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Nov. 19, 1946. w. H. VAN GAASBEEK' 2,411,306 PELORUS Filed Jan. 20, 1944_ 4 Sheets-Sheet l INVEN TOR. WILLIAM H. VAN GAASBEEK, BY ATTORNEY NW. 19, 1946- w. H. VAN GAASBEEK 2,411,306 PELORUS Filed Jan. 20, 1944 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. BY WILLIAM H. VAN GAASBEEK‘ m'mamm _ NW- 19, 1946- w. H. VAN GAASBEEK ‘ - 2,411,306 PELORUS Filed Jan. 20, 1944 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 171111.111’!!! I l I I| 30 42 i I 10 /l/49 1 I ‘I 1w ‘my ' - |l 333m." I] i‘'l 5 60 . 25 ""1 wumlmr?i‘x‘“ .59 1 22 -— 5 - Ha I H.‘ I I I \\\ L\sa \\\\ INVENTOR. BY WILLIAM H . VAN GAASBEEK, ATTORNEY Nov; 19, 1946. 2,411,306 W. H._ VAN GAASBEEK PELORUS Filed Jan. 20, 1944 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 _ w”a”” INVENTOR. 4 - WILLIAM H.-VAN GAASBEEK, BY FIG. 7. ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 19, 1946 2,411,306 U N l T ED" STATE S PATENT? OFF 1 CE " ' ' 2,411,306 PELORUS ' ’ William H‘. Van- Gaasbeek, Short Hills, N. J. Application J anuary 20, 1944, Serial No. 519,011 10v Claims. (Cl. 24.0—2.1) 2 This. invention relates: to: a nautical instrument centrally-disposed light passage means, to direct the light, onto the dial; According to- a,‘ structurally more fully de?ned feature, centrally disposed light passage means known; as a. pelorus: by means of V which the navi_ gatornof a-vesset can take its bearings through a sighting; device, the so-called “alidade”' which is rotatable over a horizontal reference dial. comprise a light penetrable or substantially trans parent or. translucent ?at or disc-like element More speci?cally, this ‘invention relates to’ means. for lighting. the: peloru:~ '"al. for ‘"‘ght ob servation. interposed between the dial-and a shielding plate; ‘ » in a more speci?c embodiment the combination It; isv among‘ the objects ofthis invention to of‘ dial, transparent element, and shielding plate provide;- lighting means for a non-transparent dial, 10 constitute a unit or sub-assembly unit, these parts which means; are outwardly‘ substantially non being‘ connected or‘ ?xed with respect to one an revealing, and yet: make possible a clearr accu other. rate, and convenient reading of the dial; whereby The -object of brightening the reference marks the observer is not blinded by the light; and or-lubber lines is attained by providing transpar which means are- sturdy and shatterproof. An 15 em; or translucent insertw portions in the frame other object: is to provide means in association illuminated from underneath. , withanon-transparent dial, which make possible According to one feature, a translucent or clear readings for day as wellasnight observa tion.‘ Apel‘orus usually comprises an‘ annular frame transparent portion of ‘the frame bears on it the respective reference markin such a manner as .to appear dark against a luminous background at upon which the dial‘ is mounted in such a‘manner that it can be rotatably adjusted and ?xed rela tive- to the “lubber lines” or other reference marks provided‘on- the frame. night. or fixed‘ markings-are illuminated due. to their being placed upon the annular frame portion so It is further among the objects to; brighten; the ' that they will also be in the path of the light being thrown ont'othe dial from the central por tion thereof. Other features relate to the means providing a ?xed markings or. lubberv lines for night. obser vation'; Some of the objects involving the brightening of the non-transparent dial member/areattained by providing upwardly shielded light passage 5 means e?ective to pass indirect light onto thedial either byway of the central portion or from the margin of the dial member. More speci?cally, such objects are attained by having a light penetrab-le member associated with l‘\ the dial member and with a light source disposed underneath the dial member in such. a manner as to allow light to pass from the source through a light penetrable member onto the dial. According to one feature, brightening, of the dial is attained by providing alight source under neath the dial. and upwardly shielded light pas sage means at the center portion of the dial and disposed underneath the alidade, which means are effective to throw indirect light radiating across or onto the non-transparent dial, the dial having a dished or conical marginal portion in the. path of the indirect light brightening the dial gradu . According to. another feature, the lubber lines Li light source in the peloru‘s; In a speci?c em bodiment the light source is self-contained and unitary with the pelorus, in that one or a plu rality of dry cell batteries are unitary with the pelorus, for lighting" an electric bulb serving as the light‘ source. The invention possesses other objects and fea tures of advantage, some of‘ which with the fore going will be set forth in the following descrip tion. In the following description and in the claims, parts will be identi?ed‘by speci?c names for convenience, but they are intended to be as generic in- their application to similar parts as the art will mrmit. In the accompanying draw ings therehas been illustrated the best embodi ment of the invention known to me, but such em bodiment is to be regarded‘ as typical only of many possible embodiments, and the invention is not to be limited thereto. . or conductingmedium. is associated withcentrally ' ' The novel features considered characteristic of my invention are set, forth with particularity in the‘ appended claims. The invention itself, how disposed light passage means of the dial, to direct light onto the dial. of operation, together with additional objects and ations, , According to another feature,‘ a light penetrable ever, both as to. its organization and its method According to another feature, a light de?ecting advantages thereof ,, will. best be. understoodfrom or breaking conical: surface is associated, with 5.5 the following description of aspeci?c. embodiment 2,41 ‘1,306 3 ing drawings in which Figure 1 is a perspective view of a pelorus em light-conducting disc-like member 36, and the bodying improvements of the invention. shielding plate 4!] are held together as a sub-as ' sembly unit by screws 42. As the central por tion of the dial member 36 seats onto the hub Figure 2 is a top view of the device shown in Fig. 1. ‘ Figure 3 is a longitudinal part sectional view of the pelorus shown in Fig. 1. Figure in an enlarged sectional Viewof the dial portion and associated parts. ' Figure 4a is a modi?cation of the dial arrange ment of Fig. 4. portion Ila, the conical marginal portion will come to restupon a corresponding conical seating - 1 10 face 43 upon the rim portion I l. I ' Further surrounding the sleeve portion 21 is a washer 44 upon which rests the rotatable sighting - device or so-called alidade 45 which is swingable Figure 5 shows the parts of Fig. 4 drawn apart. - with respect to the dial member, but can be ?xed Figure 6 is a cross sectional view taken along the lines 6-6 in Fig. 3. ~ . 15 A key washer 41 is interposed between'thelalidade 45 and the thumb nut 46, the key 48 of the washer engaging in the vertical ' Figures 8 and 9 are sectional and plan View groove 29 of sleeve portion 21. respectively of a disc-like translucent element in ' its relation to the light source underneath, illus in a‘set position relative to the dial by tightening a thumb nut 46. Figure 7 shows a detailed portion of the light ing ?xture embodied in the device. 4 shown to be of larger diameter than the light conducting disc, so as to provide an overhanging marginal portion 4|. The dial member 36, the when read in connection with the accompany 20 'trating how the light is directed therethrough. Figures 10 and 11 are enlarged perspective de tailed portions illustrating ‘two modi?cations in The dial member 36 is rotatably adjustable about the stud 22, but‘can be ?xed in adjusted position by tightening up on a second thumb nut 49 which ?ts the thread on stud 22. The ‘nut 49 when tightened engages the top end of the sleeve portion 2‘! ?xing the dial member in an adjusted position relative to the lubber lines on frame l0. Loosening the upper thumb nut 49 while the lower thumb nut 46 is tight, leaves the alidade locked to the dial member by way of the threaded rim portion with the hub portion (see also Fig ures 4 and 5). The rim portion II is shown to tall sleeve portion 21. That is to say, the dial mem the arrangement of the illuminated lubber lines or reference marks on the frame. The pelorus as shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, com prises a frame l0 having a rim portion l I, a hub portion Ha, and radial arms l2‘ connecting the ' bear markings such as the lubber lines l3, I4,‘ I 5‘, [6, as Well as a pair of auxiliary markings l'l‘a'nd ber 36v and the alidade are then rotatable as‘ a unit about the stud 22. Loosening. of the lower ‘thumb nut 46 and tightening of the upper thumb. nut 49 ?xes the dial member on the frame l6, of transparent or translucent material, for in- ' ' leaving the alidade 45 free to be turned in taking the sight. The alidade can then-‘be ?xed in the stance, a composition such as “Lucite,” ?tted into Sighting‘ position'by tightening-the nut‘ 46. i‘To ‘a corresponding recess of the rim' portion II. theunderside of the alidade is attached by means The insert portion 19 thus ?ts into the contours of screws 56 a light shielding skirt 5| extending of the rim portion (see also Fig. 10) , and‘is shown over about half the circumference of the light to be provided with a radial groove or'notch 2U ‘emitting space between medial and the shielding ?lled with suitable material or paint to indicate the lubber line proper. However, the lubber line The'alidade 45 itself is of a'known construc may also be marked in some other suitable man tion‘ comprising the beam 52, the hinged sighting ner on the insert portion. Each of the auxiliary member 53 on one end of the beam, the opposite markings H and i8 (seealso Fig. 11) are placed sighting member .54 hinged on the other end of ‘upon a translucent slightly conical insert por the beam together with the hinged sky mirror 55, tion 2| ?tted into a correspondingly shaped hole and the balance 56. ' The frame 15 is shown to be extending somewhat diagonally and downwardly suspended in'a gimbal ring 51. ' through the rim portion II. This auxiliary in Surrounding the frame 'I 0 at the underside is a sert'portion also ?ts itself into the ‘contours of casing 58 fastened to the frame H! as by screws the rim portion II. The hub portion Ila has a 59, and comprising a cylindrical portion 60’, a, marginal circular seat portion 25 provided with '18 straddling the lubber line 16. The lubber lines proper are each marked on an insert portion IQ plate‘46. an internal circular‘seating face 26. - - = ~ " . = . ' conical portion 6 I, and'a bottom portion 62. The bottom portion 62 has an inwardly and upwardly From the hub portion Ha rises a stud 22 "?xed 'crimped portion or neck portion'63 constituting Over the stud 22 ?ts loosely a sleeve thereto. an oval opening‘ 64 (see also Fig. 6)_'in the bottom portion 21 having external thread 28 and a ver of‘the ‘casing. ' This opening is closed by a cover tical external key groove 29. This sleeve mem plate 65 heldv down to the bottom‘ of the casing as ber 21 is ?xed to and constitutes in turn the hub by screws 66, and provided with a marginal skirt portion of a dial member 30 having a center por tion 3! provided with an outer circular bevel face 60 ‘portion 6?. In this cover plate is mounted a ‘lighting ?xture comprising an electric bulb 63‘,- a 32 seatable upon the inner bevel face 26 of hub socket 69 therefor, an insulating member 16, and portion I la. The dial member as shownhas'a a pair of contact springs ‘H. Attached or fixed horizontal or flat body portion 33 and an outer to the bottom of the casing is a plate orlmounting conical portion 34 upon which are marked the ‘l2 having'a pair'of cylindrical hollow portions or ‘ ‘graduations of the circle. The ?at portion 33 .of ‘the dial, has light passage openings 35 of ade quate size. overlying the light passage openings .is ,adisc-like member 36 of transparent or trans ijlucent’or light conducting material having on \ the upper ‘side. a circular groove 31 de?ned by the vertical‘ face 38 and the conical face 39 which latter serves as a light-de?ecting face in a man pockets ‘l3 and 14, each of said pockets adapted to receive and hold a dry cell battery l5 having at the top a contact 76 engaging contact spring ll, and removable from the pocket by reason of a. removable bottom element ‘ll of the pocket.‘ A 'coiled" spring 18 is tensioned between the bottom element 71 and the dry cell 15'. _, _ g ner thatwill be further described. ‘~ "Covering the disc-like light 'penetrable mem A removable transparent shell or protective casing '19 surrounds the electric bulb 68," and it "ber 36 is‘ia'n opaque round shielding plate 40 is held inplace by being ?tted over a slight hub 2,411,806 5 6 like elevation 80 forming part of the cover . plate 65. face, light-shielding means overlying said light conducting member, an alidade overlying said One or more drainage holes 8! are provided at the bottom of casing 58 to all-ow for the drainage of water that may have condensed in or other Wise entered the casing 58. An electric switch 82 hollow stem portion, a lower nut on said hollow shielding means and rotatable about said threaded stem portion for ?xing the alidade relative to 'said dial member, an upper nut on said inner stem serves to turn the light on or off. A cable connec portion for ?xing said dial relative to said frame tion 85 (see Fig. l) is shown to indicate the alter and a light source disposed underneath said dial native of using an outside source of electricity in from which light passing through said light pas sage openings and through said light-conducting The operation and use of the pelorus as such is member is adapted to indirectly light said dial by well known and requires no explanation. way of outward horizontal de?ection from 'said in The manner in which the dial and the lubber verted conical face. lines or other markings are rendered visible by the 2. The pelorus according to claim 1, with the lighting means according to one form of this in 15 addition of means for connecting said light-con vention, appears from Figures 3, 8, 10, 11. Some ducting member with said dial to constitute a of the rays from bulb 68 pass upwardly through structural unit. the light passage openings 35 into the translucent 3. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which or transparent material of the disc-like member said shielding means comprise a plate, with the 36, which may be a suitable composition or plastic 20 addition of means for connecting said plate, said such as “Lucite.” A portion of the light (see light light conducting member, and said dial to con stead of the dry cell batteries. 10 rays R1) of bulb 68 strikes the conical face 39 of the circular groove 31 and is deflected into a hori zontal direction so as to light up the dial su?i the shielding means is a plate having a peripheral ciently for the required reading. _The amount or intensity of the light thus emanating from the member. stitute a structural unit. 4. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which overhang with respect to said light-conducting circumference of the member 36 can be modi?ed 5. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which by modifying the shape or extent of the over» the marginal portion of the dial has an inverted hanging portion 41 of the shielding plate 46, or conical marginal portion presenting the dial grad a sector of the circumference can be blanked off or dimmed by a coat of paint or otherwise, or it can be blanked off as by the light shielding skirt 5| rotating with the alidade. Some other portion of the light (see light rays R2) emanating from the bulb 68 reaches the in uatio-ns at an angle to the horizontal direction of light emanating from said light-conducting . . sert portions 19 and 2| of the frame ID from un~ member. 6. The pelorus according to claim 1, with the addition of at least one insert portion of light ‘penetrable material disposed at a marginal point of the frame and extending therethrougli from a point below to a point above the adjoining mar ginal portion of the dial, said insert portion being derneath the dial member 3i], passes through these insert portions and appears therein as a dif-y fused light at the surface of the frame 18, fur adapted to light a reference mark directly asso nishing a luminous background for the lubber 40 ciated therewith. lines or marking-s provided on these insert por '7. A pelorus according to claim 1, with the ad tions. dition of a bowl having a bottom opening, ?xed to A modi?ed form of the invention according to and surrounding the underside of the frame and Fig. 4a, shows a frame portion II’ which differs enclosing said light source comprising an electric from the frame portion 1 l of Fig. 4, in that it has 45 bulb, a dry-cell battery for‘the bulb, and means a bevelled or inverted conical face 84 which bears the lubber lines such as the one shown at 85 or for mounting the bulb and the battery, compris ing a cover plate over said opening, a bulb receiv other desired ?xed markings. A flat dial 86 is ing ?xture therein, a container portion extending shown to marginally rest upon the frame portion downwardly from said opening, adapted to receive H’ at the bottom of the bevelled face 84. Other 60 a dry-cell battery. ' wise the construction is similar to that of Fig. 4, 8. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which having arms 12' as part of the frame, a disc-like said light-conducting member is provided at its member 36' of transparent or translucent mate upper side with a groove presenting said conical rial, and a shielding plate 49'. In a modi?ed form, light deflecting face. , both the dial graduations as well as the lubber 55 lines are illuminated by the light emanating from the member 36'. I claim: . 1. A pelorus comprising a frame, having an an 9. As an article of manufacture for use in a pelorus the combination comprising a dial mem ber having light passage openings in the central portion thereof, a light penetrable ?at member overlying said openings and having at its upper nular marginal portion, a central hub portion, 60 side an inverted conical light-de?ecting face, a intermediate portions between the marginal and light shielding plate overlying said member, and the hub portion to constitute light passage open means for interconnecting said dial member, said ings in said frame, and a threaded stem portion ?at member and 'said shielding plate. extending upwardly from said hub portion, a sub 10. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which stantially non-transparent dial member having 65 the dial is flat and has graduations along its pe light passage openings overlying the light passage riphery, and in which the frame portion adjacent openings in said frame, and also having an up to the periphery of the dial has an inverted coni wardly extending outwardly threaded hollow cen cal face provided "with reference markings adapt tral stem portion surrounding said inner stem ed to receive light radiating horizontally from said portion, a light-conducting member overlying the 70 light-conducting member. light passage openings in said dial and having at its upper side an inverted conical light-de?ecting WILLIAM H. VAN GAASBEEK.