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Патент USA US2411347

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éNov. 19, 1946.
Filed Nov. 27, 1940
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Nov‘. 19, 1946.
Filed Nov. 27, 1940
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Nov. 19, 1946.
‘ 2,411,347
Filed Nov.’ 27, 1940
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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NOV. 19, 1946.
Filed NOV. 27, 1940
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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BY M12,
Patented Nov. 19, 1946. '
William 'E. Trumpler, Easton, 2a., asslgnor to
Carrier Corporation, Syracuse, N. Y., acorpo
ration of Delaware
Application‘November 27, 1940, Serial No. 367,441
10 Claims. (01. 62-115)
This invention relates to the use of refrigerants
for power supply and refrigeration purposes and
more particularly to an integrated system wherein
a single supply of refrigerant is employed as a
orative condensers are used with applicant’s sys
tems as compared to thatrequired for operating
, prime moving medium and also as a compressible
Other objects and features will also be apparent
‘from the following description of typical forms of
medium for the production of refrigerating effect.
A principal object of the invention is the pro
- vision of ‘ a boiler in which a refrigerant such as
evaporati've condensers in prior‘ systems, more
particularly steam jet systems.‘
the invention to be read in connection with the
accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 diagrammaticallyv illustrates a system
Fl I, FI2, or the like, is converted into a vapor
at relatively high pressure, which is then utilized 10' employing a refrigerant cycle wherein applicant's
for driving an engine or turbine, or utilized in
connection with an ejector or jet compressor ar
invention is incorporated;.
Fig. 2 diagrammatically illustrates one feature '
rangement. In the form of the invention in which
of the invention for recovering refrigerant and
the refrigerant as a high pressure vapor is used
utilizing oil separated therefrom;
to operate an engine or turbine; the said engine 15 Fig. 3 illustrates a modi?ed form of the inven
or turbine may be arranged to compress another
tion in which a jet compressor is .used;
portion of the same refrigerant, the vapor from
Fig. 4 shows another form of applicant’s inven
the engine or turbine plus the compressed vapor
tion including a novel boiler feed arrangement
then feeding into a common condenser or into a
and control adapted for use therewith; and .
series of condensers, preferably serving a common 20
Fig. 5 illustrates another modi?ed form of the
_ liquid receiver.
From saidpreceiver the refrig
erant, in liquid form, is distributed so that one
portion thereof serves to feed the boiler for make
Considering the drawings, similar designations
referring to similar parts, and ?rst referring more
up purposes whereas another portion, under con
particularly to Fig. 1 numeral ill designates a
trol, serves an evaporator or the like for cool 25 passage through which heating ?uids such as hot
ing air or for service in other refrigeration appli
gases may be routed, Damper ll operated con
ventionally by a heat control mechanism i2 reg
Another arrangement utilizes high pressure re
ulates the amount of hot gas which flows through
passage ID and which is diverted to passage l3.
frigerant vapor from a boiler which then serves
an ejector. The resulting action is similar as 30 Theheat control device [2 may be located as de
in the case of a compressor in that refrigerant
sired and may be operated manually or automat
from an evaporator is entrained with the refrig
ically. In connection with a refrigeration or air
conditioning system, device i2 may be located in
erant discharged from the elector, the combined
vapor then entering a condenser, which may be of
the conditioned area.
the evaporative condenser type. The resultant, 35 Within passage i3 is located coil. it within
condensed refrigerant is then similarly distributed
which a refrigerant may be heated and converted
into a gas at relatively high pressure. In e?ect,
coil it may be considered a boiler. The refrig
erant vapor proceeds from the boiler it through
tion systems reside in the ability to use much 40 inlet conduit I 5 to prime mover and compressor
- smaller equipment for obtaining equal refrigerat
it. While it may assume different forms, a
ing service; in reduction in size of condenser ap
wahble plate engine may serve as an illustration
to the boiler and for other service as aforesaid.
, The practical advantages ?owingjrom appli
cant’s arrangement over conventional refrigera
paratus due to e?ciencies attained with appli
since it may combine both a prime moving ele- '
cant’s system; in obtaining great savings in steam _ ment as Well as a compressor element. The. high
consumption when the system, for example, is 45 pressure vapor will be admitted to the engine to
used in railroad applications of air conditioning
drive the pistons thereof and then will be ex
as compared. with existing steam ejector sys
hausted from the engine into exhaust conduit l1,
tems; in elimination of water circulating and air
enter condenser 2| where it will be lique?ed, then
pumps in many applications; in elimination of
flow into receiver 22 and be drawn back to the
expensive battery equipment, especially in con 50 boiler by means of pump 23.
nection with railroad and motor vehicle applica
The refrigeration cycle utilizes the compressor
tions; and in considerable saving in- space due to
of the wabble plate engine It. Refrigerant vapor
the compactness of applicant’s arrangement com
from evaporator or cooling coil 20 enters the re
pared with existing systems; and in great savings
ceiving cylinders of engine It and is compressed.
in the amount of water required in the event evap 55 The compressed refrigerant will-‘leave the engine
also through exhaust conduit l1 and enter con
denser 2 I'where liquefaction will take place in the
A jet injector nozzle 44 is fed by the pump to
provide an aspiration head. The amount of liq
uid refrigerant discharged by pump 4| to the
liquid level or ?oat valve arrangement, generally
designated 45 is controlled by the liquid level
usual manner. The lique?ed refrigerant enters
receiver 22 and from there liquid is admitted
through line 3| to the evaporator or cooling coil
therein. The ?oat valve is so arranged that
20 through expansion valve 84 in the usual man
upon an increase in liquid above a certain level,
ner. The controls in connection with the refrig
port 41 will be opened as port 46 is closed, the
eration cycle may be conventional. The refrig
port 41 providing the inlet of a bypass for the
erant from receiver 22 therefore is routed in two
courses, to the evaporator and to the boiler. 10 delivery of refrigerant through conduit “to the
evaporator 20. In the event such high liquid level
persists in the ?oat chamber, relief valve 49 will
open permitting liquid refrigerant to be returned
Valve I8 operative responsive to bulb [3 controls
bypassing of refrigerant through line 85, the con
trol being in the nature of a superheat control.
to the condenser. Similarly, when the compres
It may be noted that fan 83 for the evapora
Itive condenser and pump 23 are both operated 15 sor shaft 40 reaches an excessive speed which
provides excessive pressure at the pump, the
from the shaft of engine-compressor 13.
opening of the relief valve 49, which takes'place
Fig. 3 illustrates another form of the inven
under such conditions, will relieve the pressure.
tion in which heat from any source is admitted
Also, it may be noted that a restricted ?ow takes
to passage Hi, this heat being supplied by hot
place into thrust chamber 50 and this results in
gases or may be such waste heat as is available.
an automatic pressure compensation against the
Damper ll under control of heat regulator l2
thrust of the impeller.
governs the quantity of heating medium passed
The features combined by applicant in the ar-- _
into or bypassed around boiler I4, as indicated.
rangement of Fig. 4 safeguard efficient operation
Of course, the boiler may be directly served by
under all conditions of load, and also provide
an 011 burner or the like. There is no limitation
for practical refrigerant distribution during
shutdown periods. Thus, when the unit is shut
down by cutting off the heat supply to the boiler,
- with respect to the manner of supplying heat for
vaporizing the refrigerant in the boiler. Liquid
refrigerant will be maintained at a desired level
in boiler i4 under control of a liquid level control
24 which may be of the ?oat type illustrated.
the rotor will gradually come to a stop.
Since ‘
Refrigerant vapor under relatively high pressure
condenser 35 is located above boiler [4, the liquid
in the condenser will drain to the boiler through
, enters conduit I5 and is then discharged through
pump 4 I, which provides an open passage. When
Jet compressor 25, the ejector action entraining
the boiler level reaches a desired point, the ?oat
will cause port 4'! to open and excess liquid will
vapor from evaporator or-cooling coil 20, the
?ow through bypass conduit 48 to the evaporator.
high pressure refrigerant vapor and the en
Substantially no liquid will stay in the pump as
trained. vapor entering exhaust conduit I1 and
the shaft packing is of the labyrinth type and
then condenser 28, which in this case is a water
will gradually permit the pump to drain.
cooled condenser. Water from any desired
The unit becomes operative again when heat
source enters the condenser through conduit 21
under control of valve 28 and after its course 40 is supplied to boiler l4. The boiler pressure will
gradually rise and as the vapor initially flows
through the. condenser, leaves through con
through the turbine, condensation occurs before
duit 29.
the rotor begins to rotate. This results in a fall
The condensed refrigerant feeds from con
of the liquid level in boiler l4 and a. shifting of
_ denser 26 to subcooier 30, where the liquid is re
duced in temperature by the low temperature gas 4 the ?oat valves whereupon port 41 is closed and
port 46 opened. As the pressure in the boiler
leaving the evaporator. The sub-cooled liquid is
continues to rise, the pressure in the ?oat valve
then admitted to receiver 22 which serves evap
chamber will also rise since the pressure is the
orator 20 through line 3| and also serves to sup
same in both chambers by virtue of the inter
ply refrigerant for makeup purposes through
line 32.
iii 0 connecting passages 5|, 5la. This will cause liq- .
High pressure vapor from the boiler also serves
boiler feed jet 32A thereby entraining liquid from
receiver 22 to maintain the desired liquid level
in the boiler. The over?ow from the boiler ?ows
through line 33 to the condenser.
(.1 Ll
In Fig. 4 still another form of the invention
is illustrated. Boiler l4 supplies refrigerant va
por at high pressure through conduit l5 to tur
uid to back up through conduit 52 and ?ll the
pump, so that it will be ?lledgwith liquid when
the rotor begins to turn over. There will also
be enough condensate in the condenser to satisfy _
the pump when the rotor begins to function.
In Fig. 5 another modi?cation of the inven
tion is described in which the heat for operating
the refrigeration unit is supplied from a steam or
hot water heating system. This is but one illus
35. The condenser in this case is water cooled 60 tration of the utility of the system in connection
bine wheel 34, the vapor then entering condenser
and the lique?ed refrigerant ?ows‘ from receiver
with building heating systems, or railroad steam
supply systems or with other systems in which
36 in one course through line 31 to evaporator
or cooler 23. The evaporated gas which leaves
sources of heat used for other purposes are also
available for providing refrigerating effect.
cooler 20 enters compressor wheels 38 which are
In Fig. 6 numeral I4A designates a boiler for
mounted on the same shaft as turbine wheel 34 65
heating a building. 53 represents the ?re box and
and driven thereby. The compressed gas leaves
54 the stack. The system may be of any conven
through the same condenser intake conduit 39
through which the gas from turbine wheel 34-is
tional type. Assuming this system to be designed
also admitted to condenser 35.
for use in steam heating an enclosure, some of
The common shaft 40 also mounts centrifugal
the steam will, in the usual manner, be piped to
pump 4| which serves as a vboiler feed pump.
a series of'radiators 55 through conventional sup- ‘
Liquid refrigerant from receiver 36 in part flows
ply and return lines 56_and 51. Another portion
over weir 42 for delivery to evaporator 20 as here
inbefore described. Another portion of the re
frigerant passes through passage 43 to pump 4|.
‘ of the steam supply will be admitted through
conduit 58 to refrigerant boiler i4 under control
of valve i2 which in this case is regulated under
the in?uence of a bulb II at the suction side of
evaporator or cooler 20 and returned to boiler
“A by the pumpt‘lA. The high pressure refill
‘ erant vapor from, the boiler feeds to turbo com
pressor ‘ll through conduit Ii‘ and also serves
boiler feed jet 62 through conduit 63. The re
frigerant vapor discharged from the turbine ex
haust enters condenser 64 whereas the compressedv
vapor enters condenser II. Both condensers may‘
be arranged in series, as illustrated, the cooling
water entering‘ through conduit 66 and leaving
' through discharge conduit 81.
The condensate
from condenser 04, which is under higher pressure
separator chamber, a collecting chamber
in communication with said separator chamber.
means providing communication between the sep
arator'chamber and a fourth chamber subjected
to a different pressure, the mixture ‘of lubricant "
and refrigerant in said separator chamber being
subjected to heating and evaporation action
whereby evaporated refrigerant willbe abstracted
from said separator chamber and enter the fourth
chamber, and means for withdrawing from the
collecting chamber the resultant ,concentrated
mixture having a higher lubricant content.
than condenser 65, will feed through line 88 to
2. A system for utilizing refrigerant for a plu
condenser“ and the condensate from condenser 15 rality of purposes comprising a boiler, means for
86 will feed through line‘ 80 into subcooler ‘I0 and ' vaporizing refrigerant in the boiler, a ?rst ‘vapor
then into receiver 22. The liquid from 22 will
:Iet compressing element, an evaporator asso
proceed in one course through line ii to ‘the
ciated with said element, means for supplying ‘re
evaporator or cooler 20 and through line 32 to
frigerant in gaseous form from the boiler to said
the boiler feed Jet 62 for makeup purposes. The 20 ?rst iet element, a condenser for receiving re
cool vapor at low pressure, from evaporator 20
in its return to the compressor portion of turbo
' frigerant from said jet element and liquefying
the same, an interchanger including a conduit
compressor 80 passes through subcooler ‘III and '
connecting said ‘evaporator and element, means
thereby reduces the temperature of the con
' for routing condensed refrigerant from the con
densate which feeds back from condenser 65 to 25 denser through said interchanger, a receiver for
receiver 22. Liquid level control ‘II serves to re
' accumulating
turn liquid refrigerant to condenser 64 when the
level in the boiler rises above a predetermined
from the interchanger, a ?rst line connecting said
maximum. Lines 12 and 80 serve to feed a small
pressing element for receiving refrigerant vapor
receiver to said evaporator, a second jet com
amount of refrigerant containing a relatively 30 under high pressure from the boiler, and a second .
high oil concentration to the compressor for lubri
line connecting said receiver and said second jet
cating purposes.
for supplying liquid refrigerant from the receiver
As illustrated in Fig. 2 and as shown applied
to the system of Fig. 5, applicant provides a
method of recovering oil admixed with or dis
solved in the refrigerant, the 011 being concen
to the boiler.
means for supplying heated gases, a boiler con
trated so that although a small portion of re
said heated gases for vaporizing under rela
tively high pressure a controlled portion of said
frigerant may remain in the oil containing resi
3. In a system for utilizing refrigerant,
taining refrigerant, and arranged to utilize
refrigerant, an apparatus utilizing another por
of the oil containing residue for lubricating mov 40 tion of said refrigerant for refrigeration pur
ing parts. The recti?ed refrigerant is made avail
poses, a prime mover and compressor unit for
able for use in the refrigeration cycle.
receiving said refrigerant under high pressure
Considering the arrangement of Fig. 2, or in the
and refrigerant from said apparatus, means
system of Fig. 5, part of the boiling liquid (refrig
for condensing the refrigerant received from
erant plus'oil) is fed from boiler M into chamber
said unit, means for returning from the con
, due, this will not materially impair the usefulness
‘I8 of concentrator 13.
The concentrator com
prises a surrounding pot ‘M which is heated ‘by
steam or heating ?uid from the boiler heating
means fed through conduit 75. The oil plus re
frigerant in chamber ‘i6 is kept in boiling condi
tion ‘with the result that the refrigerant is boiled '
ed and proceeds through line ‘H to condenser
apparatus of the system, vapor ori?ce ‘l8 con
trolling the discharge from chamber in to line
‘H leading to the condenser. The concentrated
oil which collects in chamber ‘89 is under pressure
and is discharged through conduit W to a line
such as ‘it of Fig. him use in lubricating moving
partsof the system. Line 85 is a waste connec
tion for steam condensate 0r_heating ?uid from
pot "Hi.
Since certain changes in "carrying out the above
method of operation and in the constructions set
forth, which embody the invention, may be made
without departing from its scope, it is intended
that all matter contained in the above descrip
tion or shown in the accompanying drawings shall
be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting
_ densing means to the boiler some of the con
densed refrigerant to be again vaporized under
high pressure, and means‘for returning from
the condenser back to the boiler a. surplus of
said last mentioned refrigerant.
4. A system for utilizing refrigerant com
prising a, first apparatus for vaporizing refrig
erant, a turbo-compressor unit, means for sup
plying vaporized refrigerant from said first ’
apparatus to the turbine portion of said unit,
means for delivering said refrigerant from said
portion to a condenser, evaporator means for
under I low
means for supplying refrigerant from the con.
denser to said last mentioned means, means for
delivering refrigerant under low pressure from
said evaporator means to the compressor part
of said unit, a pump connected to said unit,
means for feeding refrigerant from the con
denser .to said pump, and meansfor delivering
from the pump refrigerant to a reservoir and
means for controllably supplying refrigerant
from the reservoir to said ?rst apparatus and to
said evaporator means.
I claim:
v5. A system according to claim 4 including
1. In a system of the character described, an‘
means operative responsive to an increase in'
oil concentrator comprising a heating ‘chamber,
pressure beyond a. predetermined maximum in
means for admitting heating ?uid to said heat
a conduit connecting said, pump and condenser
ing chamber, a separator chamber subjected to
for admitting refrigerant from the pump to the
theiaction of said heating chamber, means for 75 condenser.
" 2,411,347
6. A system according to claim 4, in which the
means for delivering refrigerant from the pump »
discharges into a liquid level apparatus includ
ing said reservoir and means is arranged to 'co
operate with the pump for causing refrigerant
delivered by the pump to build up a pressure
compensating for and in a direction against the
thrust of the shaft of said unit.
7. A system for utilizing a refrigerant under
high and low pressures comprising a vaporizer 10
mentioned means including a control for admit
ting surplus refrigerant from the vaporizer to _
said condenser under higher pressure.
9. A system in accordance with claim 7 includ
ing means for controlling a supply of steam to the
vaporizer apparatus responsive to changing heat
load conditions affecting the vaporization of re
frigerant in the evaporator.
10. Refrigerating apparatus of the character
described including as elements thereof a com
pressor, a prime mover coupled thereto to drive
the same, a boiler and means for supplying heat
thereto, a condenser structure, an evaporator, a
gaseous form from said apparatus to a prime
main conduit system connecting said elements to
mover and compressing unit, means for feeding
refrigerant from the prime mover part of said 15 form therewith a closed circuit in which a body of
refrigerant may drivethe engine and cool the
unit to a ?rst condenser, means for discharging
apparatus, means for feeding refrigerant. to said
apparatus, means for supplying refrigerant in
refrigerant from the compressor part of said unit
evaporator, said condenser structure receiving the
refrigerant and oil entrained therewith from both
the prime mover and the compressor, the dis
densed refrigerant from both condensersto a re 20 charge from the condenser structure being dis
tributed to the evaporator and the boiler, an oil
ceiver, ‘means for routing refrigerant from the
to a second condenser under lower pressure than
the first condenser, means for delivering con
separator, a branch system including a conduit
arranged to conduct from the boiler to the sepa
rator a mixture of liquid refrigerant and oil en
other refrigerant from the receiver to said feeding
25 trained therein, means for applying heat from
receiver to an evaporator forming one element
of a refrigeration cycle, and means for delivering
8. A system according to claim 7 including
means for delivering refrigerant from the con
denser under higher pressure to the condenser
said boiler heating means to the separator to
evaporate refrigerant from the mixture, means
for conducting the resultant vapor from the sepa
rator to said condenser structure, and a conduit
under lower pressure, means for delivering refrig
erant from the condenser under lower pressure to 30 for conducting the concentrate from the sepa
rator to. said prime mover.
an interchanger including a conduit‘leading from
the evaporator, and means for .controlling the
level of refrigerant in the vaporizer, said last
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