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Патент USA US2411306

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Nov. 19, 1946.
Filed Jan. 20, 1944_
4 Sheets-Sheet l
NW. 19, 1946-
Filed Jan. 20, 1944
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
NW- 19, 1946-
Filed Jan. 20, 1944
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Nov; 19, 1946.
Filed Jan. 20, 1944
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
FIG. 7.
Patented Nov. 19, 1946
’ William H‘. Van- Gaasbeek, Short Hills, N. J.
Application J anuary 20, 1944, Serial No. 519,011
10v Claims.
(Cl. 24.0—2.1)
This. invention relates: to: a nautical instrument
centrally-disposed light passage means, to direct
the light, onto the dial;
According to- a,‘ structurally more fully de?ned
feature, centrally disposed light passage means
known; as a. pelorus: by means of V which the navi_
gatornof a-vesset can take its bearings through a
sighting; device, the so-called “alidade”' which is
rotatable over a horizontal reference dial.
comprise a light penetrable or substantially trans
parent or. translucent ?at or disc-like element
More speci?cally, this ‘invention relates to’
means. for lighting. the: peloru:~ '"al. for ‘"‘ght ob
interposed between the dial-and a shielding plate;
» in a more speci?c embodiment the combination
It; isv among‘ the objects ofthis invention to
of‘ dial, transparent element, and shielding plate
provide;- lighting means for a non-transparent dial, 10 constitute a unit or sub-assembly unit, these parts
which means; are outwardly‘ substantially non
being‘ connected or‘ ?xed with respect to one an
revealing, and yet: make possible a clearr accu
rate, and convenient reading of the dial; whereby
The -object of brightening the reference marks
the observer is not blinded by the light; and
or-lubber lines is attained by providing transpar
which means are- sturdy and shatterproof. An 15 em; or translucent insertw portions in the frame
other object: is to provide means in association
illuminated from underneath.
withanon-transparent dial, which make possible
According to one feature, a translucent or
clear readings for day as wellasnight observa
Apel‘orus usually comprises an‘ annular frame
transparent portion of ‘the frame bears on it the
respective reference markin such a manner as .to
appear dark against a luminous background at
upon which the dial‘ is mounted in such a‘manner
that it can be rotatably adjusted and ?xed rela
tive- to the “lubber lines” or other reference marks
provided‘on- the frame.
or fixed‘ markings-are illuminated due. to their
being placed upon the annular frame portion so
It is further among the objects to; brighten; the '
that they will also be in the path of the light
being thrown ont'othe dial from the central por
tion thereof.
Other features relate to the means providing a
?xed markings or. lubberv lines for night. obser
Some of the objects involving the brightening
of the non-transparent dial member/areattained
by providing upwardly shielded light passage 5
means e?ective to pass indirect light onto thedial
either byway of the central portion or from the
margin of the dial member.
More speci?cally, such objects are attained by
having a light penetrab-le member associated with l‘\
the dial member and with a light source disposed
underneath the dial member in such. a manner
as to allow light to pass from the source through
a light penetrable member onto the dial.
According to one feature, brightening, of the
dial is attained by providing alight source under
neath the dial. and upwardly shielded light pas
sage means at the center portion of the dial and
disposed underneath the alidade, which means are
effective to throw indirect light radiating across
or onto the non-transparent dial, the dial having
a dished or conical marginal portion in the. path
of the indirect light brightening the dial gradu
According to. another feature, the lubber lines
light source in the peloru‘s; In a speci?c em
bodiment the light source is self-contained and
unitary with the pelorus, in that one or a plu
rality of dry cell batteries are unitary with the
pelorus, for lighting" an electric bulb serving as
the light‘ source.
The invention possesses other objects and fea
tures of advantage, some of‘ which with the fore
going will be set forth in the following descrip
tion. In the following description and in the
claims, parts will be identi?ed‘by speci?c names
for convenience, but they are intended to be as
generic in- their application to similar parts as
the art will mrmit. In the accompanying draw
ings therehas been illustrated the best embodi
ment of the invention known to me, but such em
bodiment is to be regarded‘ as typical only of
many possible embodiments, and the invention is
not to be limited thereto.
or conductingmedium. is associated withcentrally ' '
The novel features considered characteristic of
my invention are set, forth with particularity in
the‘ appended claims. The invention itself, how
disposed light passage means of the dial, to direct
light onto the dial.
of operation, together with additional objects and
According to another feature,‘ a light penetrable
ever, both as to. its organization and its method
According to another feature, a light de?ecting
advantages thereof ,, will. best be. understoodfrom
or breaking conical: surface is associated, with 5.5 the following description of aspeci?c. embodiment
2,41 ‘1,306
ing drawings in which
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a pelorus em
light-conducting disc-like member 36, and the
bodying improvements of the invention.
shielding plate 4!] are held together as a sub-as
' sembly unit by screws 42. As the central por
tion of the dial member 36 seats onto the hub
Figure 2 is a top view of the device shown in
Fig. 1.
Figure 3 is a longitudinal part sectional view
of the pelorus shown in Fig. 1.
Figure in an enlarged sectional Viewof the
dial portion and associated parts.
Figure 4a is a modi?cation of the dial arrange
ment of Fig. 4.
portion Ila, the conical marginal portion will
come to restupon a corresponding conical seating
- 1
10 face 43 upon the rim portion I l. I
' Further surrounding the sleeve portion 21 is a
washer 44 upon which rests the rotatable sighting
device or so-called alidade 45 which is swingable
Figure 5 shows the parts of Fig. 4 drawn apart. -
with respect to the dial member, but can be ?xed
Figure 6 is a cross sectional view taken along
the lines 6-6 in Fig. 3.
A key washer 41 is interposed
between'thelalidade 45 and the thumb nut 46, the
key 48 of the washer engaging in the vertical
Figures 8 and 9 are sectional and plan View
groove 29 of sleeve portion 21.
respectively of a disc-like translucent element in '
its relation to the light source underneath, illus
in a‘set position relative to the dial by tightening
a thumb nut 46.
Figure 7 shows a detailed portion of the light
ing ?xture embodied in the device.
shown to be of larger diameter than the light
conducting disc, so as to provide an overhanging
marginal portion 4|. The dial member 36, the
when read in connection with the accompany
'trating how the light is directed therethrough.
Figures 10 and 11 are enlarged perspective de
tailed portions illustrating ‘two modi?cations in
The dial member 36 is rotatably adjustable
about the stud 22, but‘can be ?xed in adjusted
position by tightening up on a second thumb nut
49 which ?ts the thread on stud 22. The ‘nut 49
when tightened engages the top end of the sleeve
portion 2‘! ?xing the dial member in an adjusted
position relative to the lubber lines on frame l0.
Loosening the upper thumb nut 49 while the
lower thumb nut 46 is tight, leaves the alidade
locked to the dial member by way of the threaded
rim portion with the hub portion (see also Fig
ures 4 and 5). The rim portion II is shown to tall sleeve portion 21. That is to say, the dial mem
the arrangement of the illuminated lubber lines
or reference marks on the frame.
The pelorus as shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, com
prises a frame l0 having a rim portion l I, a hub
portion Ha, and radial arms l2‘ connecting the '
bear markings such as the lubber lines l3, I4,‘ I 5‘,
[6, as Well as a pair of auxiliary markings l'l‘a'nd
ber 36v and the alidade are then rotatable as‘ a
unit about the stud 22. Loosening. of the lower
‘thumb nut 46 and tightening of the upper thumb.
nut 49 ?xes the dial member on the frame l6,
of transparent or translucent material, for in- ' ' leaving the alidade 45 free to be turned in taking
the sight. The alidade can then-‘be ?xed in the
stance, a composition such as “Lucite,” ?tted into
Sighting‘ position'by tightening-the nut‘ 46. i‘To
‘a corresponding recess of the rim' portion II.
theunderside of the alidade is attached by means
The insert portion 19 thus ?ts into the contours
of screws 56 a light shielding skirt 5| extending
of the rim portion (see also Fig. 10) , and‘is shown
over about half the circumference of the light
to be provided with a radial groove or'notch 2U
‘emitting space between medial and the shielding
?lled with suitable material or paint to indicate
the lubber line proper. However, the lubber line
The'alidade 45 itself is of a'known construc
may also be marked in some other suitable man
tion‘ comprising the beam 52, the hinged sighting
ner on the insert portion. Each of the auxiliary
member 53 on one end of the beam, the opposite
markings H and i8 (seealso Fig. 11) are placed
sighting member .54 hinged on the other end of
‘upon a translucent slightly conical insert por
the beam together with the hinged sky mirror 55,
tion 2| ?tted into a correspondingly shaped hole
and the balance 56. ' The frame 15 is shown to be
extending somewhat diagonally and downwardly
suspended in'a gimbal ring 51.
through the rim portion II. This auxiliary in
Surrounding the frame 'I 0 at the underside is a
sert'portion also ?ts itself into the ‘contours of
casing 58 fastened to the frame H! as by screws
the rim portion II. The hub portion Ila has a
59, and comprising a cylindrical portion 60’, a,
marginal circular seat portion 25 provided with
'18 straddling the lubber line 16.
The lubber lines
proper are each marked on an insert portion IQ
an internal circular‘seating face 26.
conical portion 6 I, and'a bottom portion 62. The
bottom portion 62 has an inwardly and upwardly
From the hub portion Ha rises a stud 22 "?xed
portion or neck portion'63 constituting
an oval opening‘ 64 (see also Fig. 6)_'in the bottom
portion 21 having external thread 28 and a ver
of‘the ‘casing. ' This opening is closed by a cover
tical external key groove 29. This sleeve mem
plate 65 heldv down to the bottom‘ of the casing as
ber 21 is ?xed to and constitutes in turn the hub
by screws 66, and provided with a marginal skirt
portion of a dial member 30 having a center por
tion 3! provided with an outer circular bevel face 60 ‘portion 6?. In this cover plate is mounted a
‘lighting ?xture comprising an electric bulb 63‘,- a
32 seatable upon the inner bevel face 26 of hub
socket 69 therefor, an insulating member 16, and
portion I la. The dial member as shownhas'a
a pair of contact springs ‘H. Attached or fixed
horizontal or flat body portion 33 and an outer
to the bottom of the casing is a plate orlmounting
conical portion 34 upon which are marked the
‘l2 having'a pair'of cylindrical hollow portions or ‘
‘graduations of the circle. The ?at portion 33 .of
‘the dial, has light passage openings 35 of ade
quate size. overlying the light passage openings
.is ,adisc-like member 36 of transparent or trans
ijlucent’or light conducting material having on
\ the upper ‘side. a circular groove 31 de?ned by the
vertical‘ face 38 and the conical face 39 which
latter serves as a light-de?ecting face in a man
pockets ‘l3 and 14, each of said pockets adapted
to receive and hold a dry cell battery l5 having at
the top a contact 76 engaging contact spring ll,
and removable from the pocket by reason of a.
removable bottom element ‘ll of the pocket.‘ A
'coiled" spring 18 is tensioned between the bottom
element 71 and the dry cell 15'.
_, _ g
ner thatwill be further described.
‘~ "Covering the disc-like light 'penetrable mem
A removable transparent shell or protective
casing '19 surrounds the electric bulb 68," and it
"ber 36 is‘ia'n opaque round shielding plate 40
is held inplace by being ?tted over a slight hub
like elevation 80 forming part of the cover
plate 65.
face, light-shielding means overlying said light
conducting member, an alidade overlying said
One or more drainage holes 8! are provided at
the bottom of casing 58 to all-ow for the drainage
of water that may have condensed in or other
Wise entered the casing 58. An electric switch 82
hollow stem portion, a lower nut on said hollow
shielding means and rotatable about said threaded
stem portion for ?xing the alidade relative to 'said
dial member, an upper nut on said inner stem
serves to turn the light on or off. A cable connec
portion for ?xing said dial relative to said frame
tion 85 (see Fig. l) is shown to indicate the alter
and a light source disposed underneath said dial
native of using an outside source of electricity in
from which light passing through said light pas
sage openings and through said light-conducting
The operation and use of the pelorus as such is
member is adapted to indirectly light said dial by
well known and requires no explanation.
way of outward horizontal de?ection from 'said in
The manner in which the dial and the lubber
verted conical face.
lines or other markings are rendered visible by the
2. The pelorus according to claim 1, with the
lighting means according to one form of this in 15 addition of means for connecting said light-con
vention, appears from Figures 3, 8, 10, 11. Some
ducting member with said dial to constitute a
of the rays from bulb 68 pass upwardly through
structural unit.
the light passage openings 35 into the translucent
3. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which
or transparent material of the disc-like member
said shielding means comprise a plate, with the
36, which may be a suitable composition or plastic 20 addition of means for connecting said plate, said
such as “Lucite.” A portion of the light (see light
light conducting member, and said dial to con
stead of the dry cell batteries.
rays R1) of bulb 68 strikes the conical face 39 of
the circular groove 31 and is deflected into a hori
zontal direction so as to light up the dial su?i
the shielding means is a plate having a peripheral
ciently for the required reading. _The amount or
intensity of the light thus emanating from the
stitute a structural unit.
4. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which
overhang with respect to said light-conducting
circumference of the member 36 can be modi?ed
5. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which
by modifying the shape or extent of the over»
the marginal portion of the dial has an inverted
hanging portion 41 of the shielding plate 46, or
conical marginal portion presenting the dial grad
a sector of the circumference can be blanked off
or dimmed by a coat of paint or otherwise, or it
can be blanked off as by the light shielding skirt
5| rotating with the alidade.
Some other portion of the light (see light rays
R2) emanating from the bulb 68 reaches the in
uatio-ns at an angle to the horizontal direction of
light emanating from said light-conducting
. sert portions 19 and 2| of the frame ID from un~
6. The pelorus according to claim 1, with the
addition of at least one insert portion of light
‘penetrable material disposed at a marginal point
of the frame and extending therethrougli from a
point below to a point above the adjoining mar
ginal portion of the dial, said insert portion being
derneath the dial member 3i], passes through
these insert portions and appears therein as a dif-y
fused light at the surface of the frame 18, fur
adapted to light a reference mark directly asso
nishing a luminous background for the lubber 40 ciated therewith.
lines or marking-s provided on these insert por
'7. A pelorus according to claim 1, with the ad
dition of a bowl having a bottom opening, ?xed to
A modi?ed form of the invention according to
and surrounding the underside of the frame and
Fig. 4a, shows a frame portion II’ which differs
enclosing said light source comprising an electric
from the frame portion 1 l of Fig. 4, in that it has 45 bulb, a dry-cell battery for‘the bulb, and means
a bevelled or inverted conical face 84 which bears
the lubber lines such as the one shown at 85 or
for mounting the bulb and the battery, compris
ing a cover plate over said opening, a bulb receiv
other desired ?xed markings. A flat dial 86 is
ing ?xture therein, a container portion extending
shown to marginally rest upon the frame portion
downwardly from said opening, adapted to receive
H’ at the bottom of the bevelled face 84. Other 60 a dry-cell battery. '
wise the construction is similar to that of Fig. 4,
8. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which
having arms 12' as part of the frame, a disc-like
said light-conducting member is provided at its
member 36' of transparent or translucent mate
upper side with a groove presenting said conical
rial, and a shielding plate 49'. In a modi?ed form,
light deflecting face.
both the dial graduations as well as the lubber 55
lines are illuminated by the light emanating
from the member 36'.
I claim:
1. A pelorus comprising a frame, having an an
9. As an article of manufacture for use in a
pelorus the combination comprising a dial mem
ber having light passage openings in the central
portion thereof, a light penetrable ?at member
overlying said openings and having at its upper
nular marginal portion, a central hub portion, 60 side an inverted conical light-de?ecting face, a
intermediate portions between the marginal and
light shielding plate overlying said member, and
the hub portion to constitute light passage open
means for interconnecting said dial member, said
ings in said frame, and a threaded stem portion
?at member and 'said shielding plate.
extending upwardly from said hub portion, a sub
10. The pelorus according to claim 1, in which
stantially non-transparent dial member having 65 the dial is flat and has graduations along its pe
light passage openings overlying the light passage
riphery, and in which the frame portion adjacent
openings in said frame, and also having an up
to the periphery of the dial has an inverted coni
wardly extending outwardly threaded hollow cen
cal face provided "with reference markings adapt
tral stem portion surrounding said inner stem
ed to receive light radiating horizontally from said
portion, a light-conducting member overlying the 70 light-conducting member.
light passage openings in said dial and having at
its upper side an inverted conical light-de?ecting
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