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Патент USA US2411424

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Nov- 19, 1946.
A. M. GUREWITSCH
2,411,424
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY SPACE RESONANT SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 28, 1943
47
Inventor:
Anatole M. Gurewitsch;
y
His Attorney.
Patented‘ Nov. 1,9;1946 7
r 2,411,424
UNITED
I I I
OFFICE
I Q
etminenziila?mey sPAoE
IIQE'SONANT. SYSTEM
-_ ‘Anatole
Gurewitsch, Schenectady, N. Y., as
' _. signor to General-Ele ctric Company, a corpo-
.
ration of New York "
Application January 28, 1943,’ SerialiNo. 473,875
. 10 Claims‘. (01; 315-39)
-
1'
My invention relates to ultra high frequency
‘embodiment of my invention wherein a radially
space resonant systems, suchas space resonant
"oscillators, which employ as a control‘ element
thereof an electric discharge device.
extending stub is displaced from the discharge
device and extends into the space resonant region
for tuning the region and for controlling the
It is an object of my invention to provide new 5 wave distribution therein. ' Fig. 3 represents a
, and improved ultra high frequency space reso- ,
nant systems.
‘
still further embodiment of my invention where
.
in a plurality of adjustable radially extending
It is another object of my invention to provide
vstubs are positioned-approximately opposite the
new and improved tuning means for ‘ultra high
velectrodes of an associated electric discharge de
frequency space resonant vsystems employing, as 10 vice for tuning the spacedischarge device and
an element thereof, an electric dischargev device.
for controlling the potential appearing across the
It is another object of my invention to provide ,' electrodes, particularly the grid and cathode of
new and improved tuning means of the stub type
the discharge‘ device.
‘
for ultra high frequency oscillators.
;
' ' '
Referring now to Fig. 1 of the drawing, I have
It is a further‘ object of~my invention topro
there illustrated my invention as applied to an
vide new and improved control means in ultra
ultra high‘ frequency space resonant vsystem
15
high frequency space resonant systems which , which may be used as an ultra high frequency
include, as an element ‘thereof, 'an associated . space i-resonant oscillator and which comprises
electric discharge device, and'wherein the control
'
a‘conductive ‘member or conductor, such as a me~
means determines the ?eld distribution within 20 tallic cylinder 1 having end restrictions or walls
' the space resonant region and consequently con
-2 and! which serve to support apparatus to be
trols the voltage appearing across the electrodes '
described presently. As a central control ele
of the discharge device. a
‘
‘
ment of the space resonant system,'I employ an
Brie?y stated, in the illustrated embodiments
electric discharge device 4. Although not limited
of my invention I provide new and improved 25 thereto, the discharge device 4 may be of the type
space resonant systems wherein the space reso
disclosed and broadly claimed in copending pat
nant cavity or region may be tuned not only to
control the operating frequency of the system,
ent application‘ Serial No. 436,633, ?led March
28, 1942,. of'James E. Beggs and which is assigned
but‘ also to control the magnitude and phase of
. to theassignee of the present application.
the voltages impressed across‘ electrodes of - an ,30
\
electric discharge device employed in such a sys
v5', 1-a' grid L6, and'a cylindrical cathode ‘I, the lat
ter element'ha'ving its emissive part in the form
For example,’ in the applicationof- my inven
vof a-?at disk‘whi'ch faces the grid. 6. The en
tion to oscillators the electric discharge device .
velope within which-these electrodes are enclosed '
may be enclosed within aconductive' member or.
comprises‘ a series of three circular metal parts
)or disks.8, 9 ‘and I0 which are supported in spaced
elatio‘nilbyj-glass cylinders II and I2 sealed be
cylinder which de?nesaspace resonant region,
and stubs, either of‘conductive-nature.orjof die a
electric ni'ate'rial,_. are ;optimumlypplaced?iwithin "
weenv them; ffI'he disk ;9 serves as a terminal for
the region" toxcont'rol . not Y'cnly-the‘J‘distributionf _
of the electromagnetic "wave,'_.o'rI waves,1--within
The
discharge,“ device comprises a cylindrical anode
140.
"the grid‘, , andI a terminal -'for they anode is .pro
,Vided , by a 'cylindr'ic'alIenlargement l3 which is ‘
the regionbut'galsoz-to control thezdistrihiitionfp'i 1- f welded - ofso'ldered upon the .upper ‘surface of
the electric‘ potential ofqTthe .wave, and conse-_ " disk
'l
*
quently to control the voltage differences appear-1v
~ The cathode'Tis' provided; at its ‘lower extrem-
ing across the e'lectrodes'of ‘the discharge device. .ity with a flange'll which, parallels the under
For a 'better understanding .of 'myinvention,v i surface off-jdiskjlil hutwhich is separated from
reference may be had to, the following
descrip
V
I
j that part{ by an ‘insulating spacer l5 which may
tion taken in'connection-with the accompanying ;
_‘ be a» mica Washer.v With
'
this arrangement, the
drawing, and‘ its scopewill be‘ pointed, out ‘in the _. ~ diskv III .has a high'frequency
connection with the
appended j claims. Fig; 1 _ of ‘the accompanying‘?
cathode
through
the
capacity
existing between
drawing illustrates an embodiment of my'invené
this part and flange l 4, but is e?ectively insulated
tion as applied » to ‘a. space resonant-‘oscillates , I
wherein a plurality of stubs are} associated with ,' i'theref'rom, so far as unidirectional potentials are
__Separate.‘direct current connections
the grid terminal of thedischarge- device for con-_ , concerned.
made to the cathode by means of lead-in
trolling the potential di?erence between the grid ' are
eonductors i8 and. I‘! which are secured to the
and cathode." Fig. zillustratesa still further
‘ under’surface of ?ange I 4 and are connected to
2,411,424
terminal posts I8 and I9 which are supported by
the base of the discharge device. Additional ter
minal posts 20 and 2| are provided for the pur
pose of supplying heating current to a coiled or
?lamentary cathode heater 22 arranged within
the cylindrical cathode ‘I.
.'
Anode 5 of electric discharge device 4 is con
nected to a longitudinally extending rod 23 which
is arranged to have one end extend beyond the
4
As one example of the way in which the stubs
may be positioned, stubs 33 and 34 may be posi
tioned longitudinally, one on each side of the
conductor 36 which is connected to the grid disk
9 and which is provided with a disk foot 31. Stub
35 is positioned opposite the outer surface of foot
' 37. Stub 33 may be positioned longitudinally with
respect to conductor 36 by a suitable mechanical
means such as a Worm gear and thumb adjusting -
de?ning conductor or cylinder I for the purpose 10 means 38 supported by end wall 2. In like man
ner, the stub 35 may be adjusted in its radial po
of facilitating application of unidirectional po
sition by means of a similar adjusting means 39
tential across the anode and the cathode of the
supported and attached to the outer surface of“v
discharge device. The other terminal for the
discharge potential may be connected to terminal
being
cylinder
relatively
I. Although
fixed stub
in position
34 is shown
and insupported
Fig. 1
post I8 and this post may also be connected to 15
from cylinder 25 by means of a base 40,‘ it is
cylinder 1 through a resistance 24 which con
within the purview of my invention to provide
trols the difference in potential between the oath
also an adjustment of stub 34 in the event such
ode ‘I and cylinder I.
adjustment is found necessary for the proper
As a means for de?ning with cylinder I a space
resonant cavity or region, I provide a conductive 20 control of the wave within the region..
A biasing potential may be impressed on grid
tubular member or cylinder 25 in spaced relation
6 of the discharge device 4 by means of a ?exible
with respect to connecting rod 23 and which may
conductor 4| which extends through an opening
be supported by the end wall 3. Filtering means,
in cylinder I and which is provided with an
such as an annular member 26, is located within
externally accessible terminal 42. Terminal 42
the space between rod 23 and the inner surface
may be supported by slidable plates 43 which
of cylinder 25 for the purpose of oifering oppo
permit adjustment of conductor 4| to an opti
sition to‘ the ?ow of electromagnetic waves, there
mum point, that is, to a position where the con
by serving to prevent the dissipation of the ?eld
ductor causes minimum disturbance of the de
energy through this space.
I employ tuning means for controlling the nat 30 sired wave distribution.
Relative to the operation of the space resonant
ural frequency of the space resonant region de- >
system shown in Fig. 1, upon the application of a
?ned between the inner surface of cylinder I and
unidirectional potential across the anode and
the outer-surface of cylinder 25 and for control
ling thereby the operating frequency of the sys
cathode of discharge device 4, the system will be
set into oscillation and the operating frequency
tem as'a whole. The tuning means may take the
thereof is determined by the position of plunger
form of an annular plunger 21 having restricted
?nger parts 28 which closely engage the respec
- 21 and the net effect of the stubs 33—35, inclu
sive. The coupling between the anode-grid and
tive surfaces of cylinder I and plunger,25 but
which permit axial or longitudinal adjustment of
the grid-cathode circuits of discharge device 4
the plunger. Plunger 21 may be adjusted longi 40 may be considered as accomplished not only by
the interelectrode capacitances of the discharge
tudinally by means of a rod 29 which, in turn, device but also by virtue of the effect of tuning
may be connected to a suitable gear mechanism
for effecting the desired precise positioning of the
stubs 33-35. In addition to the above-stated
functions, the tuning stubs 33-35 also serve to
plunger.
,
' control the magnitude and the phase of the high
Energy may be extracted from the space res
frequency potential difference appearing across
onant regions by any suitable output electrode
grid 6 and cathode 1. Control of the grid-cath
means. For example, as one form of such out- ‘
ode voltage is obtained by adjustment of stubs
put electrode means I. have chosen to show a loop
30 constituting an extension of an inner conduc
33 and 35.
tor 3I of a concentric transmission line compris 50 In Fig. 2 there is illustrated another embodi
ment of my invention which is similar in many
ing the inner conductor 3| and an outer tubular
respects to that shown in Fig. 1, and correspond
conductor 32.
ing elements have been assigned like reference
Within the space resonant region de?ned by
numerals. In the arrangement of Fig. 2, I pro
cylinders I and 25, I provide a single stub, or a
. plurality of stubs, for tuning the space resonant 55 vide a radial tuning stub 44 which may be ad
justed in its position by means of a worm-gear
region and for controlling the form or distri
bution of the standing electromagnetic wave
and thumb-screw means 45 which serves to tune
the space resonant region de?ned by cylinders
therein. One way in which this type of con
I and 25. Of course, the natural frequency of the
struction may oe employed is for the purpose
of controlling the potential distribution, that is 60 space resonant region may be controlled by the
the electric component of the standing
magnetic wave, and thereby controlling
tential‘ di?erence across the electrodes
charge device 4. In Fig. 1 I have chosen
three stubs, 33, 34 and 35, which may
electro
the po
of dis
to show
be em
, ployed for the above described purpose.
These
joint operation of plunger 21 and stub 44.
An electrical connection or conductor 46 is
connected to the grid disk 9 and may be connect
ed to the negative terminal of the direct current
5 source and the cathode ‘I through a resistance 41.
Conductor 48 may be made externally accessible
stubs may be constructed of either a conductive - by- employing a conductive ‘tuning means com
prising a tubular member 48 and an adjustable
material or a ‘dielectric material, depending upon
plunger 49.
the nature and-distribution of the electromagnetic
?eld within the space resonant region, and the 70 Conductor 46 is . preferably electrically con
number, size and positions of the stubs will of ‘ nected to plunger. 49 and maintained at the same
potential as cylinder I. One way in which this
course depend upon the general con?guration of
may be effected is by passing conductor 46
the space resonant region and the shape and po
through a relatively small aperture in the end of
sitlon of the electric discharge device which is
75 plunger 49 and electrically connecting the con
employed in the region.
2,411,424
,
' ductor '48 thereto by means of a plurality of an
'
,
6
'
stubs extending into said resonator within the
vicinity of said conductor’ for controlling the po
tential distribution of the electromagnetic waves
nularly spaced ?ngers 49' which serve to prevent
the transfer of appreciable energy through the
aperture in the end of the plunger. Plunger 49
within said resonator and for controlling the '
may be positioned as illustrated opposite the grid
grid-cathode voltage of said discharge device.
of electric discharge device 4' and more particu
2. An ultra high frequency resonator compris- '
larly the grid disk 9 in order to control the mag
'
ing
a conductive member providing a resonator,
nitude and phase of the potential of the grid. In
an electric discharge device within said resonator
this manner, the potential difference appearing
between the grid and the cathode of discharge 10 and including a. plurality of electrodes compris
ing an anode, a cathode and a grid and being pro-.
' device 4 may be controlled, thereby providing'an
vided with externally accessible'high frequency
additional means for controlling the distribution
and form of the standing electromagnetic wave
‘ terminals, a conductor extending from ‘the jter-, minal connected to said grid, a longitudinal stub ‘
and a radial stub projecting into said resonator '
withinv the space resonant region and for con
trolling the‘spatial distribution of the electric 15
within the vicinity of said conductive member,
component of the electromagnetic wave.
and adjustable means attached to said resonator
for controlling the positions of said stubs with
A still further modi?cation of my invention is
shown in Fig. 3 which is also similar in some re- ‘ - respect to said conductor for
controlling the grid
spects to the arrangements shown in Figs. 1 and
cathode voltage of said discharge device. ‘
2, and corresponding elements have been assigned 20
3. An ultra high frequency resonator comprise
like reference numerals. In thearrangement of
Fig. 3, I provide a tuning plunger 50 at one end
of the space resonant region and which engages
the inner surface of cylinder I and the outer
surface of a conductive cylinder 5| which sup 25
ports the based the electric discharge device 4.
The axial or longitudinal position of plunger 50
ing a conductive member providing a resonator,
an electric discharge device-within said resonator
and including a plurality of electrodes compris
ing an anode, a cathode and a grid and being pro
vided with externally accessible high frequency
terminals, a'conductor extending from the ter
minal connected to said grid, a pair of longitudi
nally positioned stubs on opposite sides of said
onant region and for controlling the potential 30 conductor, adjustable means attached to said res
onator for controlling the relative position of said
difference between the electrodes of discharge
stubs, a radial stub opposite said conductor, and
device 4, I provide a plurality of radially adjust
adjustable means attached to said resonator for
able stubs 53, “and 55. Stub 54 is preferably
may be controlled by actuating rods 52.
As additional means for tuning the space res
controlling the radial position of said last men
tioned stub.
.
stubs 55 ‘and 53 may be placed generally within 35
4.An
ultra
high
frequency
resonator com
the vicinity of the anode and cathode of dis
prising
a
conductive
member
providing.
a-res
charge device 4 or at a distance beyond these
onator,
an
electric
discharge
device
within
said
points, By adjustment of the radial positions of
resonator and including a plurality of electrodes
the ends of stubs 53-55, it will be appreciated
comprising an anode, a cathode and a grid and
that I provide readily adjustable means for de 40 being
provided with externally accessible high
termining the distribution of the standing electro
frequency
terminals, a conductive connection
magnetic wave within the space resonant device
extending from the terminal connected to said
and consequently for controlling the spatial dis
. grid, a tuneable plunger opposite said terminal
tribution of the electric'component of the elec- "
through which said conductive connection -ex
tromagnetic wave. Furthermore, such 'an ar
tends, and means attached to said resonator for
rangment is readily susceptible of controlling the
located immediately opposite .the grid disk 9, and
controlling the distribution of the electromag
magnitude and phase of the voltage impressed
across cathode TI and grid 6.
‘
'
netic waves within said resonator comprising a
,
radially adjustable stub spaced in said resonator
In the operation of the arrangement shown in
Fig. 3, the natural operating frequency of the
space resonant system maybe controlled by in
dividual or Joint adjustment of plungers 21 and
ill and tuning stubs 53-45.
from said electric discharge device. “
50
-
‘
5. An ultra high frequency resonator compris
ing a conductive member providing a resonator,
an electric discharge device within said resonator
and including a plurality of electrodes compris
ing an anode, acathode and a grid and being pro
-
‘While in the illustrated embodiments of my
invention I have shown my invention as applied
to a ‘space resonant system of particular con
vided with externally accessible high frequency
terminals, a conductive connection extending
from the terminal connected to said ‘grid, a tune
able plunger opposite said terminal ‘through
which said conductive connection extends, and
?guration and as employing‘a particular type
electric discharge device and control elements
of particular form, it will ‘be obvious. to those
skilled in the-art that changes and modi?cations
means attached to said resonator for controlling
may be made without departing from myinven 60 the
grid-cathode voltage of said discharge device
tion, and I, therefore, aim in the appended claims
by controlling the distribution of the electromag
to cover all such changes and modifications as
fall within the true spirit and scope of my in
vention. >
What I claim as new andv desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. An ultra high frequency resonator compris
netic waves within said resonator comprising an
adjustable. radial stub opposite the grid terminal
65 and a pair of adjustable radial stubs. on .either
side of the ?rst mentioned stub.
-
6. An ultra high frequency resonator compris- '
1118 a conductive cylinder providing a resonator.
ing a conductive member providing a resonator,
an electric discharge device within said res- '
an electric discharge device within said resonator 70 onator
of generally cylindrical configuration ‘and
and including a plurality of electrodes compris
including a plurality of electrodes comprising an
ing an anode, a cathode and a grid and being pro
anode, a cathode and 'a grid and being provided
vided with externally - accessible high, frequency
--with externally accessible disks constituting high
terminals, a conductor extending from the termi
frequency terminals, an externally accessible an
nal connected to said grid, and a plurality of 75 ode
connecting rod, a ‘tubular ~conductor sur
2,411,424 ‘
rounding and in spaced relation with said roll,
a longitudinally adjustable annular tuning
plunger between said cylinder and said tubular
on said grid comprising an electrical connection
to said grid and extending through said con- .
tromagnetic waves within said resonator com
ductor, and means for controlling the high fre
quency potential of said grid comprising a
metallic tuning plunger within the vicinity of
the grid terminal and through which said elec
trical connection extends.
9. An ultra high frequency resonator com
one on each side of the ?rst mentioned stub.
including a plurality of electrodes comprising an
conductor at one end of said resonator, a second
annular plunger at the other end of said res
onator, means for controlling the grid-cathode
voltage by controlling the distribution of the elec
prising a hollow conductor providing a resonator.
prising a radially adjustable stub opposite the
grid disk, and a pair of radially adjustable stubs 10 an electric discharge device within said resonator
anode, a cathode and a grid and having exter
nally accessible high frequency terminals, means
for impressing a biasing potential on said grid
resonator of generally cylindrical con?guration 15 comprising an electrical connection to said grid
and extending through said conductor, and
and including a plurality of electrodes compris
means for controlling the potential of said grid
ing an anode, a cathode and a grid and being pro
comprising a tuning means including a" tubular
vided with externally accessible disks constitut
metallic conductor connected to said ?rst men
ing as high frequency terminals, an externally
accessible anode connecting rod, a tubular con 20 tioned conductor and having therein a radially
adjustable plunger through which said electrical
ductor surrounding and in spaced relation with
connection extends.
said rod, a longitudinally adjustable annular tun
10.,An ultra high frequency resonator com
ing plunger between said cylinder and said tubu
7. An ultra high frequency resonator compris
ing a hollow conductive cylinder providing a res
onator, an electric discharge device within said
lar conductor at one end of said resonator, a sec
ond annular plunger at the other end of said
resonator, means for controlling the grid-cath
ode voltage by controlling the distribution of the
electromagnetic waves within said resonator’
comprising a radially adjustable stub opposite
the grid disk, a pair of radially adjustable stubs 30
prising a hollow metallic cylinder providing a
resonator, an electric discharge device of gen-
erally cylindrical con?guration within said
resonator and including a plurality of electrodes
comprising an anode, a cathode and a grid, an
anode connecting rod within and extending ax
ially of said cylinder, a tubular conductor about
said connecting rod and displaced radially there
one on each side of the ?rst mentioned stub, an
from, ?ltering means supported by‘ said connect
externally accessible conductive connection to
ing rod for offering a high impedance to the flow
said grid disk, and a tuneable plunger radially op
of electromagnetic energy within the space be
posite said grid disk through which said conduc
tive connection extends.
35 tween said anode rod and said tubular conductor,
adjustable means between said cylinder and said
8. An ultra high frequency resonator com
tubular conductor for controlling the effective
prising a, hollow cylindrical conductor provid
electrical length of said resonator, and means for
ing a resonator, an electric discharge device with
controlling the voltage impressed across said grid
in said resonator including a plurality of elec
trodes comprising an anode, a cathode and a 40 and said cathode comprising an adjustable ra
dial stub extending within said cylinder.
grid axially aligned within said conductor and
having externally accessible high frequenecy ter
minals, means for impressing a biasing potential
ANATOLE M. GUREWITSCH.
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