close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2411330

код для вставки
2,411,330
@attentati Nov. 19, 1946
UNÍTED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,330
MEASURING SYSTEM
William Melas, Philadelphia, and Joseph Razek,
‘
Llanerch, Pa., assignors, by mesne assignments,
to HSB Corporation, a corporation of Penn
Sylvania
Application March 23, 1944, Serial No. 5275786
1e claims. (El. '7S-209)
l
:bnl
@ur'invention relates to measuring systems of
tire type in which a magnetizable core structure
is moved in response to changes in magnitude of
a condition under measurement correspondingly
to vary the relation to each other of the induct»
ances or coils in different branches of a balance
able electrical network; and more particularly
relates to differences in characteristics of the coils
scale-s diñering with respect to the spacing of
their calibration markings;
Figs. 'l and ß are schematic representations o3
coil~core assemblies, differing from the coll-core
assembly ol’ Figs. l and 9;
`
Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view of a unit coin
prlsing flow-meter structure associated with a
coilßcore unit;
Fig. l0 is an elevational view ci a meter unit;
'for rendering the network for certain purposes
adaptable for metering or indicating magnitudes 10 Fig. li is a vertical sectional view, on larger
scale, oi’ a portion ot the meter unit shown in
of a condition, including rates of iiow ci iiuids,
Fie. l0; and
sucio. as fuels in general, including those utilizable
iorproduotion of motive power for any purpose,
Fig. l2 is a fragmentary elevational ’view oi‘
parts shown in Fig. il.
Referring to Fig. l, the balanceable network N
comprises, in diíierent arms thereof, Iwithin the
ln accordance with our invention, there is pro
portion which is designated “'l‘ransmitter,” tire
vided a balanceable electrical network in different
coils', reactive impedances, L and Lig, (whose non
arms or branches whereof are included induc
inductive resistances are Rt' and Re, respectively)
tlvely reactive coils so unlike as to differ from
each other, especially in their structural charac 20 and the co-operatine’magnetie core structure C;
tbe core structure C (of iron, nickel or other suit
teristics, and so disposed relative to each other
able magnetic :metal or alloy) usually is the mov
and a therewith coacting magnetic core struc
able member, actuated or moved with respect to
ture, that the network partakes of certain use
the coils in accord wltl'i'variations of the magni~
iul characteristics; and in other arms or branches
of the network are disposed impedances, non-re 25 tudes of a condition to be measured to affect the
inductances of the coils; for example, as shown
active or reactive, complemental to the imped
in Fig. 9, core structure C is moved vertically with
ances oi aforesaid arms, and the relation to each .
respect to the aligned coils Li and L by means
other of whose magnitudes is variable to effect
constituting the responsive element or system oi‘
balance ci tlie network; and, more particularly,
and more especially for driving aircraft and other
vehicles.
.
'
with a graduated or calibrated scale of a meter, 30 a flow-meter, whereby in response to increases
and decreases in the rate of :dow of a ífluid, the
related to the network, there co~operates an index
core structure C rises or falls, thereby changing
movable in unison with, or in dependence upon
its
positional and electromagnetic relation to tlie
the movement of, a member actuated for balanc
coils Li , L.
.
ine the network by varying the relations to each
in other arms of the network are included
other or“ aforesaid magnitudes of said last-named
different portions, as determined by adjustment
reactive or non-reactive impedances; further in
oi contact K, of an impedance R2, which may be
accordance with our invention a galvanometer
reactive but which, by preference, is a non-in-=
which indicates balance of the network also in
ductive resistance for rendering the portion of tire
dicates small informative imbalances thereof.
network marked “Receiven” the meter unit, more
Further in accordance with our invention the
compact, a matter Íof advantage when the system
markings or calibration divisions of aforesaid
is utilized upon or in the cockpit oi an aeroplane,
meter scale are spread or contracted in different
or in analogous situations where utmost compact-1
portions or regions of the scale in dependence
ness is desired.
.
upon or as predetermined by the effect upon said
The impedances Rl, R3 and Re may be non
network of aforesaid diiîerences in the character 45
reactive resistances, provided principally for cal
istics of aforesaid coils and related core structure.
ibrating the arms of the netwerk in which. they
Our invention resides in measuring systems and
are connected.
apparatus of the character hereinafter described
One of the conjugate conductors extends from
and claimed, and generally exemplified by the
50 E, the common terminal of neighboring arms
particular system hereinafter described.
(of the network) in which coils L and Li respec~=
For an understanding of our invention, refer
tively are connected, to and terminates in afore`=
ence is to be had to the accompanying drawings,
in which: -
Fig. i is a diagram oi a network;
'
said contact E adjustable along the-impedance
R2 to effect balance or imbalance of the network
Figs. 2-6 inclusive illustrate various meter 55 by including ln different branches thereof dit“
2,411,830
ferent amounts of that impedance. The contact ,
K may serve also as -a pointer movable along a
'separate core elements or members C2 and C3
spaced from each other but mechanically con~
nected for movement in unison under control of
the flow-meter, Fig. 9, or other device respon
sive to the magnitudes of the condition under
scale SI calibrated in units of rate of flow or in
terms of the varying magnitudes of any other
condition to 'be measured. Or, and preferably,
with the contact K is associated and movable in
. measurement.
unison therewith a pointe;` or index Kl movable
with respect to a stationary scale S in the meter `
unit, Figs. 10 and 11. A source of alternating
current A is connected in series in aforesaid con
`
In general the inductances of the coils L and
Ll are or may be substantially equal'. When the
frequency of the current supplied by source A ,
(whose voltage, for example, may be 24 volts)
jugate ' conductor, preferably in the portion
is 400 cycles per second, an inductance of each
thereof in the “Transmitter”; in the same con
of the coils L and Ll of the order of 0.1 henry
ductor may be included a generally small resist
is satisfactory, lbut may be of any other suitable
ance R'l, to hold at suitably low magnitude the
magnitude; and the non-inductive resistances of
strength of current through the field windings 15 those coils may be equal or substantially so, and
F, F of the galvanometer if that instrument
of the order, for example, of about 85 to 90 ohms
should be of too high sensitivity. In the other
R5 of coil LI-and, in the case of coil L, its non
conjugate conductor, extending from 2 to 3, is
connected the coil G, of aforesaid galvanometer,
inductive resistance, R4, plus the resistance R6
mounted for rotation upon and about the axis
of pivots P, p, With provision of a spring or equiv
alent, not shown, which biases the coil G toward
and to its position corresponding with and repre
sentative of zero current therethrough, indica
tive of balance of the network or bridge‘N. The
field coils F, F of the galvanometer are con-`
nected in series with each other in circuit with
source A; and in series with the field coils is con
nected a condenser M of capacity to bring into
phase with each other the current through the
stantially equal the non-inductive resistances of
the neighboring bridge arms) may be of about
galvanometer ñeld‘coils F, F and the current
through deflecting coil G.
(if needed for the purpose of rendering sub
the same order, about 85 or 90 ohms. In the re
ceiver the resistance RI may be of the order of
about 50 or 55 ohms; R2 of the order of about
205 or 210 ohms; and R3 of the order of about
35 ohms.
-
In accord with this invention the coils L and
Li, whether closely positioned as in Figs. 1 and
9 or spaced from each other as in Figs. 7 and 8,
diiîer substantially from each other in length,
as to an extent connoted by the fact their lengths
mall, for example,` be about 4'1/2 inches and 21/2
Attached to and deflected by galvanometer coil
G is an indicating member P, such as a pointer,
which coacts with a mark i; the network is in
` .balance when the end (Pl, Fig. 11) of pointer P
is in radial alignment with the mark i; for at
least small unbalances of /the network, PI lwill
core structure and its length of travel are related
to the coils of different lengths and their rela
tive positions; for example, the length of core
C or CI, or the length from the top of core ele
lie on one side or the other of mark z', so indicat
may be about 5 inches, and length of its travel _
ing unbalances informative regarding certain
conditions; for example, as indicated in Figs. 1
and 10, whether the amount of gasoline-air mix
ture delivered to a motor-is either “rich” or
“lean.” Beyond such generally informative
dications, the galvanometer deflections are
themselves measures of the magnitudes of
condition to be measured; those magnitudes
ment C2 to the bottom of element C3, Fig. 8,
about 4 inches.
_
Core C, Figs. l and 9, and in like general sense
the core CI of Fig. 7 and composite core unit
C2-C3 of Fig. 8, is longer than the coil Ll and
long enough such that in its uppermost position
in
not
the
ß the lower portion of the core structure is still
are
- a portion thereof having aforesaid greater or
measured or predetermined by the positions of l -
contact K along impedance R2.
The current source A may, especially on air
craft, be one utilized also for other purposes in
cluding, for example, supply of current for radio
apparatus.
inches, respectively.- The length of the coacting
.
The frequency of the alternating current sup
plied by source A for the 'general purposes of our
invention is not of importance. On aircraft the
frequency of that current may be for example
400 cycles per second, as may be required or de
sirable for any apparatus other than that of the
present invention, such as aforesaid radio ap
paratus.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 9, the neighboring ends
- of coils L and Ll are close to each other. How
ever as indicated in Figs. 7 and 8 these coils may
be substantially spaced from each other, axially.
Their windings may be of any suitable conduc
tor, of number of turns and distribution thereof
longitudinally of each coil to effect suitable or
desired inductance thereof; the` number of turns
of the coil Ll per unit of length thereof-may be
uniform, or, preferably, greatest at or adjacent,
or increasing in approaching, its end which is
nearest the associated coil L.
In Fig. 7 the magnetic core structure Cl may
be unitary or, as in Fig. 8, it may comprise two
preferably well within the 'lower coil Ll, as within
greatest number of turns per unit of length.
The core structure, unitary or composite, pref
erably is longer than the longer of the coils,
whereby, as hereinafter noted, there- always shall
be some portion of the core structure, whatever
its length of travel, _simultaneously within both
coils. And the length of the core structure and
its length of travel are dependent upon or are
determined by what shall be the total length of
the scale (whether straight, as in Fig.> l, or arcu
ate as in Figs. 3-6 inclusive and Fig. 10); or, con
versely, the length of the core structure and its
length of travel determine what shall be the total
length of such scale, whether straight or arcuate.
Upon the lengths or relative lengths of the
coils L and Ll, and upon the length and travel
of their associated cor'e structure, -and upon the
reactances or relative reactances of the imped
ances of the adjacent bridge or network arms in
which the inductances of coils L and Ll are
respectively connected and effective, depends the
“openness” of the scale, i. e., the magnitudes of
the spacing, between the scale markings, per unit,
or per equal number of units, of the magnitude
of the condition to be measured; and the uni
formity of the scale, in the sense of degree of
equality of scale-mark spacings is dependent _upon
the same factors. Change in any of those fac»
i
2,411,330
~
tors, or change in the relation of any one or
two with respectv to the others or other, will
modify -the openness of the scale and/or the posi
tion between the ends of the scale' of the region
of its greatest openness.
Fig. 2 illustrates a scale, of any arcuate length,
for example about 270°, which is practically uni
form with respect to the scale divisions at both
end regions as well as in the middle region.
Such uniformity would obtain were the coils L
and LI of equal lengths, accompanied by> suit
able length of the core structure co-operating
therewith. In contrastA with the uniformity of
_the scale of Fig. 2, the scales of Figs. 3, 4 to 6
" inclusive and l0 in accord with our invention
6
upper end of member 8 is the metal member
I 3, in which is provided at least a large part of
aforesaidcavity Il. Upon the member l3kis dis
posed a tubular housing member I4 which may
be of metal and in any event of such metal or
material and dimensions (especially thickness)
as will prevent or minimize production therein
of eddy currents due to the stray alternating
magnetic fields produced by the coils. Member
I4 is surmounted by the cap- !5 upon which en
gages a nut I6 threaded upon the upper end
of the guide rod il on which is vertically mov
able the tubular magnetic core C movable axially
of the solenoids or coils L and Li. To prevent
A affecting the accuracy or sensitivity of the iiow
are purposely not uniform, so rendered because
coils L and'Ll are of different lengths, as herein
meter, or the like, core C is as light in weight as
those of 'vital or greatest importance to a pilot
or the operator; in the end sections of the scale,
to either side of the mid-section there4 is less
openness, in the sense the scale markings arel
ter of the divergent passage H. The core struc
ture, such as C, or other core structure herein
possible consistent with its effective coaction
described in connection with their co-operating
with the coils. The coils surround tubular non
core structure. Where, however, as in the case
conducting member Ma, which extends in and to
of precise control of rate of flow of fluid to an 20 the bottom of member i3. The fixed guide rod
aeroplane motor, or under analogous circum
il continues down beyond member läd through
stances, uniformity of the scale throughout its
the chamber H, and on whose lower end is
length is not indispensible, there may be sub
threaded nut i8 which holds in place a sleeve
stantial departure from such uniformity, While
i9 through which the guide rod il extends, and
procuring suiñcient uniformity throughout a rela 25 upon which are disposed radially extending varies
tively large arcuate portion or region of the scale,
t@ for centering sleeve it in chamber El, in the
for example about 1A; of its total length, in which ' llower end of housing d. The _mouth of chamber
there is preserved suí?cient uniformity, with,
2l is provided with pipe threads to receive the
more importantly; increased openness or expan
threaded end of a pipe which delivers -the liquid
sion affording high accuracy. ln briei, by our 30 in question into member il at rate determined
coils L and Ll of substantially different lengths
by manually or automatically controlled throttle
and their related core structure and its length
or the like in advance of the discharge into
of travel, importantly greater precision is made
chamber ‘2i and/or subsequent to discharge from
possible in predetermining or measuring maghi“
member i2. Resting upon the fixed sleeve mem
tudes of a condition within at least any desired 35 ber l@ is the hollow movable member 22, some
large portion of the entire range oi such magu
times termed a “top” or “sinken” closed at its
nitudes.
bottom, and sealed at its top by the member 23
In' Fig. ld the regionoi expansion or accen
having a downwardly and outwardly tapered cir
tuated lopenness or scale is‘the mid portion or
cumference coming to a sharp circular edge at
section thereof, the magnitudes within which are
or near the level 9, the portion of smallest diame
relatively more, but harmlessly, compressed.
referred to, is attached to the member 23 through
the medium of an open cage Ell, of non-magnet
izab-le material or metal, loosely fitting or dis
In Fig. 3 the scale markings are close or
posed about non-magnetizable guide rod ll.
relatively compressed at the low magnitude or left
The liquid flows upwardly through passage l-l,
end, and their spacings progressively increase to
into space tl and thence through conduit l2. ln
the right end >where the scale is most expanded.
so doing the member 22 rises and cornes to a posi
Fig. e represents a situation the reverse of Fig. 50 tion, above its illustrated position, of equilibrium
3, in the sense the scale «is of greatest expansion ,
for each oi’ the rates of flow in the range for
at the low magnitude or lower left, and become
which the structure is designed and suited. For
progressively more compressed to the other or
each of the positions of equilibrium of member 22,
high reading end of the scale.
the core structure C takes a definite position with
Fig. 5 represents a scale in which the mid 55 respect to coils Ll and L, throughout the range
region or section is compressed, while in both end
of movement oi member 22 whose uppermost
sections the scale markings are/widely spaced
limit is adjacent the level ld.
from each other.
'With ?low metering means of the particular
Fig.v 6 illustrates a type of scale procurable by
character described, the extents of vertical move
coil spacing and core structures illustrated in
ment of member 22 and core C are a linear func
`Figs. '7 or 3; it corresponds in general character
'tion of, directly proportional to, the magnitudes
with come S ol’ Fig. l0.
oi”- rate oi“ i'iow; our invention also comprehends,
Fig. 9 illustratesan example of application ci’
however, means responsive to changes in magni
our invention as applied, for example, to meas
tude oi‘ a condition which are not a linear func
65 tion of the movements of the core structure. In
uid; it comprises the lower metal housing unit
either case each change in core position is accom
uring or predetermining rates of flow oi a liu
of the dow meter unit E, having the conical
kupwardly divergent passage H extending from
>approximately the region or point Sl to approximately the point or region l@ where it opens into
and communicates with the space l l with which is
connected the _discharge pipe l2, which delivers
the liquid to destination, as to an aeroplane pro=
peiling means, such as an internal combustion
motor, or for jet propulsion.
panied by a change in the ratio to each other ci
the incluctances of the coils.
ln consequence of the difference between the
lengths of the coils L and Ll, notwithstanding
their inductances may be equal, and the resist
tances (including the resistances of the coils) of
neighboring arms or' the network N are equal, the
scales, Figs. 3-6 inclusive and Fig. l0, are, in con
Secured to the 75 trast with the uniform scale of Fig. 2, non-uni
aaneen
.
7
-
y
_
e
*
„
,
form and in a chosen section or sections expand
or adjustable to any desired ñxed position with
nature and characteristics of their means respon
are so rotatable through an arc preferably at
respect to disk D. On a stationary circular or
ed, as hereinbe'fore noted; so making it possible,
cylindrical form 26, concentric with the axis of_
particularly because of the diiîerence in the
disk D, Fig.l 11,-is wound the conductor, such as
lengths of the coils L and Ll, whether abutting
resistance wire, which constitutes the impedance
each other as in Figs. 1 and 9 or spaced from
R2, Fig. 1; bearing upon that conductor R2, and
each other as in Figs. 7 and 8, to eiîect maximum
mounted upon shaft d, which is driven through
openness or expansion of the scale at any region
disk D rotated by member 5, is contact K, in uni
or regions thereof necessary for higher` or vital
son with which rotates index Ki coacting with
accuracy in metering and for vital or high pre
cision in reading of the scale, as may be appro 10 scale S; Iaccordingly manipulation of knob ‘i ro
tates both the contact K with respect to imped
priate or required i’or different needs or circum
ance _R2 »on form 26, and index Ki, on member D,
stances dependent upon the nature and purposes
with respect to scale S; lmember D and contact K
oí various measuring systems whatever the
sive to changes in magnitude of the condition to 15 least suiiicient to correspond with the entire ar
cuate length, e. g., about 270°, of the scale S; the
length of that arc may be greater or less lthan
In' aircraft operation, for example, the rate of
270°, and is dependent upon the length of travel
consumption of fuel is of great importance and
of the core structure. 1n consequence lthe oper
must be precisely set or predetermined, and-must
ator may choose or predetermine a rate of'ñow of
be precisely measurable. To such end itis im
¿the liquid discharged from member i2, Fig. 9,
portant there be expansion of that section of the
and by knob ‘il set the index Ki, Fig. l0, to that
scale which' includes the most important range of
reading of the scale corresponding with such de
rate of supply or~ consumption of the motor -Íuel;
sired rate of flow; he may then by throttle in
- for example, the expanded scale section may in
clude those magnitudes of rate of ñow as corre 25 crease or decrease the rate of ñow of the liquid,
be measured.
.
'
’
.
4spond'with Vthe_“cruisi;r1g-rate” requirement or
consumption of fuel.
_
The metering unit, Figs. 10-12,»may comprise,
for example gasoline tovr an aeroplane motor, un
til the network N becomes balanced, as will be
indicated, Fig. l0, by coincidence of pointer ele-l
in eñect, the “receiver” of the telemetric system
of Fig. l. It may be placed wherever desired; for
aircraft it may be mounted, as upon an instru
ment board, in the cockpit of an aeroplane, with-v
in view o_f the pilot or that member of the crew
whose duties include predetermining or measur
ment Pi with the mark 11i; and having so prede
termined the rate of ñow by» setting of index Kl,
if that rate for any cause should increase slightly
or decrease slightly, it will become apparent by
the slight unbalance oi> the network N as evidenced by departure of element Pi from exact
to a motor or the like. .
then may slightly adjust a throttle or equivalent
to bring the rate of flow exactly to the predeter
` ing-with high precision the rate of flow of fuel 35 register with mark'z', i, whereupon the operator
When there are two or more apparatus, as two
or more propelling motors on an aeroplane, there
mined magnitude.
ï
Or, and in general, an unknown rate of ñow,
Veach such apparatus, with provision of switching 40 or any other magnitude of a condition, when
not preset or known as above described, may be
means, operable by knob la, Fig. 10, for bringing
anyone of the transmitters into relation with the Y measured by rotating knob'ï to that position
which balances-the network, and the rate of-fiow
` “receiver,” Figs. 1, 10 and 11, common to them
read on scale S opposite to index Kl.
all, preferably Vwith utilization of the source of
`« may be provided a “transmitter,” Fig. 1 or 9, for
current A in common.
In the receiver unit, within a casing or hous
ing i?, if desired and as shown in Figs. 10 and. 11,
is mounted the galvanometer, upper right of Fig.
11y the impedance R2 and its coacting contact K,
the scale S, and the index KI, Fig. 10, which
moves in unison with contact K.
The scale plate or card S is held in ñxed posi
tion; as indicated in Fig. 10 it is provided with
an elongated opening 25 through which the end
PI of galvanometer pointer P is visible through
.the-glass or other transparent disk D, disposed in
front (to the left) of scale S, Fig. 11. Upon the
scale card S, at opening 25, is the mark i, i, and at
either side thereof may be placed any suitable
legend; in the present instance, “Lean” or` “Rich,"
whereby the operator, when the network N is
somewhat out of balance, as indicated by depar
ture of the end PI of the pointer P from align
vment with i, i, is informed of an operating condi
In' general, the length of the core structure
(unitary as in Figs. l, 7 and 9, or composite as
in Fig. .8) with respect to the lengths of the coils
is >such that there is always, throughout the
range of travel of the core structure, some por
tion of the core'` structure simultaneously within
both of the coils L and LI; otherwise there would
occur a reversal of phase as between the cur
`rents through the field windings F, F and the
coil G of the galvanometer, with result` the
balance of the `network attained under such con
dition would give an entirely erroneous \’scale
-.reading; and, importantly, unless there always
be some portion of the core structure> simul
taneously within both of the coils L, Li, as afore
said, the scales of Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10 would be
unsuitable, in the sense that the ends thereof
' corresponding respectively with zero or other low ,
magnitude of the condition and the upper end of
the scale. corresponding with'maximum magni
tude of the condition, would, to be useful, have to
be relatively reversed or interchanged; which
line-air mixture delivered from a carburetor to a
means
that with the readings increasing in al1
motor.
said figures in clockwise direction, the scale card
'I'he transparent disk D is mounted upon shaft
in the meter, either as indicated in Fig. 1, or in
4, and is rotatable by the member 5, of rubber or
other suitable material producing suf?cient fric 70 Figs. 10 and 11, would be wholly erroneous.
Aside from the foregoing, however, by relating
tion with the edge of disk D (Fig. l2) and mount
v the length of the core structure to the length of
ed upon and driven by the shaft 6 manually ro
its travel in such way that, as aforesaid, there
tatable by knob 1. Rotation of member D eiîects
‘is always some portion of the core structure
adjustment with respect to scale S of the index
KI, Fig. 10, etched'upon or otherwise aillxed to 75 simultaneously within both coils L, LI, it is pos
tion, such as the leanness or richness of the gaso- ’
2,411,380
sible, because the coils are of unequal length, to
different lengths connected, respectively, in difier
change in any selected or desired portion or
ent arms of the network, said arms having sub
stantially equal resistances, core structure mov»E
able` with respect to said coils in response to
changes in magnitude of a condition, a source of
alternating current in a conjugate conductor of
the network, means connected in another con
' portions of the total length or range of the scale
the expansion or. compression of the scale
markings. In Fig. 10 the mid~section has been
expanded or opened, because of the afore-1
said relations, while both end regions or sections
of the scale haîve become `more compressed.
Such inequality of lengths of the coils, having
jugate conductor of the network for indicating
balance thereof, impedances connected respec
the effect of varying, in response to the core 10 tively in diiïerent further arms of the network,
contact structure engaging said impedances for
movement, the ratio of the impedances in those
adjusting the relative magnitudes thereof for
arms of the network including the coils, makes
balancing the network, a scale which is non-uni
possible non-proportionality of the movements.
form in dependence upon the difference between
of the contact K to the concurrent ratios of the
the lengths of said coils, and an index ‘movable
inductances of the coils. Accordingly, the scales»
with said impedance-adjusting contact structure.
S may, by application of aforesaid principle, be
and with respect to said scalefor evaluating the
modified, as may be suitable o_r desired, vfrom
magnitudes «of said condition.
uniformity such as indicated in Fig. 2, to be
non-uniform (in any of the respects and to any
4. A measuring system'comprising a network,
extents, generically exemplified by Figs. 3-6 and 20 inductance coils of different lengths connected,
l0) and to be expanded or compressed' in any
respectively, in different arms of the network, core
structure movable with respect to said coils in
desired section or sections. '
By increasingthe length of coil L with respect
response to changes in magnitude of a condition,
a source oi’ alternating current in a conjugate
to the length of Ll, in Figs. 1, 7, e and 9, the
scale will have the characteristic generically in
conductor of the network, means connected in
dicated by Fig. 3 which is open or expanded at
another conjugate conductor of the network for
the high reading end and compressed at the
indicating- lbalance of the network, impedances
other end.
, ,
~
connected respectively in diüerent further arms
Reversing the positions oi thecoils L and Li,
or" the network, Contact structure engaging said
from the relation indicated in Fig. 9, i. e., by : irnpedances for adjusting the relative magnitudes
placing the longer coil L at the bottoni and the
thereof `for balancing the network, a scale and an
shorter coil Ll above it, there is produced on
index movable, in unison with said contact struc~ »
the scale S great expansion at the lower reading
ture, along said scale, distances unequal, in de
end, lïiig.- 4l, with crowding or compression at the
pendence upon aforesaid. different coil lengths,
higher reading end.
per unit change in the magnitude of said condi
What we claim is:
l. A measuring system comprising a network,
inductance coils of diiîerent lengths connected,
respectively, in different arms oi the networlr,
core structure movable with respect'to said coils
in response to changes in magnitude of a con
dition, a source of alternating currentl in a con
. jugate conducto;` oi the network, means con
nected in another conjugate conductor oi the riet=
work for' indicating balance thereof, impedances
connected respectively in different ‘further arms
of the network, contact structure engaging said
impedances for adjusting the relative magnitudes
thereof for balancing the network, a scale which
is non-uniform in dependence upon the dif"J
ference between the lengths of said coils, and an
index movable with said impedance-adjusting
contact structure and with respect to said scale
for evaluating the magnitudes oi said condition.
2. A measuring system comprising a network,
substantially axially spaced inductance coils of
4ciifîerent lengths connected, respectively, in di1î~
`ferent arms of the network., core structure mov»
able with respect to said coils in response to
changes in magnitude oi a condition, a source or"
alternating current in a conjugate conductor ci
the network, means connected in another con- .
jugate conductor of the network for indicating
balance thereof, impedances connected re
spectively in diiîerent further arms» oi the net- i,
work, contact structure engaging said im
pedances for adjusting the relative magni
tudes thereof for balancing the network, a
scale having a portion expanded in dependence
upon. aforesaid different ’colllengths and an in
dex movable with said impedance-adjusting con
tact structure and with respect to said scale for
evaluating the magnitudes of said ccnetiition.v
3. A measuring system comprising a network,
tion.
5. „a measuring system comprising a network,
inductance coils of different lengths connected,
respectively, in different arms or" the4 network,
core structure movable with respect to said coils
in response to changes in magnitude of a condi
tion, a source of alternating current in a con
jugate conductor or” the network, means connected
in another conjugate conductor of the network
for indicating balance thereof, impedances con.n
nested respectively in diíîerent further arms ot
the network, Contact structure engaging said irn
pedances for adjusting the relative magnitudes
thereof for balancing the network, a non-=uniiorrn
scale whose length is dependent upon the length
ci travel of said core structure, and a section
whereof is expanded in dependence upon aforo
said din’erent coil lengths, and. an index movable
with said impedance-adjusting contact structure
and with respect to said scale íor evaluating the 'y
magnitudes oi said condition.
o. s. measuring system comprising a network,
inductance coils of diñîerent lengths connected,
respectively, in different arms of the network,
core structure movable with respect to said coils
in response to changes in magnitude of a condi
tion, a source of alternating current in a con
jugate conductor oí the networlä, means connected
in another conjugate conductor oí the network
for indicating balance thereof, impedances con
nested respectively in diíîerent further arms of
the network, Contact structure engaging said im=
pedances’ for adjusting the relative magnitudes
thereof lor balancing the network, a scale hav»
ing, in dependence upon the difference in length
y ci said coils, a section which is expanded, and
having to both sides thereof sections which are
_ compressed, and an index movable with said iri
coils of substantially equal induc'tances and oi 75 goedance-’adjusting contact structure and with re
asiatico
.
l spect to said scale for evaluating the' magnitudes
12
.
11. A measuring system comprising a network,
inductance coils of different lengths connected,
of said condition. .'
'7. A measuring system comprising a network,
inductance coils of different lengths connected, '
respectively, in diñerent arms of the network,
core structure movable with respect to said coils
in response to changes in magnitude of a condi-.
respectively, in diii’erent arms of the network, a
movable core structure whose >movements with
respect to said coils, in response vto changes in
tion, a source of alternating‘current in a con-l
jugate conductor or' the network, means connected '
magnitude of a condition, are proportional to said
changes in magnitude of said condition, a source.
of alternating current in a conjugate conductor
of the network, means connected in another con
in another conjugate conductor of the network 10 jugate conductor of the network forindicating
for indicating balance thereof, impedances con
balance thereof, impedances connected respec
, nected respectively in diüerent further arms of
tively in» different vfurther arms of 'the network,
the network, contact structure engaging said irn
pedances for adjusting the relative magnitudes
manually operable contact structure engaging
said impedances for adjusting the relative mag
thereof for balancing the network, a scale the 15 nitudes thereof for controlling balance of the net
spacing of whose markings, in dependence upon
` work, a scale, representative of said magnitudes
aforesaid diiîerence between lengths of coils, pro
of said condition, which’is non-uniform in de
gressively decreases from one end thereof to the
pendenceupon the diüerence between the lengths
other, and an index movable with said im
of said coils, and an index moved in unison with
pedance-adjusting contact structure and with re 20 said contact structure and relatively to said scali.
spect to said scale for evaluating the magnitudes
for evaluating the magnitudes of said condition.
of said condition.
_
l2. A measuring system comprising a network,
8. A measuring unit comprising a ñxed scale, a
inductance coils of diíerent lengths connected,
transparent disk through which the scale is read
‘ respectively, in different arms of the network, a
able, an indexcarried by said disk andcoacting 25 core structure movable with respect to said coils
with said scale, a measuring circuit, a de?iecting
in response to changes in magnitude of a condi
meter in said circuit, a pointer deflected by said
tion, a source of alternating current‘in a con
meter, said scale having a mark with respect to
jugate conductor of the network, means connected
which said pointer deñects, an impedance in
in another conjugate conductor of the network
cluded in said circuit, a contact adjustable along 30 for indicating balance thereof, impedances con
said impedance for determining the deflection of
nected respectively in diñerent further arms of ~
said pointer, and a manually operable member for
the network, a manually operable member for
rotating said disk and said contact in unison.
adjusting the relative magnitudes of said im
’ 9. A measuring unit comprising a ñxed scale, a
pedances for balancing the network, a iixed scale
transparent disk through lvwhich the scale is read 35 representative of said magnitudes of a condition
able, an index carried by said disk and coacting
and associated with said manually operable ad
with said scale, a measuring circuit, a defiecting
justing member, a second member having an
meterv in said circuit, a pointer deiiected by said
index which coacts with said scale, said balance
meter,- lsaid scale having a mark with respect to
indicating means having a pointer deflecting with
which said `pointer deñec'ts, an impedance in 40 respect to a mark on said scale,.and manually
cludedin said circuit, a contact adjustable along
operable means for actuating said second mem
said impedance for determining the deflection of
ber
and said impedance adjusting means in
said pointer, said ‘scale having an aperture
unison.
through which and said disk the pointer is visible,
13. A system for determining rate of ilow of a
.and manually V`operable means for rotating said 45
ñuid
comprising a network,` inductance coils of
disk and adjusting said contact in unison.
diiferent lengths connected, respectively, in
10. A measuring system comprising a network,
coils whose inductances are substantially equal l
and of different lengths connected, respectively,
in diiîerent arms of the network, said arms hav
ing substantially equal resistances, a core struc
diiîerent arms of the network, means responding
to change in the rate of iîow of a iiuid by move
ment of extent proportional to said change, core
50 structure moved with respect to said coils in
accord with the movement of said means, a source
ture of substantially uniform cross section mov
ofV alternating current in a conjugate conductor
able with respect to said coils in response to
of the network, means connected in another con
changes in magnitude of a condition, a source of
conductor of the network for indicating
alternating current in a conjugate conductor of 55 jugate
balance thereof, impedances connected respec
the network, means connected in another con
tively in diiîerent further karms of the network,
jugate conductor of the network for indicating
manually operable contact structure lengaging
balance thereof, impedances connected respec
said impedances for adjusting the relative mag
tively in diiferent further arms of the network,
nitudes thereof for controlling balance of the
manually operable contact structure engaging 60 network,
a scale, representative of the magnitudes
said impedances for adjusting the relative mag
of rate of ñow, which is non-uniform in depend
nitudes thereof for controlling balanceíof. the net
ence upon the diiîerence betweeri‘thelengths of
work, a scale, representative of said ’magnitudes
said coils, and an index moved in unison with said
of said condition, which is non-uniform in de
contact structure and relatively to said scale for
pendence upon the difference between the lengths
evaluating the magnitudes of said condition.
of said coils, and an index moved in unison with
said contact structure- and with respect to said
WILLIAM MELAS.
scale for evaluating the magnitudes of said con
JOSEPH RAZEK.
dition.
'
i
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 301 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа