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Патент USA US2411468

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Nov. 19, 1946.
L. sENDER
MANUFACTURE 0F SOAP
Filed Nov. 25, 1943
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Patented Nov. 19, 1946
2,411,468
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,468
MANUFACTURE 0F SOAP
Leopold Sender, Baltimore, Md., assignor to The
Sharples Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa., a cor
poration of Delaware
Application November 25, 1943, Serial No. 511,705
1 claim. (c1. 25o-4.18,)
The present invention relates to the art of soap
making, and was conceived as a method of mak
2
practice of the present invention, the fat and re
agent are ñrst mixed during maintenance of a
ing soap continuously with the aid of centrifugal
separators.
saponifying temperature to cause saponi?lcation,
Processes for the manufacture of soap by pass Ul and the soap formed as a result of the reaction is
grained. The resulting mixture is then subjected
ing a saponifying reagent continuously into con~
to aging by maintenance of a period of relative
iiuence with a source of fat, saponifying the fat
quiescence or lesser degree of agitation, and the
by passage of the mixture at saponifying tem
mixture of grained soap and spent saponifying
perature continuously through mixing apparatus,
reagent is then subjected to a further period of
and separating spent reagent from soap by cen
agitation in order to provide sufficient dispersion
trifugation are described and claimed in the pat
of the soap in the aqueous phase to afford sub
ents of Ashton T. Scott, 2,300,749 and 2,300,750,
stantially uniform distribution of the Soap in that
of November 3, 1942. The present invention is
phase as the mixture is passed to the centrifugal
primarily a development and improvement with
separator for separation of the spent reagent
respect to the procedure of these two patents.
15 from the grained soap.
In the processes of the above-mentioned Scott
The succession of steps of the invention as de
patents, the fat is continuously saponiñed by
scribed above, may be performed both in the ñrst
treatment with a saponifying reagent such as lye,
stage of soap making as described in connection
the saponilication being accomplished by in
tensely mixing the fat and lye while passing them 20 with the ñrst stages of the respective prior pat
ents to Scott discussed above, and in any or all
at a saponifying temperature through mixing
of the series of subsequent saponifying stages of
apparatus. The resulting soap-containing mass
which each involves addition of saponifying re
is maintained under intensive agitation until it
agent, graining and separation as described in
is passed into a centrifugal separator for remov
the prior Scott patents. Each' stage in which a
ing the spent aqueous reagent from the soap.
saponifying reagent is added is thus referred to
The soap is grained, and thus conditioned for re
as a “saponifying stage” herein, eventhough the
moval of the spent aqueous reagent, prior to cen
addition of saponifying reagent in the last such
trifugation, by the addition of a salt solution, or
stage may be wholly or partly for the purposes of
an excess of saponifying reagent which serves as
a salting-out agent. In -the process of Patent 30 recovering glycerine and preparation for finish-J
ing, and `no actual saponiñcation occurs in such
2,300,750 the salting-out operation is accom
plished by addition of the salting-out agent be
fore the start of the saponi?ication reaction.
The present invention may include any or` all
of the features of either of the prior patents to
Scott discussed above. It includes steps of effect
ing continuous saponiñcation by passage of the
fat and saponifying reagent together through a
stage.
By the practice of the invention as discussed
above, the following advantages are attained.
The quiescent treatment or churning obtained in
the aging step causes a change in the mixture
which facilitates subsequent centrifugation.Y It
has been found that, in cases in which saponiñed
and grained mixtures presenting substantial dif
ñculty of separation are obtained in the practice
tion of a salting-out agent either simultaneously
with the saponifying reagent or subsequently to 40 of the Scott patents, the practice of the interven
ing aging step in accordance with the present
addition thereof, and centrifugation of the mix
invention assists in avoidance of these difficulties.
ture of spent saponifying reagent and grained
'I‘he aging treatment also provides a longer
soap resulting from the saponiñcation while the
grained soap is in a condition of substantially 45 time of contact between the fat and lye, or the
formed soap and lye, and this longer period of
uniform dispersion in the spent saponifying
reagent.
contact with the saponifying reagent tends to
destroy constituents of the mixture which would
'I‘he novel feature of the present invention con
otherwise cause rancidity of the soap after the
sists in the fact that the mixing step by which
intimate contact of the saponifying reagent with 50 soap-making operation has been completed.
In addition to the above advantages, the aging
the fat is attained to cause the saponification
treatment, by giving a longer time of contact of
and to bring the soap formed by the saponifying
the unsaponified fat with the lye, assists in deple
reaction into a state of uniform dispersion is
tion of the lye and attainment of a higher degree
divided into two steps, and a step of aging is in
of saponiñcation.
terposed between these two mixing steps. In the 55
The detailed nature of the invention and its
saponifying mixer, graining the mixture by addi
2,411,468
attendant advantages will be better understood
by consideration of the following detailed de
scription in the light of the attached flow sheet,
in which the single figure illustrates a preferred
embodiment of the invention.
Referring to the flow sheet by reference char
acters, fat from container lil is passed into con
?luence with saponifying reagent from container
I I. This saponifying reagent may be an aqueous
solution of lye and salt, designed to effect saponi
ñcation of the fat and graining of the soap
formed by the saponifying reaction, as described
in Scott Patent 2,300,750. As illustrated in the
4
ly saponiíied mass containing the soap formed
in the first stage is subjected to a second stage
of saponiñcation in order to complete conversion
-of the source of fat into soap.
As in the prior
Scott patents, this may be accomplished by in
troduction of the saponifying reagent into the
cover of centrifugal Ii. Thus, a solution of lye
and brine, which may either be a fresh solution
or a solution derived from' a subsequent stage
of treatment, is introduced into the cover of
centrifugal H by pump IB, and the resulting mix
ture is passed thence by pump 2e to mixer ZI,
through this mixer 2l to ager 22, and from ager
22` through mixer' 23 to centrifugal 24, these ele
ments of the iiow sheet accomplishing the same
functions as are performed by the pumps and
elements I4, I5, I6 and I'l of the ñrst stage of
flow sheet, the solution of lye and brine em
ployed in the ñrst stage of saponification may
be a solution derived in whole or in part from
the step of separation of a subsequent stage;
the process, as described'above.
y
i. e., the process may involve counter-,current
The soap discharged from the second stage
operation as described in the prior Scott patents.
centrifugal 24 may be subjected to further treat
The fat from container> Il] and saponifying re 20 ment, as described in the' two Scott patents re
agent from container il may be pumped into
ferred to above, andif such further treatment
confluence with eachother' by'` pumps I2 and
includes further steps of saponification, they will
i3, which pump these' material-s to' and .through
preferably include an aging step, as described
the mixer' Ill in' the desired> ratio. The reaction
above with respect to the first two stages of treat
25
mixture, or its constituents, isv (are) heated to
ment. The performance of the step o'f aging has
a temperature (e. gv., 200° F.) sufficiently high to
a particular advantage in the' last stage of soap
effect saponi?ication of most of the fat during
making, since the maintenance of` the fully
passage through the mixer iii. The mixture is
saponiiiedl soap-containing mixture in contact
maintained in a state of intensive agitation
with an excess of the free alkali for' al substan
during passage through'l the mixer' iii in order 30 tialpe'riodl of time? assists in avoiding rancidity,
to insure rapid saponiiication of the fat.V When
as discussed. above, and it is therefore desirable
a graini-ng' agent suoliY as salt 'isi included with
to provide an aging period after the fat has been `
the saponifying reagent-y the' soap i's lgrained
fully saponi'fied.
promptly upon formation thereof. It is possibile,
The partly' spent aqueous solution discharged
however, to introduce the saponiïfying reagent 35 from the centrifugal 24 may be passed by pump
and graining agent separately, as described in
25A to' container' ifi for re-use in the first stage
Scott Patent- 2,ۤ00,-749, and when operation of
of the' process, in order to make the' process truly
this type is» accomplished, the grain'ing agent is
counter-current, as' described in the Scott patents
preferably added before the' reaction mixture
to above.
'
leaves the mixer it, orat least before it enters 40 referredv
Various modifications" in the' above-described
the ager I5.
procedure are available to the person skilled in
'The reaction mixture is passed continuously
the art', and are' hence within the scope of the
from mixer id through an aging tank i5. The
invention. For' example, instead of including the
mixer it is' preferably provided with agitating
grainin‘g reagent' as a part Yof the saponifying
blades to' insure violent agitation, but the- ager
solution, this grain'ing" reagent may he'V added
I5 need not be' provided with such elements. It
subsequently to' the saporliifying» reagent, as de
isi desire-bie' that the mixture be gently agitated
scribed iii Scott Patent 2,300,749. Many other .
during 'passage through the' ager i5,` but this
pos'sib'ilities for'modiñc'atiorl falll within the scope
result can be accomplished. either by the" natural
of tine> invention,~ and' Ido not therefore, wish' to
movement of the' mixture through th'a't tank, or
be' limite'dl excep-tiby- the scope olf the following
by provision of agitating blades which provide
much: less violence: than that maintained in' the
mixerV
I4.
-
.
,
.
As the? result of th‘e' aging step performed dur'
claim.
'
’
"
In the manufacture of soap, the' process com
prising continuously converting fat into soap by
in'g' passage of the mixture through the ager »f mixing'said fat vigorously with ai sa'ponifyin'g~ re
the material flowing from that mixer will
agent' at a' saponifyin'g temperature during pas
ordinarily be l’e'ss' nearly uniform in composition
sage' through a mixing Zone‘,graining. the soap
than that flowing into containerï i5 fron'iï mixer
resulting from .said mixing' step', thereafter pass
M; In order' to insure eiîi'cien‘t centrifugation of
ing.' the resulting mixture of grainedvsoap and
this material, - iït» is- desirable
aqueous phase' through an aging zone in: which
to» a higher degree of agitation
that main
th'eï mixture is' churn’e'd by agitation 'of a' degîrl'ee
tained in container le, atleast for a b‘rie'ff period
less than. that maintained in the' preceding mix'.
before centri-fugationi.4 This iis accomplished: by
ing zone', passingv a'q'e'ous phase andv grained soap v
passingl the 'material through a'. mixer I6 which
from said'. aging zone into a secondi n'rrixingiv aon'e
provides the desired degree' of agitation and' ef'
in which they are agitatedV more vigor‘fousl'yî> than
fects uniform`~l dispersion of the soap’in‘ th'e' aque
in the aging Zone until substantially uniform
ousl phase before the` materiali enter-‘si the'.` cen
dispersion of. the soapri's obtained, and' fina'ily
trifugal'.
"
f
passing the mixture resulting from agitation in
From mixer'Y I6, the' mixture of> spent' reagent
saidi last-mentionedY mixing ZoneA to a centrifugal
70
and graine'dl soap'li'sì passed to’centriïfugal. l'! for
separator and thereby separating th'eï grained
separation of the spent reagent fromI the soap- as
soap- from aqueous phase.>
in the YtwoSco'tt pa'terlits> referred toi above'.
AfterÍ discharge from centrifugal» Iî'l ,. th'eï large
VLit'oroLD- senese'.
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