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Патент USA US2411269

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NOV. 19, 19416-
E. HARDESTY
2,411,269
MACHINE FOR THE APPLICATION OF CERAMIC COLOR
Original Filed Aug. 50, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
k
Nov“. 19, 1946.
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E. HARDESTY
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2,411,269
MACHINE FOR THE APPLICATION OF CERAMIC COLOR
Original Filed Aug. 30, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
b'ug'ezze Hardesty _
7 Nov. 19, 1946.
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E_ HARDESTY
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2,411,269’
MACHINE FOR THE APPLICATION-‘OF/CERAMIC COLOR
Original Filed Aug. 30‘, 1941
42
6.
3_ Sheets-Sheet I5
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Elma/WM
Bug-GHQ
Patented Nov. 19, 1946
2,411,269 .
UNITED STATES PATENT. orrlcs _
2,411,269
MACHINE FOR THE APPLICATION OF
CERAMIC COLOR
Eugene Hardesty, New Brighton, Pa., assignor to
Fuller Label & Box Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.,
a corporation of Pennsylvania
Original application August 30, 1941, Serial No.
409,105. Divided and this application April 26,
1944, Serial No. 532,837
15 Claims. (Cl. 91-37)
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1
2
.
My invention relates to the decoration of
ceramic ware and related products of the ceramic
industry, including articles made of glass, china, I
pottery, enamelware and the like. The invention
contemplates the use of novel means by which
color ornamentation, or analogous surface alter
ation, may be applied directly to the ware or in
directly to it by application ?rst to some transfer
color uniformly distributed and entirely devoid
of blisters.
I
Certain selected embodiments of the invention
are illustrated in the accompanying drawings,
which depict forms of mechanism that have been
found satisfactory in actual operation and which
will sufficiently illustrate the broad principles of
the invention.
medium such as decal paper or equivalent sheet
In the drawings,
material, or to a screen of silk, copper wire or the 10
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a machine for
like. This application is a division of my copend
applying ceramic color to transfer mediums of
ing application Serial No. 409,105, ?led August
sheet form;
r
30, 1941, now Patent No. 2,383,190.
Fig. 2 is an end elevational view of the machine;
Primary objects of the invention are to improve
Fig. 3 is a transverse section through the
the quality of the decoration and to reduce the 15 machine;
costs of the decorating operations.
Fig. 4 is a section along 4-4 of
2;
In the best prior art methods known to me, it
Fig. 5 is a section through 5-5 of'Fig. 2;
is customary to apply directly to the ware, or to
Fig. 6 is a section along 6-6 of Fig. 2;
an appropriate transfer sheet of any one of the
Fig. 7 is an end elevation, partially broken away
types above indicated, a coating of some adhesive 20 and in section, of the drum assembly; ‘ _
medium, such as decal ‘varnish, dextrine gum
Fig. 8 is a side elevational view of a modi?ca
ming or the like, conforming exactly to‘the area
tion of the machine in inoperative position, and
intended to be colored. A suitable ceramic color
Fig. 9 is a similar view, partially in section,
or oxide, including some appropriate frit, is then
illustrating the machine in operative position for
dusted over the sheet or ware and is retained 25 applying ceramic color directly to the wars.
thereby in the coated areas only. The capacity
Referring to the drawings, and ?rst to Figs. 1
of the coating to retain the applied dust is lim
and 2, the machine there shown comprises a sta
ited, and the results obtained upon subsequent
tionary framework consisting of a pair of annular
?ring havebeen unsatisfactory by reason of pale
support members I bolted by cap screws or the
ness and/or unequal distribution of the color. 30 like 2 to a table bed 3 of convenient height. It
Attempts have been made to overcome this dim
will be understood that the annular members I
‘culty by rubbing or wiping the dust into the ad
are spaced longitudinally apart with centers on
hesive coating, but the results have not been com
a common axis, so that they de?ne a generally
mercially successful because it ‘has been impos~
cylindrical space between them. Axially through
sible to cause a layer of adhesive coating of the 35 this space is positioned a shaft 4 which is jour
required thinness to hold ceramic color dust in
naled near its opposite ends in bearings 5 mounted
su?icient quantity or uniformity of distribution.
on supporting posts 6 which are rigidly secured
It has also been attempted in the case of colors
in the table bed. A drum 1 is fast on the shaft
requiring an unusually heavy deposit to apply
4 and is rotated thereby. Any suitable pulley,
successive layers of adhesive coating, each with its 40 gear on the like, coupled to appropriate power
own layer of embedded ceramic color, but this
(not shown), may be used to drive the shaft and
has caused blistering during the ?ring operation
rotate the drum.
resulting from the bubbling of gases from the
It will be understood that the drum ?ts between
lower layers through the upper layers. I have discovered that a single layer of con
ventional printed adhesive can be caused toretain
an entirely adequate depth of ceramic color dust
if the dust be worked down into the adhesive coat
by comparatively‘ rapid vibration of a brush or
the stationary frame members I and is of a di
45 ameter somewhat smaller than that of the frame
members.
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Secured to the frame members I in the upper
zones thereof is a’hopper trough 8 having a bot
tom opening spaced slightly above the periphery
analogous applicator surface, and/or of the ob-‘ 50 of the drum. A blade-like clamping member 9
iect or sheet itself.
extends lengthwise along the drum periphery and
Transfer sheets and ware bearing the unprece
dentedly deep layer of ceramic color dust pro
duced by practice of the present invention result
is urged downward into the plane of that periph
ery by some such means as coil springs I II en
circling posts II at opposite ends of the drum and
in a ?nished product having remarkably deep 55 reacting between the drum shell and rollers I2
2,411,209
3
>
mounted on the inner ends of the posts. These
4
brush elements to vibrate radially, laterally and
longitudinally with relation to the drum ‘when
rollers, of course, travel in a circular orbit as the
the vibrator element 22 is driven.
"
drum rotates. A frame structure I3 is bolted to
An elongated coil spring 24 may be connected
each of the supporting frames I and mounts an
arcuate cam track I4 on which each of the rollers 5 under tension between some ‘part of the vibrat
I2 rotates during part of its orbital travel. The
cam tracks are made circumferentially adjust
able with relation to the frames I by slotted en
gagement of the bolts I5 which secure them to
the frame structure I8, and each cam track is 10
ing assembly and some ?xed part of the machine.
In Fig. 1 such a spring is shown connected be
tween the vibrator bed 2| and a longitudinal
frame element I9, while in Fig. 7‘ such a spring
appropriately pro?led to lift the clamping blade
8 radially outwardly during part of each rotation
the lower lengthwise frame member I9 and a
point 25 on the vibrating assembly near the cor
responding upper lengthwise frame member I8.
In use, the vibrator 22 is driven to induce vi
of the drum.
,
The function of the blade 9 is to receive and
clamp the leading edge of a sheet of ceramic color
transfer medium onto the drum.
This is easily ,
accomplished by slipping such edge of the} sheet
under the blade when the blade is spaced from
the drum periphery, i. e., at a point in the ro
tation of the drum reached just prior to the po
24' is shown connected between frame I near
brations in the brushes at the rate of not less
than 400 per minute, and preferably as high as
7600 per minute. As the sheet of transforme
dium moves progressively under the several
brushes, with a comparatively thick coating, of
ceramic color deposited on it from the feed
sition ‘shown in Fig. 2. Immediately thereafter,
trough 8, the rapidly vibrating brushes function
on rotation of the drum, the roller I2 becomes
lowered to the dwell of the cam track I4 and
clamps the sheet onto the drum.
The sheet has been previously printed or other
wise treated with suitable adhesive material. It
passes under the hopper trough 8 and a liberal
quantity of ceramic color is discharged onto it
brushes operate to embed ceramic color into the
from the hopper. The sheet then passes succes
' sively under each of a plurality of brushes or 30
pads I 6 which are of elongated form and extend
along the drum periphery parallel to the drum
to embed a very considerable 'quantity of the
ceramic color down in the coated areas of the
sheet. Color falls from the uncoated, and to some extent also from the coated, areas of the
sheets and is collected from beneath the ma
chine for re-use. The plurality of vibrating
coated areas to a depth heretofore believed to be
impossible of attainment.
,
“a
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The center portion of the table is slotted
lengthwise to pass the sheet after it has passed
beneath the last brush and after the clamping
element 9 becomes lifted from the drum periphery
axis. These brushes are mounted on stems I‘!
received in arcuate supports I8 which encircle
part of the drum periphery and are concentric 35 by engagement of the rollers I2 with the rise in
the lower portion of the cam track I4. The sheet
with the drum. The opposite ends of the sup
ports I8 are"cushion-mounted in upper and lower
lengthwise frame members I9 which are secured
at their opposite ends to the frame members I as
by bolts .20.
is deposited in the catcher 26 and is ready, after
drying, to be applied in the usual manner to
ceramic ware or the like.
While I have shown the vibrator 22 mounted’
to vibrate the entire cushionedframework and
One suitable form of cushion mounting has
consequently all the brushes, smaller vibrators
been illustrated and comprises an elongated bolt
v.may
'be arranged directly on one or more of the
45 extending through an oversized opening 46
individual brushes so as to vibrate such brushes
in frame member I9 and thence through a ?tted
opening 41 in support I8. A dished-out spring '45 only. In that case the other brushes may be ?xed
with relation to the stationary frame members I,
washer 48 is seated between the head 48 of the
so as to transmit more or less vibration.
bolt and the outer face of frame member I9. Be
In Fig. 8 the mechanism is designed to apply‘
tween the inner face of frame member I9 and the
ceramic color directly to the ware, here shown
outer face of support I8 are interposed two op- ‘
positely disposed spring washers 50 and 5| which, 50 as a plate or ?at dish.v As shown in Fig. 8,-this
device may comprise a stationary frame consist
ing of four vertical posts 30>upstanding at the
convex surfaces contiguous to one another, the
' for illustrative purposes, are positioned with the
corners of an imaginary rectangle from a bed 3|
margins of the concave surfaces bearing, respec
and connected by spaced superposed plates 82
tively, against the inner face of frame member
55
having
aligned openings loosely receiving the two
I8 and the outer face of support I8. An addi
or more bars 34 of a movable frame. This mov
tional spring washer 52 may be positioned be
able frame terminates at its bottom in a brush
tween the inner face of support I8 and the nut
backing 35, mounting a brush 36, and terminates
58, which is taken up on the bolt su?iciently to
upwardly in a horizontal plate 81 on which is
place the washer under some tension. Thus the
supports I8 and the applicator pads 0r brushes 60 securely mounted a vibrator element 38, here
shown as of the electrically energized type.
supported thereby are free for limited vibratory
Upwardly and downwardly projecting pins 89
movement in all directions with respect to the
extend from the lower and upper rigid frame
stationary frame members I9 on which they are
plates 32 respectively and coil springs 40 encircle
thus cushion-mounted.
_
A tie member 2| spans the supports I8, con 65 these pins and react between the plates 32 and
a ?oating equalizer plate 4| ?xedly secured to
veniently at about the midpoint of each, and
rods 34. A bailor handle 42 is secured to the
mounts a vibrator mechanism 22, here shown as
vibrator bed plate 31, by which the vibrating
of the electrically energized type, employing an
frame may be elevated as a unit from the ware
unbalanced rotor. Coil springs 23 encircled about
the stems I'I react between the supports I8 and 70 43 which in use of the device is positioned on
the stationary bed 3I directly below the brush 88.
the brush elements and resiliently press the brush
Gravity latches 44 swing from the vibrator bed
surfaces toward the drum periphery, and these
31 to the upper stationary plate 32 and hold
spring mounts, together with the cushioned con
upper springs 40 compressed and the brush in.
nections between the ends of the supports I 8 and
the lengthwise frame members I9, cause the 75 elevated position whenever the handle 42 is man
2,411,209 '
ually pulled to its upper limit, which is done
the applicators will be restrained against vibra
whenever ware 43 is to be inserted beneath the
tion.
brush or withdrawn therefrom.
What I claim is:
As has been made apparent from the foregoing
1. A device for applying ceramic color to a sur- I
description of the embodiments illustrated in the 5 face prepared with an adhesive coating compris
drawings, the ?oating or spring suspension of
ing a support for an object having such prepared
the vibrator and applicator surfaces with refer
surface, an applicator adapted to be engaged with
_ ence to the surface on which the color has been
ceramic color applied to said coating, means for
deposited obtains relative vibratory movement in
bringing said applicator and applied ceramic color
all directions between the two surfaces.
10 in contact, and means for effecting relative vibra
The cushion mountings by which the arcuate
tion in all directions between the applicator and
pad supporting members l8 of Figs. 1 and 2, and
the surface.
' the vibrator itself, are connected to rigid frame
2. A device for applying ceramic color to a
members l9 permits limited movement of the
surface prepared with an adhesive coating com
pads in all directions with reference to such sup 15 prising a‘ support for an object having such pre
porting frames and, of course, with reference to
pared surface, an applicator adapted to be en
the color deposit. Springs 24, which are secured
gaged with ceramic color applied to said coating,
at one end directly or indirectly to arcuate sup
means for bringing said applicator and applied
ports l8' and at ‘the other to some point ?xed
ceramic color in contact, means for restraining
with reference to main frame I, supply a constant 20 the support against vibration, and means for
reaction tendency ‘to movement of the pads im
vibrating the applicator in all directions.
parted by the vibrator in any direction away
3. A device for applying ceramic color to a sur
from those ends of springs 24 which are ?xed
face prepared with an adhesive coating compris
with reference to the main frame. The pads or
ing a support for an object having such prepared _
e brushes themselves are urged constantly toward 25 surface, means for depositing ceramic color on
the deposited color by coil springs 23.
In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 8, wherein
pad supporting bars 34 are loosely received
through openings on spaced main frame plates
v32, the play of bars 34 obtained thereby permits 30
such surface, an applicator adapted to be en
gaged [with said deposited ceramic color, and
means for relatively vibrating the applicator and
the surface in all directions.
4. A device for applying ceramic color to a
movement of the applicator or brush 36 in any
direction with reference to the main frame and
the ware supported thereby on which the color
has been deposited. When in use the brush 36
is ?oatingly suspended in contact with the de 35
surface prepared with an adhesive coating com
prising a support for an object having such pre
pared surface, means for depositing ceramic color
to the ?xedly positioned ware 43.
applicator
on such surface, an applicator ?oatingly sup
ported and adapted to be engaged with said de
posited color‘by means of equalizer springs 4!]
posited ceramic color, means for restraining the
bearing in opposite directions on equalizer plate
support against vibration, and means for vibrat
4|. These springs provide a reactionary force
ing the applicator.
against the forces of the vibrator imparting move
5. A machine for applying ceramic color to a
ment to the applicator and, together with the 40 prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a
play of rods 34 in their bearings, serve to vibrate
drum mounted for rotation therein, means for
the applicator in all directions with reference
mounting a sheet on the periphery of the drum,
.
In the use of this device the ware is directly
means
adjacent
said . periphery
cushion-mounted to permit movement in all di
printed or otherwise coated with the bonding 45 rections, and means for vibrating the applicator
medium and a liberal quantity of ceramic color
means in contact with ceramic color carried on
is dusted thereon. The ware is inserted in the
the sheet.
device, latches 44 are swimg outwardly and the
6. ‘A machine for applying ceramic color to a
vibrator is set in motion. The brush vibrates I prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a
vertically and horizontally at a rate of not less 50 drum mounted for rotation therein, means for
than 400 vibrations per minute and preferably’
mounting a sheet on the periphery of the drum,
as high as 7600, and thus embeds the color mate
applicator means ?oatingly mounted for univer
rial deeply down into the coating on the ware.
sal movement adjacent said periphery, a trough
The ware is then removed .from the device, the
for feeding ceramic color to the sheet ?xed in
unattached color is dusted off of it, and the ware 55 the frame anterior to said applicator means,
is ?red in the usual manner.
and means for vibrating the applicator means in
It will be understood that vibrating elements
contact with ceramic color carried on'the sheet.
‘other than the electric devices herein disclosed
7. A machine for applying ceramic color to a
by way of exempli?cation may be used. It is also
prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a
to be understood that the work to be ornamented to drum mounted for rotation therein, clamping
may be of any customary shape and character
means carried by the drum periphery for mount
of surface, and that the bonding medium, ceramic
ing a sheet thereon, applicator means cushion-'
color and other materials used in practicing the
mounted for movement in all directions adjacent
invention may be any which are well known in
said periphery, and means for vibrating the ap
the art.
65 plicator means in contact with ceramic color car
In all mechanical embodiments of the inven
ried on the sheet.
tion, and in the practice of the method, it is im
8. A machine for applying ceramic color to a
material whether the ware or sheet to which the
prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a
color is to be applied be vibrated or be restrained
drum mounted for rotation therein, clamping
against vibration, it being necessary only that 70 means for mounting a sheet on the periphery of
the ware or sheet and the applicator, e. g., the
the drum, applicator means adjacent said periph
several types of brush disclosed in the illustrative
ery mounted for ?oating movement in all direc
embodiments, be relatively vibrated. Accordingly
tions with reference to said periphery, means for
I contemplate variations of the illustrated mech
vibrating the applicator means in contact with
anisms in which the work will be vibrated and 75 ceramic color carried on the sheet, and means
2,411,209
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means.
able with the ware, means carried by theme:
riage for engaging said applicatorwith the ware,
resilient means yieldably urging the applicator
color applicator with the ware, resilient means
ware, and means for vibrating the carriage.
for automatically releasing said clamping means
after the same has traversed the applicator
into contact with the ware, means for vibrating
9. A machine for applying ceramic color to a
prepared sheet comprising a stationary frame, a 5. the carriage, and latches mounted on the car
riage and adapted to engage the ?xed frame to
drum mounted for rotation therein, means for
space the applicator above the ware.
,
mounting a sheet on‘ the'periphery of ‘the drum,
13. A machine for applying ceramic color to
a vibratory frame ?oatlngly mounted on the sta
ceramic ware comprising a stationary support for
tionary frame to permit vibratory movement in
all directions withvreference thereto, applicator 10 the ware, a ?xed frame mounted thereon includ
ing spaced, vertically superposed. ?xed plates hav
means carried by the vibratory frame, and means
ing aligned openings, a vibratory carriage mount
for vibrating the vibratory frame with the appli
ed in the ?xed frame and including posts passing
cator means in contact with ceramic color car
through said openings, 9, ceramic color applicator
ried on the sheet.
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10. A machine for applying ceramic color to 15 engageable with the ware, an equalizer plate fixed
to said posts between the plates of the ‘fixed
ceramic ware comprising a stationary support for
frame,‘spring means compressed between the op
the ware, a fixed frame mounted thereon, 9. vi
posite surfaces of the equalizer plate and the
bratory carriage mounted in the ?xed frame for
plates. of the ?xed frame, means carried by the
universal movement relatively thereto, means
carried by the carriage for engaging a ceramic 20 carriage for engaging said applicator with the
yieldably urging the applicator in contact with
14. Apparatus for embedding ceramic color de
the ware, and means for vibrating the carriage.
posited on. a surface prepared with an adhesive
said applicator with the ware, resilient means
prising means for depositing ceramic color on
such surface and means for embeddingthe color
in the coating, said embedding means including
coating comprising an applicator, means for
11. A machine for applying ceramic color to
ceramic ware comprising a stationary support for 25 bringing said applicator and deposited color into
contact, and means for effecting relative vibra
the ware including ?xed plates in superposed
tion between the applicator and the surface bear
spaced relation, a vibratory carriage mounted in
ing said color deposit at not less than substan
the ?xed frame and including a post loosely pass
tially 400 vibrations per minute in all directions.
ing through aligned openings in said plates, a
15. Apparatus for applying ceramic color to a
ceramic color applicator engageable with the
surface prepared'with an adhesive coating com
ware, means carried by the carriage for engaging
yieldably urging the applicator into contact with .
the ware, and means for vibrating the carriage.
12. A ‘machine for applying ceramic color to 35 an applicator, means for bringing said applicator
ceramic ware comprising a stationary support
for the ware including a ?xed frame having plates
in superposed spaced relation, a vibratory car
riage mounted in the ?xed frame and including
and deposited color into contact, and means for
effecting relative vibration between the applica
a post loosely passing through aligned openings,
in said plates, a ceramic color applicator engage
minute in all directions.
tor and the surface bearing said color deposit
at not less than substantially '400 vibrations per
'
EUGENE HARDESTY.
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