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Патент USA US2411290

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Nov. 19, 194e_.
G, w, pbNTlus, 3D
2,411,290
MACHINE GUN SYNCHRONIZER
Filed Feb.‘ 2, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet l
INVENTOR
G%YOQ.GE \zJ- powrws 1H3
wié
AT
RNEY.
Nov. 19, 1946.
2,411,290
G. W. PONTIUS, 3D
MACHINE GUN SYNCHRONIZER
Filed Feb.' 2, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
\\
'
INVENTOR.
GEIOQGE Ml. ‘WONT \ 057m:
BY
NOV. 19, 1946.
(3_ w_ POM-nus, 313
2,411,290
MACHINE GUN SYNCHRONI ZER
Filed Feb. 2, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 3'
NOV. 19, 1946-
G. w_-PONT|Us, 35
.2,411,290
MACHINE 'GUN SYNCHRONIZER
Filed Feb. 2, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
W25
ms“:
,
INVENTOR
GeoQeE\pJ. 'PON‘H 05 1111
BY
NOV. 19, 1946.
(3_ w, poNT|U$, 3D
2,411,290
MACHINE GUN SYNCHRONIZER
Filed Feb. 2, 1940
'
'
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
INVENTOR.
GEQQQEN; 'DOM‘?uS 31“?
BY
I‘
k
u
‘
Patented Nov. 19,1946
.
L2
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’ 2,411,290
MACmE GUN SYNCHRONIZER
George W. Pontius, 111, South Bend, Ind., assignm
to Bendix Aviation Corporation, South Bend,
Ind., a corporation of Delaware
Application February 2, 1940, Serial No. 316,999
18 Claims.
(01. 64-25)
2
This invention relates to a synchronizer for
?ring a machine gun through the propeller of
an airplane and to actuating mechanisms for ?r
ing a gun.
'
In military aircraft, although guns may be
mounted in the wings, it is also desirable to mount
mitted.
Another object is to provide a synchro
nizer employing a controlled power unit‘ to ad
vance the impulse generator.
.
It is an object of this invention to provide a
centrifugal control for such a power unit, and
' further, to provide a centrifugal control free from
the influences of acceleration or deceleration of
guns on the fuselage to ?re forward in the direc
the aircraft in which the synchronizer is mounted.‘
tion of ?ight of the aircraft. This means in the
A further object is to provide a new type of
case of a single motored airplane that the guns
must be ?red through the arc of the propeller 10 trigger motor for machine gun actuation. Also
of the airplane, necessitating synchronization of
it is an object to provide ?exible drive means for
said trigger motor. Still another object is to pro
?re with the propeller to prevent the propeller
vide a novel lockout and engagement device for
from being hit. In ?ring a gun through a pro
machine gun trigger motors.
'
peller, account must be taken of the time re
It is a feature of the invention that the trigger
quired for a bullet to reach the propeller zone 15
motors may be mounted on the gun at any angle
from the instant of ?ring pin actuation. The
thereto according to the most bene?cial method
adjustment of ?ring to engine rotation which is
proper for low speeds of propeller rotation may
of leading the impulse transmitting mechanism
to the trigger motors.
be entirely wrong at advanced speeds of rotation
Other objects and features of the invention
when the propeller blade may possibly be in the 20
will be apparent in the following description and
path of the bullet before the bullet reaches the
claims, best understood when taken in conjunc
propeller zone. This defect of adjustment is es
tion with the accompanying drawings, in which:
pecially true when three and four bladed pro
Figure 1 is a view in elevation of an airplane
pellers are used.
with a part broken away to show machine guns
This condition is not so much of a problem
actuated by apparatus constructed according to
when a two bladed propeller is used, because the
speed of emergence of a bullet is such in relation
the invention;
Figure 2 is an enlarged sectional view of the
to propeller rotation that a ?xed firing point on
automatic timing and advance mechanism shown
the propeller arc will in most cases give ample
at 24 in Figure 1;
clearance at all propeller speeds. However, the
Figure 3 is a detail view of the rocker arm $38
use of three and four bladed propellers makes the
of Figure 2;
available ?ring arc so small with relation to the
Figure 4 is a view of an alternative cam means
speed of emergence of a bullet that a ?xed ?ring
for valve actuation;
.. I
instant cannot be used, and a variable ?ring in
Figure 5 is a sectional View in elevation of a
stant must be employed for varying propeller
speeds.
Centrifugal adjusters have been used to ad
vance the impulse generator shaft over the driv
modi?ed form of synchronizer;
I
Figure 6 is a view in vertical section of a mod
i?ed form of compensated governor control;
ing shaft. However, these centrifugal adjusters
Figure 7 is a detail sectional view of a modi- I
are affected not only by the speed of propeller 40 ?ed form of trigger motor employing a wedge
rotation but by the load which the adjustment
lockout mechanism;
must transmit.
Thus where the propeller is oper
ating at a high speed, the centrifugal adjusters
Figure 8 is a detail sectional view of a modi?ed
form of trigger motor with a slidable cam actu
ated by a hydraulic motor ;_
will assume a corresponding position. But when
Figure 9 is a detail sectional view of a modi?ed
the machine guns are ?red, the work of trigger 45
form of trigger motor with a movable tappet for
actuation must pass through the centrifugal ad
juster, which then assumes a position dependent
a lookout; and
Figure 10 is a detail View in elevation of. an
upon the load transmitted and the propeller
other form of compensated governor control. p
speed. This condition is accentuated by the large
The invention is shown in Figure 1 as applied
numbers of machine guns now used at times on 50
to an airplane IE1. A radial motor [2 covered by
a single airplane, which may be four or more.
a, cowling l4, drives a propeller I6. At the rear
It is therefore an object of this invention to
of the engine, a power take-01f shaft acts through
provide a synchronizer which advances ?ring im
matching bevel gears to drive a shaft 22 which
pulse generators in proportion to the engine speed
alone, and which is independent of the load trans 55 actuates the automatic timer mechanism en~
‘2,411,290
4
3
slides thereon. An integrally formed valve 5
controls the flow of ?uid to the cylinder 55 and
is connected to the cylinder through passages £55
drives the propeller.
and 58 at either end. Hydraulic fluid at times
The airplane is equipped with a plurality of ma
chine guns 26, arranged symmetrically on either Ul enters the valved/i through three ?exible conduits
8f, the two outside ones being pressure lines and
side of the engine. Mounted on the sides of the
the middle one being an exhaust line. The valve
guns are trigger motor units 28 driven by rotary
54 is connected to speed responsive rocker arm
flexible shafts 3B which are driven from the syn
as. The power cylinder 56 is pin jointed at 82 to
chronizer unit 24. Since the fuselage of the air
the pivot arm 73 by a link 86. As the power cyl
plane is smaller than the arc of the propeller, the
closed in a housing 24. The power take-oil" shaft
is geared to the crankshaft of the engine, which
guns must ?re through the arc of the propeller,
being mounted to shoot on a longitudinal line
inder 55 moves back and forth on its piston rod
84, it causes the yoke member ‘58 to move about
through the airplane fuselage, which is the direc
its pivot Bil andthereby causes the sleeve "it to
tion of straight line ?ight.
move axially.
'
_
I also provide means for converting the rotary
motion of driven shaft ‘E2 into ?ring impulses to
ing instant in accordance with the speed of the
propeller is the automatic timing and advance ~ ?re the guns 2+3. Spaced about the generator gear
unit shown at 24 in Figure 1. This synch-ronizcr
‘14 are motor gears M which drive axially ?exible
shafts 39 in a l-l ratio. These shafts pass
unit is shown in detail in Figure 2. A bevel gear
through the housing 24‘ to their respective guns
[8 on a power take-off shaft driven by the engine
to actuate the trigger motors 28. If there were
[2 meshes with a bevel gear
secured to a drive
The means which I provide to advance the. are
shaft 22, which in turn operates the synchronizer
only one gun, its ?exible shaft could be directly
connected to shaft 12. One of the trigger motors
is shown in detail in Figure 7. Each trigger mo
tor 28 comprises a base l?l rigidly secured to its
bearing 32 a gear 34 is secured to a drive shaft
gun 26 opposite the position of a sear pin 95 of
22 and drives gears 38 which rotate two parallel
governor shafts 36.~ The governor shafts 36 are
the gun 2G. The base [Ell retains a solenoid 96
mounted in suitable bearings attached to the
for control of a lockout mechanism and is adapted
housing 24. Mounted on the governor shafts are
to retain a turret top 9! which retains a cam 9G.
flyball governor units llil, stretched by springs t2. 30 The turret top 9! may be turned in any direction
Each shaft 35 has a rotatable collar lie which rides
which is most suitable for placement of the ro
the free end of each of the flyball governors, and
tary shafts 30. The'cams 536 are driven by the
is held axially by ball bearings 45,
?exible shafts 3i] and are retained in bearings of
A rocker arm 48, shown in detail in Figure 3,
any suitable kind in the turret top 9 I. The num
contacts collars at through yokes on either end.
ber of lob-eson the cam should correspond to the
The rocker arm 48 is pivoted on bolt’llt‘a at its mid
number of blades on the airplane propeller. The
section, secured to casing ‘24. Fingers E5 on the
cam 9%‘: acts through a wedge 92 to actuate tappet
yokes of rocker arm 63 contact collar All of the fly~
96 which actuates the sear pin 95 of the gun trig
ball governors 68, and cause rocker arm (it to
ger mechanism. The tappet 9A is urged outward
pivot on its bolt 45 as the ?yball governors 139 as
by spring 93 to return it to a perpendicular po
sumev different positions. A connecting rod 52 is
sition if it should be encountered in a ?ring po
pin jointed to the rocker arm 48 and to a hy
sition by sear pin 95 upon counter recoil.
draulic valve 54. The movement of the rocker
I provide means associated with the trigger
arm 48 responsive to the governors it!) causes con
motor for stopping the fire of the gun, which
unit. The drive shaft 22' is mounted in bearings
32 secured to the housing 24. Near the forward
necting rod 52 to actuate hydraulic valve 56. which
means I refer to as a lookout mechanism.
The
controls and operates the power unit for the sys
lockout mechanism comprises means for moving
tem, which unit will be later described.
the wedge 92 forward and backward or right and
I provide means to advance an impulse genera
left respectively with reference to Figure 7.
tor for firing the guns, to secure an advanced
When the wedge is pulled forward, the cam 90
?ring instant as the propeller speeds increase.
acts through the wedge 92 to fire the gun. But
This advancing means is in the form of an ad
when the cam is in its rearward position the cam
justable cam connection between a driving shaft
cannot actuate the tappet 94, and the gun does
and a driven shaft. The inward end of the drive
not ‘fire. The wedge may be moved by a sole
shaft 22 is enlarged and cut to form a helical gear
noid, or a hydraulic piston, but is illustrated as
68. Coaxially, and a short distance therefrom is .: moved by a solenoid unit 86 acting through rod
a helical gear l0 with a reverse helix. Gear 1!} is
98 to move the wedge. A spring we returns‘ the
attached to a shaft 12 to which is secured a gen
erator gear '14. A sleeve 76, cut internally with
wedge to the no-?ring position when the actua~
tion is released. The controls for the unit {33
are in the pilot’s cockpit.
helices to ?t the helical gears 53 and ‘i2, is fitted
over the gears 68 and ‘it. As'this sleeve ‘it is 60
In operation, the airplane engine if? turns shaft
moved axially in either direction along the drive
22 through gears 18' and 26', and through the
shaft, the gear 'Hl will change its relative rotary
gears 34 spins the ?yball governor units iii), which
position with respect to gear 68. The sleeve 75 is
assume de?nite positions for a given engine speed.
moved axially in either direction by a yoke mem
The rocker arm 48 follows the movement of the
ber 18, pivoted to the housing 24 at 89. The yoke
governors and pulls on red 52 causing. the valve
?ts a groove on a collar ll rotatably mounted on»
member to pull out, and valve 54 then passes
sleeve 16, and thereby moves the sleeve along the
high pressure liquid to the forward, or right hand,
drive shaft axis. The yoke member 78 is moved
part of cylinder 5%. Piston rod 6d being fixed.
about its axis by a power unit which will next be
70 the cylinder moves to the front (or right) and
described.
since the valve 54 is integral with it, the valve
The power unit is a piston-cylinder lmit oper
, casing moves also. This movement will ?nally
ated by hydraulic fluid under pressure. A piston
rod 64 is securely fastened to the casing 213, and
close the valve and bring the cylinder to a stop
retains a piston 62 on the other end. A ?oating
by cutting off the source of fluid. By using a
cylinder 56 is mounted on the piston rod 64 and
liquid under pressure as the power ?uid, there
2,411,290
5
6
is no tendency to continue movement after the
?uid is out 01f.
Meantime the cylinder has acted through rod
motors results in freedom of placement of the
guns and simplicity of installation of the ?ring
56 to move the yoke arm ‘I8 and cause sleeve 16
to move axially to the front. This movement
may have more or fewer lobes or multiples thereof,
acts through the driving gear 68 to shift the
driven gear 16 relative thereto and advance the
generator gear ‘Hi with relation to the drive shaft
22. The motor gears will now cause the trigger
motors 28 to ?re at an advanced point and thus
prevent the bullets hitting the propeller as the
speed of the propeller increases.
mechanism. The rotary cam of thetrigger motor
depending upon the number of blades in the pro
peller. This type of trigger motor is simple and
reliable as well as being light in weight, all prime
factors in aircraft.
An alternative means of actuating the valve 53
is shown in Figure 4. The rocker arm s3 is
mounted on a rotatable cam shaft 50 secured to
the synchronizer casing 213 by bolt 45. The drive
If the airplane motor should now slow down,
shaft 22 passes through the centerline of rocker
the springs 42 move the collars 45, causing rocker
arm 48. A cam 53 is integrally formed on the
arm 48 to reverse its direction of angular motion.
camshaft 5i) and is adapted to contact the valve
Connecting rod 52 then pushes the valve mem
54 (shown by a dotted line in Figure 4). As the
ber inward. This causes valve 54 to pass fluid
rocker arm is rotated by the governors, the shaft
to the left or rear part of the cylinder 56, causing
50 causes cam 53 to actuate the valve 55. A
it to move rearward. In doing so, the valve cas
spring mounted in the valve may be used to keep
ing 54 moves with it until the valve is closed. 20 the valve member in contact with the cam 53.
Meantime the rod 6:’; acts on lever T8 to shift
The operation of the modi?cation shown in
sleeve 16 to change the relative positions of gears
Figure 4 is ‘as follows. Varying positions of
63 to ‘ill, according to the engine speed and re
rocker arm t8 according to engine speeds, turn
tard the generator gear ‘l4 and ?exible shafts 36
shaft 58 and cause cam 53 to actuate the valve.
relative to shaft 22. The trigger motors now
The spring urged valve member may be used to
?re at a more retarded point on the arc of the
keep contact with cam 53. The follow-up motion
propellers and thereby effectively relate the ?ring
of the valve and the synchronizer actuation are
to propeller speed.
the same as in the other embodiments of the
The operation of the trigger motor described
system.
I
in connection with the synchronizer unit and 30
A variation of centrifugal governors compen~
shown in Figure 7 is as follows: The generator
sated for bodily acceleration and deceleration of
gear 14 of the synchronizer unit (Figure 2) drives
the system is shown in Figure 6. Mounted ‘on a
gears 84 which are fastened to ?exible rotary
shaft 522, driven by the engine, are centrifugal
shafts 38, which lead to trigger motors 28. The
governors 540 driven through collars 542 attached
relation of these parts is shown in Figure 1,
to the shaft. The free ends of the governors ter
wherein the synchronizer unit is represented by
minate in members 544 having reversed helices
25.4. At the trigger motor, the triangular cam
and which are driven by the governors. The
98 is fastened to the end of the flexible shaft
members 5154 are connected by a unitary member
_ and is rotated by it. The cam acts through the
546 which mates the helices of each member 564.
wedge 92 to reciprocate tappet 96 against the 40 The connecting member is free to rotate but not
compression of spring 93. The tappet 94 strikes
move axially, being held by guide 548 acting in a
sear pin 95 and ?res the gun in synchronism with
the propeller, the lobes of the cam 98 correspond
ing in number and arrangement to the blades of
groove on connection 545. A yoke member 558,
riding a, groove in one of the members 564 ac
tuates a proper power unit such as valve 515 and
the propeller it of the airship. To stop ?re, the 45 cylinder 56, and is movable according to ro-tative
pilot of the airship opens the switch to solenoid
speed.
8,6, and spring I06 pushes the wedge 92 to the
In operation, variation of speed causes the gov
left, reducing the stroke of the tappet 94 so that
ernors 540 to ?y outward or contract, which pulls,
it cannot ?re the gun 2E.
and pushes helices 544 in and out of connection
The dual system of ?yball governors is used 50 546, spinning connection 545 or decelerating it,
to eliminate the effects of acceleration and de
according to the axial direction of movement.‘
celeration of the aircraft, especially important in
maneuvering. As the craft decelerates, the for
ward ?yball governor will tend to pull the rocker
When the system is bodily decelerated or accele
rated, one helix will try to pull out of the connec
tion 546 and the other will try to push in. The
arm toward it. At the same time the rearward 55 movement of each Will tend to twist the connec
flyball'governor will tend to push the rocker arm
tion 546 to resist movement of the other, keeping
away from it, setting up equal and opposite forces
the governors in their rotation responsive posi
in the rocker arm and neutralizing the effect of
tion, the axial inertia force of the system being
the deceleration. The forces in acceleration act
taken through support 548. It will be appreciated
in the same manner to neutralize the adjustment 60 that the governors need not rotate coaxially; all
at the position for the respective rotativespeeds.
that is required are substantially parallel axes
In this manner the effects of acceleration and
with the governors connected by an idler gear of
deceleration, such as would affect a single ?yball
proper matching shape for the helices.
governor, are eliminated. Acceleration and de~
Another embodiment of centrifugal governor
celeration in planes transverse to the fuselage 65 controls is shown in Figure 10. A drive shaft 922
will have no effect on the governors since the ?y~
is connected to the engine drive of the aircraft.
balls are revolving in those planes.
7
Pinned to this shaft 922 is a governor bracket 924,
By using a power medium to advance the gen—
which retains two spaced, single arm ?yball mem
erator shaft, the centrifugal governor will re?ect
bers 92B, pivoted at 928. Arms 930, depending
only the rotative speeds of the aircraft- engine
from ?yball members 926, contact a circumferen
and will not be influenced by load factors. Thus
tial groove 932 in an axially movable sleeve 934.
the synchronizer can be made to operate very
At the other end‘ of the sleeve 934 is another gov
accurately and give de?nite assurance of faithful
ernor bracket 936, splined to shaft 922 by splines
938 and free to move axially. Two ?yball units
The use of rotary ?exible shafts‘ to drive trigger
926 are mounted in a similar manner as those at-
service.
"
’
'
2,411,290
7
IA rotary shaft ‘I28, having a splined end 729, is
protected by a casing ‘I39, which is fastened to
housing ‘H8 by a nut ‘I32. Fastening casing ‘I30
to housing TIB retains shaft ‘I28 in the housing
units are inter?tting to shorten the axial length
of the unit. A collar 915i} holds a spring 942 against 131 ‘I I 8. A shaft ‘I26 is recessed and internally splined
at one end and reduced at the other. This shaft
bracket 936, forcing it toward bracket 924. A
?ts over the splined member ‘I29, compressing a
groove 944 in bracket 935 moves lever 925, which
spring ‘I34 between them and rotates in housing
controls a suitable power unit 948, which is used
‘MB. A cam ‘I24, mounted on an offset sleeve ‘I25,
to advance and retard the driven shaft in rela
?ts over shaft ‘I255. The sleeve ‘I25 is radially and
tion to the driving shaft of the synchronizer unit.
regularly notched at the end of small internal di
In operation, the aircraft engine rotates shaft
ameter, and mates a similarly notched sleeve 12‘!
922, rotating ?yballs 925. The forward ilyballs
having different numbers of regular, radial
926 ?y outward and force sleeve 934 to the left.
notches on the other face. Another notched
Meantime the rear or left flyballs 92B ?y outward
and press against sleeve 934, but being axially 15 sleeve ‘I39 is splined or keyed to shaft ‘I25 and has
notches matching this other face of sleeve ‘I21.
movable they move bracket 936 toward the rear
A bolt ‘I3I screws into shaft 726 and tightens the
against spring 942. In this manner, bracket 935
sleeves ‘I39 and 121 against the offset of sleeve
moves axially twice as far as would be the case
‘I25, the cam being driven through the key of
with one ?yball group, represented by the axial
movement of sleeve 934. The movement of - sleeve ‘I39. A piston packing ‘I33 is attached to
the outer end of sleeve ‘I39. A hydraulic tube
bracket 934 actuates lever 94% and this in turn
‘I36 is held in housing ‘H8 by a tube nut 73?.
operates power unit 948. The effect of decelera
In operation, in a non-?ring position, the
tion or acceleration of the aircraft on the syn
spring ‘I34 urges the cam ‘I24 to the left, where
chronizer system is neutralized by cooperation of
the pairs of flyballs.
2-5 it rotates without striking tappet ‘H2. The gun
at this time is not ?ring because the trigger
Many modi?cations of power units can be used
mechanism is not actuated. When the pilot of
in the system. One modi?cation is shown in Fig
tached to bracket 924 and contact rear or left
groove 932 of sleeve 934. The pairs of ?yball gov
ernors are preferably mounted so that the ?yball
the aircraft desires to ?re the gun, he opens a
hydraulic valve electrically or manually, allowing
valve coaxial with the drive shaft. A governor 24b
is mounted coaxially on the drive shaft 222. This W. ?uid to flow through conduit ‘I38 and into hous
ing ‘I I8. This fluid then acts against packing ‘I33
governor unit could be compensated for bodily ac
to compress spring ‘I34, and force the cam ‘I24
celeration and deceleration of the system as in
into operating position. Release of the ?uid
Figure 2, by a connection to a non~axial governor
pressure causes the cam ‘I24 to return to a non
unit, but is shown as an uncompensated governor
operating position. This cam engaging mecha
unit. The movable end of the governor is attached
nism could be a solenoid.
to a coaxial valve member 254 adjusting it accord
ure 5, wherein a centrifugal governor controls a
ing to the vrotative speed. An actuator member
If, during operation, the tappet ‘H2 should be
depressed in the ?ring position, and the breech
bolt should be in counter recoil, the sear ‘H6.
helical grooves on a coaxial stationary member
248 attached to casing 24 by support 258.
40 would contact the tappet ‘H2. If the tappet did
not yield, the sear ‘H6, being resisted, would fire
The actuator member 246 has an arm 252 ex
the gun, thus giving an unsynchronized shot. To
tending from it. Between the casing 24 and the
246 contains internal helical grooves which ?t the
arm 252 is a power cylinder 256 having its piston
avoid this, the base ‘H0 is recessed as at H5 so
rod attached to arm 252. ’ he cylinder is attached
that sear ‘H6 will force tappet ‘II2 forward.
When cam ‘I24 turns past the ?ring position, the
spring ‘H4 will return the tappet ‘II2 to a firing
position opposite sear ‘H6. Then the next im
pulse from cam ‘I24 will ?re the gun.
The sleeves ‘I39 and ‘I21 with their differently
numbered notches are provided in order to get
to casing 24 at its other end. Flexible conduits
250 and 258 connect the power cylinder with the
valve passages. As the power cylinder acts on arm
.252, actuator member 256 is rotated on helically
grooved member 248 to advance the actuator
member axially. Through an extension 262, a col
lar 216 is moved relative to the helical gears 268
and 2'78, advancing gear 218 relative to gear 268
thus advancing gear 2‘Hl. This advances the in
stant of ?ring through a ?ring motor mechanism
not shown.
In operation, the governor 24G pulls valve mem
ber 254 outwardly, causing ?uid to flow to the
power cylinder drawing arm 252 toward the ca"
a very close and accurate adjustment of the cam
‘I24 on the driving shaft ‘I28. By removing tube
screw 731, a screw driver may be inserted into
casing ‘H8, and screw ‘I3I can be unscrewed, al
lowing sleeves ‘I21 and ‘I25 to be turned relative
to sleeve ‘I39. This is done by removing cover
plate ‘H9 and setting the airplane propeller at
the proper position with relation to the gun to be
?red, and then placing cam ‘I24 so that the tap-pet
ing 24. This-advances member 246 on the shaft,
eventually cutting off the ?uid supply. As the 60 ‘H2 is depressed or about to be depressed. I-lav
ing secured this desired position, screw ‘I3I is now
member 246 advances, collar 2‘55 is drawn with it,
tightened and the three sleeves locked in place
advancing the generator shaft over the drive
with relation to shaft ‘I26. The different numbers
shaft 222.
'
.
of notches on the sleeves allows a micrometer or
Many modi?cations of trigger motors can be
vernier adjustment of the cam which is very
used in the system. One modi?cation of the trigger
sensitive. Because of the accessibility of the.
motor is shown in Figure 8. A base ‘I I9 is mounted
parts, this adjustment may be made very simply
on the gun 25. The base ‘H0 retains a tappet ‘IE2
urged outwardly by a spring ‘H4. The tappet is
adapted to actuate the sear ‘H6 of the trigger
and readily.
Another embodiment of a ‘trigger motor is
mechanism of the gun. The base ‘I‘ H) is round to 70 shown in Figure 9. A base plate Bib retains a
tappet block 8I2 containing a tappet M4 and a
ward the outer side, so that the actuating mech
anism may be mounted at any angle to the gun.
spring SIS. A spring biased solenoid 8H3 moves
The actuating mechanism is enclosed in a hous
block 8I2 backward against spring 820 and spring
ing ‘I I 8, having a removable cover ‘I I 9, fastened to
82!] moves it to a non-?ring position upon release
base ‘I I 0 by a split collar ‘I20 tightened by bolt ‘I22.
of the solenoid. The cam actuation is enclosed
2,411,290 '
.
10
9:
ma turret housing 822. '
en it is desired to fire
the gun, the solenoid M8 is energized'pushing
block i8l2 into position and the cam motor ?res
member, a driven member, means for connecting
the‘ driving member to the driven member for
the gun through tappet 8M. Deenergizing sole
noid 818 allows spring 820 to return block 8!! to
retard the driven member with respect to the
driving member, ?uid power means for moving
said means, a valve for admitting ?uid under
rotative movement and movable to advance or
the non-?ring position.
Although the invention has been described with
reference to particular embodiments of the in
vention, it is not limited to such embodiments,
nor limited in any other manner, except by the
terms of the following claims.
I claim:
1. In a device of the class described, a driving
pressure to the power means, a control for said
valve and power means including a pair of par
allel' shafts drivably connected to the driving
member, a ?yball mechanism mounted on each
shaft in opposed relation and responsive to the
angular velocity of the driving member and non
responsiveto the longitudinal acceleration of the
member, a driven member, a longitudinally mov
driving member, and a member movable in re
able spiral cam connection for connecting the 15 sponse to the movement of the ?yball mecha
‘driving member to the driven member for rotative
nisms for opening the valve to admit ?uid to’ the
movement and for advancing or retarding the
"fluid power means,
driven member with respect to the driving mem
6. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
ber, ?uid power means for moving spiral cam
shaft, a driven shaft, a longitudinally movable
connection, a valve for admitting ?uid under 20 spiral cam connection for connecting the driving
pressure to the power means, a control for said
shaft to the driven shaft for rotative movement
valve and power means including a pair of ?yball
and for advancing or retarding the driven shaft
mechanisms responsive to the angular velocity of
with respect to the driving shaft, ?uid power
the driving member and non-responsive to the
means for moving the ?rst said means, a valve
longitudinal acceleration of the driving member,
for admitting fluid under pressure to the power
and including a member movable in response to
means, a control for said valve and power means
the movement of the ?yball mechanisms for
opening’ the valve to admit ?uid under pressure
to the ?uid power means.
including a pair of parallel shafts drivably con
nected to the driving shaft, a ?yball mechanism
mounted on each shaft in opposed relation, and
a member movable in response to the movement
of the ?yball mechanisms for opening the valve
2. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
shaft, a driven shaft, means for connecting the
driving shaft to the driven shaft for rotative
movement and movable to advance or retard
to admit ?uid under pressure to the ?uid power
means,
the driven shaft with respect to the driving shaft,
'
7. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
?uid power means for moving the connecting ‘
shaft,ra driven shaft,‘ means for connecting the
means axially for retarding or advancing the
driven shaft, a valve for admitting ?uid under
pressure to the power means, a control for said
driving. shaft to the driven shaft for rotative
movement and movable to advance or retard the
driven shaft with respect to the driving shaft,
valve and power means including a pair of op
?uid power means for moving the connecting
posed ?yball mechanisms, and including a mem ‘ill means axially for retarding or advancing the
ber movable in response to the movement of the
‘driven shaft, a valve for admitting ?uid under
?yball mechanisms for opening the valve to ad
pressure to the power means, a control for said
‘valve and power means including a pair of par
mit ?uid under pressure to the ?uid power means.
3. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
allel shafts drivably‘ connected to the driving
shaft, a ?yball mechanism mounted on each shaft
in opposed relation, and a member movable in
, shaft,
spiral cam
a driven
connection
shaft, for
a longitudinally
connecting themovable
driving
response to the movement of the ?yball mech
anisms for opening the valve to admit ?uid under
shaft to the driven shaft for rotative movement
and for advancing or retarding the driven shaft
with respect to the driving shaft, ?uid power
means for moving the connection axially for re
tarding or advancing the driven shaft, a valve
for admitting ?uid under pressure to the power
.52)
'
pressure to the ?uid power means.
8. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
shaft, a driven shaft, a longitudinally movable
spiral cam connection for connecting the driving
shaft to the driven shaft for rotative movement
and for advancing or retarding the driven shaft
with respect to the driving shaft, ?uid power
means for moving the spiral cam connection for
retarding or advancing the driven shaft, a valve
for admitting ?uid under pressure to the power
means,‘ a control for said valve and power means
including a pair of opposed ?yball mechanisms,
and including a member movable in response to
the movement of the ?yball mechanisms for
opening the valve to admit ?uid under pressure
to the ?uid power means.
4. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
shaft, a driven shaft, means for connecting the
means, a control for said valve and power means
including a pair of parallel shafts drivably con
nected to the driving shaft, a ?yball mechanism
mounted on each shaft in opposed relation, and
a member movable in response to the movement
driving shaft to the driven shaft for rotative
movement and movable to advance or retard the
driven shaft with respect to the driving shaft,
fluid power means for moving the ?rst said
of the ?yball mechanisms for opening the valve
means, a valve for admitting ?uid under pressure
to admit ?uid to the ?uid power means.
9. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
shaft, a driven shaft‘, means for connecting the
driving shaft to the driven shaft for rotative
‘movement and movable to advance or retard the
to the power means, said power means includ
ing a stationary piston and a cylinder movable
in follow-up in accordance with the position of
said valve, a control for said valve and power
driven shaft with respect to the driving shaft,
fluid power means for moving the ?rst said
means including a pair of opposed ?yball mech
anisms, and including a member movable in re
sponse to the movement 'of the ?yball mecha
nisms for opening the valve to admit ?uid under
pressure to the ?uid power means.
'
. 5. vIn a device of the class described,'ia driving
means, a valve for admitting ?uid under pressure
to the power means, said power means including
a‘ stationary piston and a cylinder movable in
' follow-up in accordance with the position of said
2,411,290
11
valve, a control for said valve and power means
including a pair of parallel shafts drivably con
nected to the driving shaft, a ?yball mechanism
mounted on each shaft in opposed relation, and
a member movable in response to the movement
of the ?yball mechanisms for opening the valve
to admit ?uid to the ?uid power means.
10. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
I)
power means, a centrifugal control for said valve
and power means, said control comprising a driv
ing shaft, an axially movable sleeve mounted on
said driving shaft, a ?rst ?yball mechanism se
cured to the driving shaft and operative to move
the sleeve axially, an axially movable second fly
ball mechanism rotatably connected to said driv
ing shaft operative to tend to move said sleeve
in the opposite direction, biasing means for urging
the second ?yball mechanism toward the ?rst
shaft, a driven shaft, means for connecting the
driving shaft to the driven shaft for rotative
movement and movable to advance or retard the
driven shaft‘ with respect to the driving shaft,
?uid power means for moving the ?rst said
?yball mechanism, and a member movable in re
sponse to the movement of the second ?yball
mechanism for opening the valve to admit ?uid
means, a valve for admitting ?uid under pres
sure to the power means, a control for said valve
under pressure to the fluid power means.
14. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
and power means including a pair of opposed
shaft, a driven shaft, axially movable means for
connecting the driving shaft to the driven shaft
shaft and each having an axially movable part
for rotative movement and for advancing or re
terminating in a'helix of opposite hand from that
tarding the driven shaft with respect to the driv
of the other, a rotatable but longitudinally sta 20 ing shaft, ?uid power means for moving the ?rst
tionary coupling matching and connecting said
said means, a valve for admitting ?uid under
pressure to the power means, a centrifugal con
helixes, and a member movable in response to the
axial movement of one of the centrifugal mecha
trol for said valve and power means, said control
comprising a governor shaft driven by said driv
nisms for opening the valve to admit ?uid under
pressure to the ?uid power means.
ing shaft, an axially movable sleeve mounted
11. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
thereon, a first ?yball mechanism secured to the
governor shaft and operative to move the sleeve
shaft, a driven shaft, means for connecting the
driving shaft to the driven shaft for rotative
axially, an axially movable second ?yball mech
moves ent and movable to advance or retard the
anism rotatably connected to said governor shaft
driven shaft with respect to the driving shaft,
‘operative to, tend to move said sleeve in the op
fluid power means for moving the ?rst said
posite direction, biasing means for urging the sec
means, a valve for admitting ?uid under pressure
ond ?yball mechanism toward the ?rst ?yball
to the power means, said power means including
mechanism, and a member movable in response
a stationary piston and a cylinder movable in
to the movement of the second ?yball mecha
follow-up in accordance with the position of said 35 nism for opening the valve to admit fluid under
valve, a control for said valve and power means
pressureto the ?uid power means.
including a pair of opposed centrifugal mecha
15. In an aircraftgun synchronizer, a driving
nisms secured to the driving shaft and each hav
shaft, a driven shaft, axially movable means for
ing an axially movable part terminating in a
connecting the driving shaft to the driven shaft
helix of opposite hand from that of the other, 40 for rotative movement and for advancing or re
a rotatable but'longitudinally stationary coupling
tarding the driven shaft with respect to the driv
matching and connecting said helixes, and a
ing shaft, ?uid power means for moving the first
member movable in response to the movement of
said means, a valve for admitting ?uid under
the ?yball mechanisms for opening the valve to
pressure to the power means, said power means
admit fluid under pressure to the fluid power
including a stationary piston and a cylinder mov
centrifugal mechanisms secured to the driving
means.
able in follow-up in accordance with the position .
12. In a device of the class described, a driving
of said valve, a centrifugal control for said valve
member, a driven member, means for connecting
and power means, said control comprising a driv
the driving member to the driven member for
ing shaft, an axially movable sleeve mounted on
rotative movement and movable to advance or 50 said driving shaft, a ?rst ?yball mechanism se
retard the driven member with respect to the
cured to the driving shaft and operative to move
driving member, a servo motor for moving said
the sleeve axially, an axially movable second fly
means, a valve for controlling said servo motor,
ball mechanism rotatably connected to said driv
a centrifugal control for said valve and servo
ing shaft operative to tend to move said sleeve
motor, said control comprising a governor shaft
in the opposite direction, biasing means for urg
driven by said driving member, an axially mov
ing the second ?yball mechanism toward the ?rst
able sleeve mounted on the governor shaft, a
?yball mechanism, and a member movable in
?rst flyball mechanism secured to the governor
response to the movement of the second ?yball
shaft and operative to move the sleeve axially,
mechanism for opening the valve to admit ?uid
an axially movable second ?yball mechanism ro
under pressure to the fluid power means.
tatably connected to said governor shaft opera
16. A speed responsive device comprising a ro
tive to tend to move said sleeve in the opposite
tatable shaft, a centrifugal governor driven by
direction, biasing means for urging the second
the shaft and having a member axially movable
?yball mechanism toward the ?rst ?yball mech
upon variations in the speed of said shaft, a sec
anism, and a member movable in response to the
ond centrifugal governor driven by the shaft and
movement of ‘the second ?yball mechanism for
having a member axially movable upon variations
opening the valve to admit ?uid to the servo
in the speed of said shaft, a control element, and
motor.
means operatively connecting said members to
13. In an aircraft gun synchronizer, a driving
the element to move it in response to a given
shaft, a driven shaft, means for connecting the 70 change in speed of said shaft but ineffective to
driving shaft to the driven shaft for rotative
move the element in response to change in ac
movement and movable to advance or retard the
celeration of the speed device.
driven shaft with respect to the driving shaft,
fluid'power means for moving the ?rst said means,
1?. A speed responsive device for use on a ve
hicle comprising a rotatable shaft, a pair of cen
a valve for admitting ?uid under pressure to the 75 trifugal governors driven by the shaft, and a
2,411,290
13
trifugal governors driven by the shaft, a control
element, and means connecting the governors to
the element to operate said element, said gover
control element operatively connected to said
governors to be moved thereby in response to
variations in shaft speed, said governors being
so disposed relative to each other and to the ele
ment that acceleration of the vehicle will tend to
nors and means being so arranged that inertia
effects of one governor resulting from change in
velocity of the vehicle tend to move the element
in one direction and the inertia effects of the
other governor tends to move the element in the
move one of the governors to a position corre
sponding to an increased shaft speed and will
tend to move the other governor to a position
corresponding to a decreased shaft speed.
18. A speed responsive device for use on a ve
hicle comprising a rotatable shaft, a pair of cen
opposite direction.
10
GEORGE W. PONTIUS, III.
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