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Патент USA US2411323

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Nov. 19, 1946.
c. HILLYER, JR._, ETAL
LIGHT SENSITIVE DEVICE
Original Filed Sept. 7, 1940
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Patented Nov. 19, 1946 i
12,411,323
UNITED lSTATES PÁTENT OFFICE
2,411,323
LIGHT SENSITIVE DEVICE
Curtis Hillyer, Jr., and Henry Blackstone,
Richmond Hil1,'N. Y.
Original application September 7, 1940, Serial No.
355,708. Divided and this application March 6,
1941, Serial No. 381,950
10 Claims. (Cl. Z50-165)
2
This invention relates to a light sensitive de
vice,` and more particularly to a photo-emissive
tube of the gas filled alkali metal cathode type.
Tubes of the character under consideration
are inherently frangible and are often used in
the control circuits of various types of devices
which, because of their nature, or because of
the conditions under which they are used, often
subject the tube to excessive shock or vibration.
Phototubes are inherently delicate in structure, 10
and conventional tubes are unable to withstand
.
which is generally indicated at i0, comprises a
glass envelope generally indicated at II, within
which is disposed an anode I2 and a plurality of
cathodes I3, respectively seated on and secured
to glass pinches or supports I4, preferably formed
integral with and extending from the bottom and
sides of glass envelope II (see Figure 3). An
insulated conductor I5 extends through each of
glass supports I4, and is electrically connected
to the cathode supported thereon (Figure 1).
Referring back to Figure 1, envelope I I is pref
erably mushroom-shaped so that the top IIa
the forces resulting from such shocks and vibra
tion, and either are immediately put out of com
thereof is substantially nat and has a wide angle
mission thereby, or deteriorate rapidly there
of view to permit maximum illumination of cath
under, or have their sensitivity affected to such 15 odes I3. The bottom IIb of envelope II is pref
an extent as to ruin their response. Phototubes,
erably fiat, while the sides IIc have a relatively
furthermore, occasionally must be so installed
short radius of curvature, for a purpose to be dis
that because of the inertia of their glass envelopes i closed hereinbelow. Envelope sides IIc and bot
they are subject to fracture through their in
tom I Ib are mounted in a shock mount I6, which
ability to resist forces applied perpendicularly 20 may be made of any suitable material, such as
thereto. Still other tubes, particularly those hav
felt or other fibrous substance. Shock mount I6
ing a plurality of cathodes, are unable to stand -
up under strains induced by shock and Vibration,
by reason of the tendencies of the cathodes to
crumble or bend as their inertia resists the 'ap
plied forces. It is accordingly one of the objects
of this invention to provide a phototulce which
is in turn secured within a generally cup-shaped
housing generally indicated at I'I, which is pref
erably formed in two parts, namely a bottom
25 I8 and side I9. An annular flange 20 is formed
on housing bottom I8 and is complementary to
a flange 2l formed on the bottom of housing
is strong and durable, and accordingly capable
side I9, these two flanges being secured together
of withstanding sudden jarring shocks, or con
in any suitable manner to form the unitary
tinued excessive vibration. Other objects will 30 mounting Il. The upper portion of housing side
be in part apparent and in part pointed out here
I9 is preferably crimped to provide an inwardly
inafter.
extending retaining ilange 22, which securely
The invention accordingly consists in the fea
holds envelope II and shock mount I 6 within
tures of construction, combinations of elements
housing Il. It might also be noted, that flanges
and arrangements of parts as will be exemplified
20 and 2| of housing I1 provide convenient means
in the structure to be hereinafter described and 35 for seating the phototube upon installation there
the scope of the application of which will be
of. Also, housing bottom I8 is suitably drilled
indicated in the following claims.
to provide passage for conductors I5.
In the drawing, wherein there is shown one
Extending perpendicularly from bottom IIb of
embodiment of our invention,
.
40 envelope II is an integral glass stud 23 on which
Figure 1 is a sectional elevation of the photo
anode I2, which is preferably in the form of a
tube;
`
‘
Figure 2 is a sectional elevation taken along
the line 2_2 of Figure 1;
cylindrical column, is mounted in a position co
axial with the envelope. The left-hand end of
anode I2, as viewed in Figure 1, is supported by
Figure 3 is a rear perspective view of the pho 45 stud 23 adjacent envelope bottom IIb, whereas
totube, portions thereof being broken away; and,
the right-hand end thereof abuts envelope top
Figure 4 is a front perspective View of the pho
IIa and accordingly provides a support therefor
to resist forces applied axially of the phototube
which might otherwise fracture the envelope.
Similar reference characters refer to similar 50 The anode itself being metallic and cylindrical
parts throughout' the various views of the draw
in form, is inherently capable of withstanding
totube, certain portions thereof being broken
away.
ing.
such shocks, and as tube bottom Hb rests flatly
This application is a division of our applica
against shock mount I6 and housing bottom I8,
tion Serial No. 355,708, iiled September 7, 1940.
it too is well able to withstand these forces.
With reference to Figure 1, our phototube, 55 Also, as noted above, sides llc of the tube enve
2,411,323
3
lope have a rather sharp curvature which together
with the support provided by shock mount Iâ
renders the envelope sides substantially shatter
proof from shock or vibration.
Glass supports I4 are preferably formed inte
grally with envelope side llc and extend radially
and inwardly therefrom toward anode l2 (Fig
ures l and 2). The inner edges Ilia of glass sup
and means mounting said cathode in said enve
lope adjacent said anode, said cathode having a
flat top of substantial area lying in a plane pass
ing through the axis of said anode.
Y
2. A phototube comprising, a glass envelope, a
rigid anode centrally mounted within said en
velope and bearing at its ends against the enve
lope walls to support them against collapse, a plu
rality of photocathodes, and means mounting
said cathodes in said envelope around said an
ode, said cathodes having flat tops of substan
tial area lying in a plane which passes through
ports I4 are preferably parallel to and spaced
from anode I2, so that if there is any slight rela
tive movement between the anode and glass stud
23, there will be no danger of contact between
the metal anode and glass supports. it might
also be noted that supports I4 are also preferably
integral with envelope bottom I Ib and extend up
4
bearing at its ends against the envelope walls to
support them against collapse, a photocathode,
- the axis of said anode.
3. A phototube comprising, a glass envelope
having a relatively flat top and bottom, a rigid
are preferably flat and have extending therefrom
anode centrally mounted within said envelope
L-shaped posts 24 which are fused in the glass
and bearing at its ends against said envelope top
and which are suitably secured as by welding to
cathodes I3 to support the cathodes in proper 20 and bottom to support them against collapse, a
plurality of photocathodes, and means mounting
position on supports Iâ. As noted before, con
said cathodes in said envelope about said anode,
ductors I5 are also fused within the supports and
said cathodes having iiat tops of substantial area
are secured to cathodes I3 so as ‘to make good
lying in a plane parallel to the plane of said en
wardly therefrom, The tops Ilib of the supports
electrical connection therewith.>
velope bottom.
il. A phototube comprising, a glass envelope,
Cathodes I3 are formed of suitable metal, and
eachincludes preferably a flat top i3d (Figure 4)
a tubular rigid anode mounted within said en
of substantial area which, as is more clearly
velope and bearing at its ends against the
shown in Figure 1, is spaced from edge Iiib of
support I4.
envelope walls to support them against collapse,
Cathode top ISa (Figure 3) has ex
tending rearwardly therefrom integral, tapered
stiffening flanges |319 and I3c provided with
notches 25 and 26, respectively, into which the
top of support ILS extends to prevent movement
of the cathode transversely of its support.
Flanges I3?) and I3c are deepest at the central
portions thereof.' Hence, these flanges are gen
erally of _a cantilever construction, which pro
videsY suñicient rigidity to withstand bending
forces generated by shocks imparted perpendic
ularly to the cathode.
As may be seen in Figure
4, cathodes I3 may be generally wedge-shaped,
but preferably terminate at their inner edges
short of anode I2, so as to provide ample space
between the anode and cathodes to preclude en
gagement in the event of relative movement
therebetween.
It may Vnow be seen that top lla of the tube
envelope II is amply supported by anode I2, that
envelope sides I’Ic and bottom iIb are well sup
ported by shock mount Iii and housing I'I, and
yet, 'interior leakage paths of substantial extent
over'the glass surface are provided. Inasmuch
as supports I4 lie in planes. parallel to or extend
ing through the axis of the phototube, they are>
not subjected to any bending forces which might
cause them to crack, but are subject only to
'forces of compression which they are well able to
withstand. By reason of the cantilever char
acter of cathode flanges I3b and iSc, such bend
30
one of said envelope walls including a portion
projecting into said anode to maintain said
anode in position within said envelope, a photo
cathode,'and means mounting said photocathode
in said envelope adjacent said anode.
5. vA phototube comprising, a glass envelope,
a glass support in said envelope lying in a plane
passing through the axis thereof, a second glass
support disposed in said envelope coaxially there
with, a planar photocathode secured to said first
glass support with the plane of said cathode
passing through the axis of said second glass
support, and a tubular anode Vmounted on said
second glass support adjacent said cathode and
engaging the top of said envelope in supporting
relation thereto.
6. A phototube comprising, a glass envelope
having a bottom, an integral glass stud formed
on said bottom and extending therefrom within
said envelope coaxially therewith, a tubular
anode mounted on said glass stud, a plurality of
glass supports in said envelope, each of said sup
ports lying in a plane passing'through the axis
of said anode, and a photocathode mounted on
each of said supports, said cathodes all lying in
a plane passing through the aXis of said anode
between the ends thereof.
'7. A phototube comprising, a glass envelope, a
plurality of glass supports integrally formed with
said envelope and lying therewithin, each of said
supports lying in a plane passing through the
Vaxis of said envelope, a planar photocathode
mounted on each of said supports, all of said
tained against distortion.
cathodes lying in a general plane passing through
Accordingly we have provided a photo-emissive
said axis, and an anode mounted within said
tube which efficiently fulfills the objects herein
envelope centrally of said cathodes with the
before referred to.
planes of said cathodes also passing through said
As many possible embodiments may be made of
anode between the ends thereof.
'the above invention, and as many changes might
8. A phototube comprising, a glass envelope, a
be made in the embodiment above set forth, it is
glass support in said envelope'lying in a plane
to be understood that all matter hereinbefore set
forth, or shown in the accompanying drawing, is 70 passing through the axis thereof, a photocathode
having a tapered flange depending therefrom
to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a
and engaging said glass support, means secured to
limiting sense.
said glass support and mounting said cathode
We claim:
thereon, and an anode secured within said en
1. A phototube comprising, a glass envelope, a
rigid anode mounted within said envelope and 75 velope adjacent said cathode.
ing forces as the cathodes are subjected to are
sufficiently resisted so that the cathodes are sus
:2,411,323
9. A phototube comprising, a housing, a glass
envelope having a ñat bottom and a relatively
ñat top, means forming a shock mount between
said housing and the bottom and sides of said
envelope, and an anode and photocathode
mounted within said envelope, said anode being
rigid and bearing at its ends against the top and
bottom of said envelope to support them against
Collapse.
10. A phototube comprising, a glass envelope 10
having integral sides, top and bottom, an
elongated rigid anode mounted within said en
velope coaxially therewith and supporting said
top and bottom, a plurality of ñat photocathodes,
and means mounting said cathodes in said en
velope around said anode with said cathodes
lying in a plane normal to the axis of said anode.
CURTIS HILLYER., JR.
HENRY BLACKSTONE.
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