I near brations in the brushes at the rate of not less than 400 per minute, and preferably as high as 7600 per minute. As the sheet of transforme dium moves progressively under the several brushes, with a comparatively thick coating, of ceramic color deposited on it from the feed sition ‘shown in Fig. 2. Immediately thereafter, trough 8, the rapidly vibrating brushes function on rotation of the drum, the roller I2 becomes lowered to the dwell of the cam track I4 and clamps the sheet onto the drum. The sheet has been previously printed or other wise treated with suitable adhesive material. It passes under the hopper trough 8 and a liberal quantity of ceramic color is discharged onto it brushes operate to embed ceramic color into the from the hopper. The sheet then passes succes ' sively under each of a plurality of brushes or 30 pads I 6 which are of elongated form and extend along the drum periphery parallel to the drum to embed a very considerable 'quantity of the ceramic color down in the coated areas of the sheet. Color falls from the uncoated, and to some extent also from the coated, areas of the sheets and is collected from beneath the ma chine for re-use. The plurality of vibrating coated areas to a depth heretofore believed to be impossible of attainment. , “a , ‘ The center portion of the table is slotted lengthwise to pass the sheet after it has passed beneath the last brush and after the clamping element 9 becomes lifted from the drum periphery axis. These brushes are mounted on stems I‘! received in arcuate supports I8 which encircle part of the drum periphery and are concentric 35 by engagement of the rollers I2 with the rise in the lower portion of the cam track I4. The sheet with the drum. The opposite ends of the sup ports I8 are"cushion-mounted in upper and lower lengthwise frame members I9 which are secured at their opposite ends to the frame members I as by bolts .20. is deposited in the catcher 26 and is ready, after drying, to be applied in the usual manner to ceramic ware or the like. While I have shown the vibrator 22 mounted’ to vibrate the entire cushionedframework and One suitable form of cushion mounting has consequently all the brushes, smaller vibrators been illustrated and comprises an elongated bolt v.may 'be arranged directly on one or more of the 45 extending through an oversized opening 46 individual brushes so as to vibrate such brushes in frame member I9 and thence through a ?tted opening 41 in support I8. A dished-out spring '45 only. In that case the other brushes may be ?xed with relation to the stationary frame members I, washer 48 is seated between the head 48 of the so as to transmit more or less vibration. bolt and the outer face of frame member I9. Be In Fig. 8 the mechanism is designed to apply‘ tween the inner face of frame member I9 and the ceramic color directly to the ware, here shown outer face of support I8 are interposed two op- ‘ positely disposed spring washers 50 and 5| which, 50 as a plate or ?at dish.v As shown in Fig. 8,-this device may comprise a stationary frame consist ing of four vertical posts 30>upstanding at the convex surfaces contiguous to one another, the ' for illustrative purposes, are positioned with the corners of an imaginary rectangle from a bed 3| margins of the concave surfaces bearing, respec and connected by spaced superposed plates 82 tively, against the inner face of frame member 55 having aligned openings loosely receiving the two I8 and the outer face of support I8. An addi or more bars 34 of a movable frame. This mov tional spring washer 52 may be positioned be able frame terminates at its bottom in a brush tween the inner face of support I8 and the nut backing 35, mounting a brush 36, and terminates 58, which is taken up on the bolt su?iciently to upwardly in a horizontal plate 81 on which is place the washer under some tension. Thus the supports I8 and the applicator pads 0r brushes 60 securely mounted a vibrator element 38, here shown as of the electrically energized type. supported thereby are free for limited vibratory Upwardly and downwardly projecting pins 89 movement in all directions with respect to the extend from the lower and upper rigid frame stationary frame members I9 on which they are plates 32 respectively and coil springs 40 encircle thus cushion-mounted. _ A tie member 2| spans the supports I8, con 65 these pins and react between the plates 32 and a ?oating equalizer plate 4| ?xedly secured to veniently at about the midpoint of each, and rods 34. A bailor handle 42 is secured to the mounts a vibrator mechanism 22, here shown as vibrator bed plate 31, by which the vibrating of the electrically energized type, employing an frame may be elevated as a unit from the ware unbalanced rotor. Coil springs 23 encircled about the stems I'I react between the supports I8 and 70 43 which in use of the device is positioned on the stationary bed 3I directly below the brush 88. the brush elements and resiliently press the brush Gravity latches 44 swing from the vibrator bed surfaces toward the drum periphery, and these 31 to the upper stationary plate 32 and hold spring mounts, together with the cushioned con upper springs 40 compressed and the brush in. nections between the ends of the supports I 8 and the lengthwise frame members I9, cause the 75 elevated position whenever the handle 42 is man 2,411,209 ' ually pulled to its upper limit, which is done the applicators will be restrained against vibra whenever ware 43 is to be inserted beneath the tion. brush or withdrawn therefrom. What I claim is: As has been made apparent from the foregoing 1. A device for applying ceramic color to a sur- I description of the embodiments illustrated in the 5 face prepared with an adhesive coating compris drawings, the ?oating or spring suspension of ing a support for an object having such prepared the vibrator and applicator surfaces with refer surface, an applicator adapted to be engaged with _ ence to the surface on which the color has been ceramic color applied to said coating, means for deposited obtains relative vibratory movement in bringing said applicator and applied ceramic color all directions between the two surfaces. 10 in contact, and means for effecting relative vibra The cushion mountings by which the arcuate tion in all directions between the applicator and pad supporting members l8 of Figs. 1 and 2, and the surface. ' the vibrator itself, are connected to rigid frame 2. A device for applying ceramic color to a members l9 permits limited movement of the surface prepared with an adhesive coating com pads in all directions with reference to such sup 15 prising a‘ support for an object having such pre porting frames and, of course, with reference to pared surface, an applicator adapted to be en the color deposit. Springs 24, which are secured gaged with ceramic color applied to said coating, at one end directly or indirectly to arcuate sup means for bringing said applicator and applied ports l8' and at ‘the other to some point ?xed ceramic color in contact, means for restraining with reference to main frame I, supply a constant 20 the support against vibration, and means for reaction tendency ‘to movement of the pads im vibrating the applicator in all directions. parted by the vibrator in any direction away 3. A device for applying ceramic color to a sur from those ends of springs 24 which are ?xed face prepared with an adhesive coating compris with reference to the main frame. The pads or ing a support for an object having such prepared _ e brushes themselves are urged constantly toward 25 surface, means for depositing ceramic color on the deposited color by coil springs 23. In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 8, wherein pad supporting bars 34 are loosely received through openings on spaced main frame plates v32, the play of bars 34 obtained thereby permits 30 such surface, an applicator adapted to be en gaged [with said deposited ceramic color, and means for relatively vibrating the applicator and the surface in all directions. 4. A device for applying ceramic color to a movement of the applicator or brush 36 in any direction with reference to the main frame and the ware supported thereby on which the color has been deposited. When in use the brush 36 is ?oatingly suspended in contact with the de 35 surface prepared with an adhesive coating com prising a support for an object having such pre pared surface, means for depositing ceramic color to the ?xedly positioned ware 43. applicator on such surface, an applicator ?oatingly sup ported and adapted to be engaged with said de posited color‘by means of equalizer springs 4!] posited ceramic color, means for restraining the bearing in opposite directions on equalizer plate support against vibration, and means for vibrat 4|. These springs provide a reactionary force ing the applicator. against the forces of the vibrator imparting move 5. A machine for applying ceramic color to a ment to the applicator and, together with the 40 prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a play of rods 34 in their bearings, serve to vibrate drum mounted for rotation therein, means for the applicator in all directions with reference mounting a sheet on the periphery of the drum, . In the use of this device the ware is directly means adjacent said . periphery cushion-mounted to permit movement in all di printed or otherwise coated with the bonding 45 rections, and means for vibrating the applicator medium and a liberal quantity of ceramic color means in contact with ceramic color carried on is dusted thereon. The ware is inserted in the the sheet. device, latches 44 are swimg outwardly and the 6. ‘A machine for applying ceramic color to a vibrator is set in motion. The brush vibrates I prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a vertically and horizontally at a rate of not less 50 drum mounted for rotation therein, means for than 400 vibrations per minute and preferably’ mounting a sheet on the periphery of the drum, as high as 7600, and thus embeds the color mate applicator means ?oatingly mounted for univer rial deeply down into the coating on the ware. sal movement adjacent said periphery, a trough The ware is then removed .from the device, the for feeding ceramic color to the sheet ?xed in unattached color is dusted off of it, and the ware 55 the frame anterior to said applicator means, is ?red in the usual manner. and means for vibrating the applicator means in It will be understood that vibrating elements contact with ceramic color carried on'the sheet. ‘other than the electric devices herein disclosed 7. A machine for applying ceramic color to a by way of exempli?cation may be used. It is also prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a to be understood that the work to be ornamented to drum mounted for rotation therein, clamping may be of any customary shape and character means carried by the drum periphery for mount of surface, and that the bonding medium, ceramic ing a sheet thereon, applicator means cushion-' color and other materials used in practicing the mounted for movement in all directions adjacent invention may be any which are well known in said periphery, and means for vibrating the ap the art. 65 plicator means in contact with ceramic color car In all mechanical embodiments of the inven ried on the sheet. tion, and in the practice of the method, it is im 8. A machine for applying ceramic color to a material whether the ware or sheet to which the prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a color is to be applied be vibrated or be restrained drum mounted for rotation therein, clamping against vibration, it being necessary only that 70 means for mounting a sheet on the periphery of the ware or sheet and the applicator, e. g., the the drum, applicator means adjacent said periph several types of brush disclosed in the illustrative ery mounted for ?oating movement in all direc embodiments, be relatively vibrated. Accordingly tions with reference to said periphery, means for I contemplate variations of the illustrated mech vibrating the applicator means in contact with anisms in which the work will be vibrated and 75 ceramic color carried on the sheet, and means 2,411,209 -. l means. able with the ware, means carried by theme: riage for engaging said applicatorwith the ware, resilient means yieldably urging the applicator color applicator with the ware, resilient means ware, and means for vibrating the carriage. for automatically releasing said clamping means after the same has traversed the applicator into contact with the ware, means for vibrating 9. A machine for applying ceramic color to a prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a 5. the carriage, and latches mounted on the car riage and adapted to engage the ?xed frame to drum mounted for rotation therein, means for space the applicator above the ware. , mounting a sheet on‘ the'periphery of ‘the drum, 13. A machine for applying ceramic color to a vibratory frame ?oatlngly mounted on the sta ceramic ware comprising a stationary support for tionary frame to permit vibratory movement in all directions withvreference thereto, applicator 10 the ware, a ?xed frame mounted thereon includ ing spaced, vertically superposed. ?xed plates hav means carried by the vibratory frame, and means ing aligned openings, a vibratory carriage mount for vibrating the vibratory frame with the appli ed in the ?xed frame and including posts passing cator means in contact with ceramic color car through said openings, 9, ceramic color applicator ried on the sheet. _, v ' , 10. A machine for applying ceramic color to 15 engageable with the ware, an equalizer plate fixed to said posts between the plates of the ‘fixed ceramic ware comprising a stationary support for frame,‘spring means compressed between the op the ware, a fixed frame mounted thereon, 9. vi posite surfaces of the equalizer plate and the bratory carriage mounted in the ?xed frame for plates. of the ?xed frame, means carried by the universal movement relatively thereto, means carried by the carriage for engaging a ceramic 20 carriage for engaging said applicator with the yieldably urging the applicator in contact with 14. Apparatus for embedding ceramic color de the ware, and means for vibrating the carriage. posited on. a surface prepared with an adhesive said applicator with the ware, resilient means prising means for depositing ceramic color on such surface and means for embeddingthe color in the coating, said embedding means including coating comprising an applicator, means for 11. A machine for applying ceramic color to ceramic ware comprising a stationary support for 25 bringing said applicator and deposited color into contact, and means for effecting relative vibra the ware including ?xed plates in superposed tion between the applicator and the surface bear spaced relation, a vibratory carriage mounted in ing said color deposit at not less than substan the ?xed frame and including a post loosely pass tially 400 vibrations per minute in all directions. ing through aligned openings in said plates, a 15. Apparatus for applying ceramic color to a ceramic color applicator engageable with the surface prepared'with an adhesive coating com ware, means carried by the carriage for engaging yieldably urging the applicator into contact with . the ware, and means for vibrating the carriage. 12. A ‘machine for applying ceramic color to 35 an applicator, means for bringing said applicator ceramic ware comprising a stationary support for the ware including a ?xed frame having plates in superposed spaced relation, a vibratory car riage mounted in the ?xed frame and including and deposited color into contact, and means for effecting relative vibration between the applica a post loosely passing through aligned openings, in said plates, a ceramic color applicator engage minute in all directions. tor and the surface bearing said color deposit at not less than substantially '400 vibrations per ' EUGENE HARDESTY.