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Патент USA US2411294

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Nov, 199 1946,
2,411,294
R. RUEGG
THERMAL POWER PLANT
Filed Aug; 28, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
(I "
20
11
M W“
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l'nuex?or
10 ‘
Rudolf Ruegg
B9
.
A?ornegs
Nov, 19, 1946.
R. RUEGG
’
2,411,294
THERMAL POWER PLANT
' Filed Aug. 28, 1944
2 Sheets-“Sheet 2
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“31' I
Inueniov
“ Rudolf Ruegg
By
Ai-t'orneg
¥atented av. 19, £945
2,411,294
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atlases
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rowan rr
Rudolf lituegg, Zurich, Switzerland, assignor to
Aktiengesellschatt Fuer Technische Studien,_
Zurich, Switzerland, a corporation of Switzer~
land
Application August 28, 1944, Serial No. 551,610 .
in Switzerland July 17, 1943 ‘
7 Qiaims.
This invention relates to a thermal power plant
in which a gaseous working medium describes a
circuit, whereby it is brought to a higher temper
ature by an indirect supply of heat from an out
side source in a heater connected to at least one
gas producer, then expanded for the purpose of
(m. 358-4.)
2
of the air'supplied to the producer those tem
peratures can be reached in the latter which are
required for removal of the ash in liquid form.
Such gas producers offer the advantage that they
can be designed of smaller dimensions than ordi
nary producers and that owing to the liquid ash
giving up energy externally and afterwards again
extraction it is possible to remove a higher per
brought to a higher pressure before entering the
centage of the slag than in ordinary producers,
heater. By the installation of a gas producer
so that correspondingly less ash particles are con
in plants of this type, the use also of cheap coal lid tained in the heating gases'actually generated.
which has not been subject to any preparation
When gasifying fuels having a high water con
process, as also fuels with a high water. content,
tent and which have not been previously dried,
such as lignite and the like, becomes possible, so
the ‘humidity contained in said fuel is given off
that the range of application of these plants can
to the heating gases generated ‘in the gas pro
be greatly extended.
'
15 ducer. In view of this it is advisable to provide
The object of the invention is to improve the
between the gas producer and the heater some
economy-of such plants by as complete a utiliza
‘means for cooling and purifying the heating
tion as possible of the heat contained in the ?ue
gases, wherein the water vapour and tarry prod
gases of the heater provided ‘for the heating of
ucts contained in these gases can be separated.
the ‘working medium. For this purpose according 20 Separation of the water vapour offers the advan
to the present invention the heating system of
tage that the heating value of the gas can be
the heater, wherein heat from an external source a raised which again is insofar important as the
is supplied to the working medium,‘ is (viewed in
maximum efficiency attainable in the heater of a
the direction of flow of the ?ue gases) followed
thermal power plant is largely dependent on the
by heating systems which are traversed by at 25 calori?c value of the fuel and ‘becomes greater
least the greater part of the fresh air to be sup
the higher the calori?c value of the heating gas.
plied to the gas producer, further by the heating
Two preferred embodiments of this invention
gas obtained in said producer and also by at least _' are illustrated by way of example and in a. sim
the greater. part of the air required in the heater
pli?ed mode of representation inpthe accompany
for the combustion of said heating gas. In a 80 ing drawings in which:
heater of this__kind the flue gas temperature can
Fig. 1 shows a thermal power plant comprise
be lowered to a very considerable extent and a
ing a gas producer in which the heating gas
good e?lciency thus attained therein.
issuing from the latter is cooled and puri?ed, and
In gas heaters for thermal power plants of the
‘ Fig. 2 athermal power. plant with gas producer
kind referred to with a closed circuit for the work 85 in which two heat exchangers ‘are combined with
ing medium and regeneration of the heat con
means for cooling and purifying the heating gases
tained in the exhaust of the turbine, the waste
issuing from the gas producer.
gas temperature of the ?ue gases is mostly high,
In Fig. l the numerali denotes a heater in‘
for example higher than in steam boilers; The
which a working medium, preferably air, describ
proposed combination and ‘concentration of all 40 ing a closed cycle in a thermal power plant, is
volumes of air and gas that have to be heated,
to be heated. The heating of this working me~
permits also in such plants said high waste gas
dium takes place in a surface heat exchanger,
temperature occurring in the air heater being
illustrated as a tubular heat exchanger 2 over
reduced to a considerable extent and the economy
-which play the combustion gases generated in
of the plant increased as a result. At the same 45 a manner subsequently described herein. .Ex-'
time new possibilities for the operation of the
changer 2 is the main heater for thepuworking
gas producer are realized. which are only possible
medium. Heating of‘ the“ working medium in
in the proposed combination with the air heater.
heater 9 can conveniently be e?‘ected up to at
The air required in the gas producer can in
least 500° C.‘ The working medium thus heated
, this way be raised in the heater to a temperature 69 passes through a pipe 3 into a turbine 4 where it.
of at least 400° C. This makes it possible to use
expands whilst giving up energy to a machine 5
in the producer even fuels with a high water con
which, for example. can take the form of an elec-‘
tent such, as for example lignite (brown coal)
without a previous drying process being-neces
tric generator. The turbine 4 simultaneously
drives a turbo-compressor .6. The expanded
sary. Furthermore with such high temperatures 55 working medium issuing from the turbine B
2,411,294
The device for cooling and purifying the heat
subdivided into two halves 23, 29 to which cool-‘
ing water is supplied through .pipes 30 and 3|.- '
In each of the halves 23, 29 a surface heat ex
heat exchanger 3. After, having given up heat
in the heat exchanger 8 theexpanded- working
changer‘with vertically arranged'tubes 32 and 33
is disposed through which the heating gases to
medium passes-through a pipe‘ Iii and acoolerjii1
heater],
‘
-
~
-
'
'
I
1,0
be cooled pass as a parallel current. These func
tion as ‘gas coolers, and are arranged above the
outlet of the cooling water supply pipes 30 and
3| respectively. In the heat exchanger 33 the
' heating gases give up heat to the fresh air which .
?ows in through a pipe 34 and when heating has
taken place passes through a pipe 35 into .the.
tubular surface heat exchanger 4|. On the other
-
The-‘numeral l2v'denotes a gas ‘producer‘that
' is designed for-removal of the ash in liquid form
I and to which fresh air is supplied through a pipe
.
,
.
ing gases issuing from the gas producer 40 is , ,
. ?ows through a pipe 9 from compressor 3 to this
‘into the compressor 6, whilst ‘the working me
dlllmi-Of highertpressure, which has taken up
heatin the‘ heat exchanger ; 8, passes through a
pipe-ii into the tubular, heat‘ exchanger 2 of the
4
within the cooler employed for the heating gases. >
passcs‘througha pipe "I into a siirface heat ex
changer 8 of the counter-current type. where it
gives‘up heat to‘the. working medium that has
beencompressed by the compressor 6 and which
hand in heat exchanger 32 the ; heating gases
I3.' The heating gas generated in this producer
that have to be cooled give up heat to the gases
I2 passes through a coolerand puri?er l4 into
that have already been cooled and puri?ed by
‘a pipe; I! and then into a heating system de
the
extraction of water and tarry products; the
20
signed in the form {of a- tubular surface heat
last mentioned gases after having taken up heat
exchanger l6, which" is disposed within the heat
in the exchanger 32 pass through a pipe 33 to
er~l and,‘with_ respectto the direction of flow
the tubular surface heat exchanger 42. Since
ofvfthe ?ue gases, is‘v arranged beyond the heat
the heating gases that have to be cooled only
exchanger 2.‘ The heating gas, the temperature
come in contact with the cooling water after hav-.
of which has‘been'f raised in the heat exchanger 25 ing
passed'through the heat exchangers 32 and
~i6,’p'asses throughfa pipe I‘! to a burner I8 of
33, said water only has to carry off .a relatively
- This burner It! also receives pre
1 thezh'eater ,I.
The
small amount of heat. Since fresh air and not ,
fresh-air required for the operation of the gas
' cproducer vl2 and of the burner I8 is supplied
The tarry products and the water which con- -
viously ‘heated I‘ fresh ‘air through a pipe
IS.
merely-the puri?ed heating gases take up heat,
mixture _ _ of "generated gas and preheated fresh
which becomes available during condensation of
the
30
air¥is¥burnt"'in-the burner l8 and provides
. combustion gases required for heating the [work - the water vapour in the heating gases issuing
from the gas producer, it is ensured that this
‘ing, medium ‘of the thermal power plant; The
heat is utilized to the best possible extent. I
through a pipe 20 and passes from the latter, 35 dense can easily ?ow down the vertical tubes
of the heat exchangers 32 and 33. The neces
if not 1 always entirely, at least for the greater
sary measures must be taken to ensure that these
part, into a heating system 2! designed as a_ tu
heat exchangers 32, 33 can be easily installed
bular surface heat exchanger, which is likewise
and removed and their tubes easily cleaned.
accommodated‘in the heater i and, with respect
to the direction of flow of the flue gases, is ar 40 In'Fig. 2‘ the heater 45, burner 46 and main
surface heat exchanger 61 are structurally and
ranged beyond the heat exchanger i6 and thus
functionally similar to the parts I,‘ I8 and 2 of
also beyond the main heat exchanger, 2. The
‘fresh air heated in the heat exchanger 2| “passes t
into-a pipe 22 from which the fresh-air pipe it
leading'to the producer i2 and the freshgair pipe 45
iqxleading to the burner I8 branch off. The nu»
meraisi 23 and 24 denote adjustable control de
hi'ough which a part of the fresh air sup
Fig. 1.
What is claimed is:
‘
1. The combination of a. gas producer having
an‘air inlet connection; means forming a fur- ,.
I nace chamber and a passage for leading prod
nets of combustion from said chamber: a main
heat exchanger of the surface type in said cham- hrough pipe 20 by-passes ‘the heat Vex
r 2| and can gain access direct to pipe i3 B0 her, said exchanger having inlet and discharge
connections for passing therethrough a gaseous
ipe‘ IS.‘ The by-pass‘is indicated at 44. In
an
medium which is to'be heated; a burner arranged
I 5thisnianner the ?nal ‘temperature of the volumes
to deliver heat to said main exchanger, said
cram required in the gas producer l2 and burner
burner having an inlet connection for combus
18:3‘; an’fbe in?uenced independently of one an
tible gas and an inlet connection for combustion
other The cooling in cooler l4 of the gases is
air; two surface heat exchangers in said passage;
» suing'from producer i2 is effected by water, which
tubular means for conducting gas from the pro- “
is: su‘ plied through a pipe 25, and‘e?’ects con
’ ducer to one of said two exchangers and thence
' 'dens'jation of the water vapour and vtarry prod
,uc'tsicontained in the heating gases. The water ' to the gas connection of the burner; and tubular
collecting at the bottom of cooler l4 ?ows away 60 means for conducting combustion air to the other _
of said two exchangers and thence to the air
,througha pipe 28, whilst the tarry products pass
inlet connections of said burner and producer.
through‘ a pipe 21‘ to pipe l3, where they mix
“ _ with-hot fresh air; as a result the tarry products
2. The combinationde?ned in claim 1 in which
the products of combustion discharging through
evaporate and thus are reconveyed into the ‘gas
Pro _' ’cer»il_2. The heating gases passing to heat 65 said passage contact ?rst the exchanger through
ex'ch
at
e‘riglB from cooler-l4 are relatively cold
.re'fore can, extract a‘ relatively large
auto
'f?heat from thef'?uegases of heater I.
changer through which combustion air ?ows.
3. The combination of a gas producer having
an air inlet connection; means forming a fur
this heater operates with a good e?i
owever, the losses involved by the cool 70 nace chamber and a passage for leading products
rciéhv
ingioi'
‘avoi,
‘
eij'heating gases in‘ cooler i4 can not be
11'
.
,
‘a
ction .in losses of .the kind just referred
of combustion from s'aid chamber; a main heat
exchanger of the surface type in said chamber, -
said exchanger having inlet and discharge con
nections tor passing therethrough a gaseous
the manner illustrated in Fig. 2 75 medium which is to be heated; a burner arranged
an be‘brought about if heat exchangers are
'
which gas ~?ows to the burner and then the ex-' '
v
2,411,294
5
.
6
,
it
‘to deliver heat to said main exchanger, said
nections for passing therethrough a gaseous
‘burner having an inlet connection for combus
medium which is to be heated; a burner arranged
tible gas and an inlet connection for combustion
to deliver heat to said main exchanger, said
air; two surface heat exchangers in said passage;
burner having an inlet connection for combus
tubular means for conducting gas from the pro
tible gas and an inlet connection for-combustion
- ducer to one of said two exchangers and thence
air; two surface heat exchangers in said passage;
to the gas connection of the burner; tubular
tubular means for conducting gas from said gas
means for conducting combustion air to the other
puri?er to one of said two surface heat ex
of said two exchangers and thence to the air in
changers and thence to the gas connection of
let connections of said burner and producer, said 10 the burner; and tubular means for conducting
tubular means including lay-passes leading past
combustion air to said gas cooler, from the gas
said other exchanger- to each of said air inlet
cooler to the other of said two exchangers, and
connections; and individually adjustable valves '
thence to the air inlet connections of said burner
controlling flow through respective by-passes.
and producer.
'
‘
4. The combination of a gas producer having 15
6. The combination de?ned in claim 5 in which ‘
an air inlet connection; means forming a furnace
. means are provided to discharge tarry products
chamber and a passage for leading products of
intercepted by the gas puri?er into air ?owing
" combustion from said chamber; a main heat ex
to the air inlet of the producer.
changer of‘ the surface type in, said chamber,‘
7. The combination of a gas producer having
said-exchanger having inlet and discharge con 20 an air inlet and a gas discharge; two sur
nections for passing ‘ therethrough a gaseous
face type gas coolers connected in parallel to re
medium which is to be heated; a burner arranged
ceive and cool gas discharging from the producer;
to deliver heat to said main exchanger, said
a gas puri?er connected to receive cooled gas dis- burner having an inlet connection for combustible
charging from said cooler; means forming a fur
gas and an inlet connection for combustion air; 25 nace chamber and a passage for leading prod
‘ two surface heat exchangers in said passage; tu
bular means for conducting gas from the pro
ducer to one of said two exchangers and thence
- nets of combustion from said chamber; a, main
heat exchanger of the suriace'type in said cham
ber, said exchanger having inlet and discharge
to the gas connection of the burner; tubular
connections for passing therethrough a gaseous
means for conducting combustion air to the air 30 medium which is to be heated; a burner arranged
inlet connectionsof said burner and producer,
to deliver heat to said main exchanger, said
and for causing at least a part of said air to pass
burner having an inlet connection for combus»
through the other of said two exchangers; and
tible gas and an inlet connection for combustion
individually adjustable means for‘regulating the
air; two surface heat exchangers in saidpas
extent to which air delivered by said connections 35 sage; means including tubular connections for
to the burner and to the producer, respectively,
conducting, gas from said gas puri?er, ?rst
is heated.
a
,
through one gas cooler to absorb heat from hot
5. The combination of a gas producer having
gas
being‘ cooled, then through one of said two
an air inlet connection and'a gas discharge; a
surface type gas cooler connected to receive and 40 surface heat exchangers, and thence to the gas
connection of the burner; and tubular means for
cool gas discharging from the producer; a gas
conducting
combustion air to the other of said
puri?er connected to receive cooled gas discharg
gas coolers, to absorb heat from gas being cooled,
ing from said cooler; means forming a furnace
' then through the other of said two surface heat
chamber and a passage for leading products of
exchangers, and thence to the air inlet connec
combustion from‘ said chamber; a‘ mainv heat
tions of said burner and producer.
'
exchanger of the surface type in said chamber,
said exchanger having inlet and discharge con
RUDOLF RUEGG.
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