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Nov. 19, 1946. 1.. SENDER 2,41 1,469 MANUFACTURE OF SOAP Filed Nov. 25, 1943 %\ 3.85.5 Iv5$%‘2 “(95: QYADMERMQWNU MN“N Patented‘ Nov. 19’, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. 2,411,469 MANUFACTURE OF SOAP Leopold Sender, Baltimore, Md., assignor-to The Sharples Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa., a cor poration of Delaware Application November 25, 1943, Serial No. 511,706 1 Claim. (Cl. 260-418) The present invention relates to the art of soap making, and was conceived as a method of making soap continuously with the aid of cen trifugal separators. 2 posed between these two mixing steps. In the practice of the present invention, the fat and reagent are ?rst mixed during maintenance of a saponifying temperature to cause saponi?cation, Processes for the manufacture of soap by pass- 5 and the soap formed asa result of the reaction ing a saponifying reagent continuously into conis grained. The resulting mixture is then sub ?uence with a source of fat, saponifying the fat jected to aging by maintenance of a period Of by passage of the mixture at saponifying temrelative quiescence or lesser degree of agitation, perature continuously through mixing apparatus, and a part of the aqueous phase settles from and separating spent reagent from soap by cen- 10 the grained soap during this aging step and is trifugation are described and claimed in the paremoved. The mixture of grained 8091p and Spent tents of Ashton T. Scott, 2,300,749 and 2,300,750, saponifying reagent remaining after removal of of November 3, 1942. The present invention is a portion of said saponifying reagent is then pref primarily a development and improvement with erably subjected to a further period of agitation respect to the procedure of these two patents. 15 in order to provide sufiicient dispersion of the In the processes of the above-mentioned Scott ‘soap in the aqueous phase to afford substantially patents, the fat is continuously saponi?ed by uniform distribution of the soap in that phase as treatment with a saponifying reagent such as lye, the mixture is passed to the centrifugal separa the saponi?cation being accomplished by intensetor for separation of the remaining spent reagent ly mixing the fat and lye while passing them 20 from the grained soap. at a saponifying temperature through mixing apThe succession of steps of the invention, as de paratus. The resulting soap-containing mass is scribed above, may be performed both in the ?rst maintained under intensive agitation until it is stage of soap making as described in connection passed into a centrifugal separator for removwith the ?rst stages of the respective Drier Pet ing the spent aqueous reagent from the soap, 25 ents to Scott discussed above, and in any or all The soap is grained, and thus conditioned for of the series of subsequent saponifying stages, of removal of the spent aqueous reagent, prior to which each involves addition of saponifying l‘e centrifugation, by the addition of a salt solution, agent, graining and separation as described in or an excess of saponifying reagent which serves the prior Scott patents. Each stage in which a as a salting-out agent. In the process of Pat- 30 saponifying reagent is added is thus referred to cut 2,300,750, the salting-out operation is accomas a “saponifying stage” herein, even though the plished by addition of the salting-out agent beaddition of saponifying reagent in the last such fore the start of the saponi?cation reaction. stage may be wholly or partly for the purposes The present invention may include any or all of recovering glycerine and Preparation for ?n of the features of either of the prior patents to 35 ishing, and no actual saponi?cation occurs in Scott discussed above. It includes steps of e?ectsuch stage. ing continuous saponi?cation by passage of the By the Practice Of the invention as discussed fat and saponifying reagent together through a above, the following advantages are attained. saponifying mixer, graining the mixture by addiThe quiescent treatment or churning obtained tion of a salting-out agent either simultaneously 40 in the aging step causes a change in the mix with the saponifying reagent or subsequently to ture which facilitates subsequent centrifugation. the addition thereof, and centrifugation of the The removal of a part of the aqueous phase dur mixture of spent saponifying reagent and grained soap resulting from the saponi?cation while the ing this aging step also improves centrifugation, and makes it possible to improve the through grained soap is in a condition of substantially 45 put of the centrifugal in separated soap or to uniform dispersion in the spent saponifying reimprove the degree of removal of aqueous phase agent, ' The novel feature of the present invention con- from the soap product. It has been found that, in cases in which the saponi?ed and grained mix sists in the fact that the mixing step by which ture presents substantial dii?culty of separation intimate contact of the saponifying reagent with 60 in the practice of the Scott patents, the inclu the fat is attained to cause the saponi?cation and sion of the intervening aging step in accordance to bring the soap formed by the saponifying re with the present invention assists in avoidance action into a state of uniform dispersion is di vided into two steps, and a step of aging and sep of these di?iculties. The aging treatment also provides a longer oration of a part of the aqueous phase is inter- 55 time of contact between the fat and lye, or the _ 2,411,409 ' 4 formed soap and lye, and this longer period of contact with the saponifying reagent tends to destroy constituents of the mixture which would otherwise cause rancidity of the soap after the soap-making operation has been completed. In addition to the above advantages, vthe aging treatment, by giving a longer time of contact ‘of the unsaponi?ed fat with’ the lye, assists in depletion of the lye and attainment of a higher degree of saponi?cation. 10 than would be the case if the mixture from mixer I‘ were to be introduced directly from that mixer into centrifugal 18. This may cause dimculty in of separation of a subsequent stage; i. e., the _ or a solution derived from a subsequent stage of subsequent centrifugation unless corrected. In order to attain a degree of uniformity of mixing of aqueous phase and grained soap ?owing from ager I5 sufficient to insure ef?cient centrifuga tion, the grained soap-containing mixture ?ow ing from ager I5 is passed through a mixer l6 which provides a higher degree of agitation than ager l5 and effects uniform dispersion of the soap The detailed nature of the invention and its in the remaining aqueous phase before the ma attendant advantages will be better understood by terial enters the centrifugal. consideration of the following detailed vdescrip From the' mixer l6_,_the mixture of spent re tion in the light of the attached ?ow sheet, in which the single ?gure illustrates a preferred 15 agent and grained soap is passed to centrifugal I 8 for separation of the spent reagent from the embodiment of the invention. soap as in the two Scott patents referred to Referring to the flow sheet by reference char above. acters, fat from container I0 is passed into con After discharge from the centrifugal 18, the‘ ?uence with saponifying reagent from container II. This saponifying reagent may be an aqueous 20 'largely saponi?ed mass containing the soap formed in the ?rst stage is subjected to a second solution of lye and salt, designed to effect sapon stage of saponi?cation in order to complete con i?cation of the fat and graining of the soap version of the source of fat into soap. As in the formed by the saponifying reaction, as described prior Scott patents, this may be accomplished by in Scott ‘Patent 2,300,750. As illustrated in the introduction of the saponifying reagent into the ?ow sheet, the solution of lye and brine employed cover of centrifugal l8. Thus, a solution of lye in the ?rst stage of saponi?cation may be a so and brine, which‘may either be a fresh solution lution derived in whole or in part from the step treatment, is introduced from container [9 The fat 80 into the cover of centrifugal I8 by pump 20, and the resulting mixture is passed thence by , from container l0 and saponifying reagent from container I I may be pumped into con?uence with _ pump 2| to mixer 22, through this mixer 22 to process may involve counter-current operation as described in the prior Scott patents. each other by pumps I2 and [3 to and through the mixer M in the desired ratio. The reaction ager 23 and from ager 23 through mixer 24 to centrifugal 25, these elements of the flow sheet mixture, or its, constituents,v is (are) heated to.a 85 accomplishing the same functions as are per formed by the pumps and elements 14, i5, i6 temperature (e. g}, 200° F.) su?iciently high to and. N3 of the ?rst stage of the process, as de effect saponi?cation of most of the fat during scribed above. ' 7 ~ passage through the mixer Hi. The mixture is The soap discharged from the second stage maintained in a state of intensive agitation dur ing passage through the mixer l4 in order to in 40 centrifugal 25 may be subjected to further treatment, as described in the two Scott patents sure rapid saponi?cation of the fat. When a referred to above, and if such further treatment graining agent such as salt is included with the includes further steps of saponi?cation, they saponifying reagent, the soap is grained prompt will preferably include an aging step, as de ly upon formation thereof. It is possible, how ever, to introduce the saponifying reagent and 45 scribed above with respect to the ?rst two stages of treatment. The performance of the step of graining agent separately, as described in Scott aging has a particular advantage in the last stage Patent 2,300,749, and when operation of this type is accomplished, the graining agent is preferablyv of soap making, since the maintenance of the fully saponi?ed soap-containing mixture in con added before the reaction mixture leaves the tact with an excess of the free alkali for a sub mixer ill, or at least before it enters the ager i5. ‘ stantial period of time assists in avoiding rancid The reaction mixture is passed continuously ity, as discussed above, and it is therefore de vfrom mixer it through an aging tank 55. The sirable to provide an aging period after the fat mixer id is preferably provided with agitating has been fully saponi?ed. blades to insure violent agitation, but the ager The partly spent aqueous solution discharged i5 need not be provided with such elements. It 55 from the centrifugal 25 may be passed by pump is desirable that the mixture be gently agitated 21 to container II for reuse in the ?rst stage of during passage through the ager I5, but this re sult can be accomplished either by the natural the process, in order to make the ‘process truly movement of the mixture through that tank, or counter-current, as described in the Scott pat by provision of agitating blades which provide 60 ents referred to above. Aqueous reagent with much less violence than that maintained in the drawn from ager 23 through valve 26 may be mixer l4. combined with the partially spent aqueous re The ager i5 is preferably provided with a ta agent from centrifugal 25 for recycling to the pered bottom designed to permit removalof spent earlier stage of the process therewith. aqueous reagent separated from the grained soap 65 Spent aqueous reagent removed through valve during the aging step through the draw-off valve I‘! from ager l5 may similarly be combined with l1. Thus, the ensuing s -p of centrifugation is facilitated by removal at this point of a part of the aqueous phase which would otherwise be re moved by subsequent centrifugation. As the result of maintenance of relative quies cence during passage of the mixture through the ager I5, aqueous’phase which still remains dispersed in grained soap ?owing from that ager aqueous phase discharged from centrifugal l8, in order that the combined aqueous phase thus obtained ‘may be subjected to treatment for 70 glycerine recovery. Various modi?cations in the above-described procedure are available to the person skilled in the art, anr’ are hence within the scope of the in will be much less nearly uniformly distributed 76 vention. For example, instead of including the 2,41 1,489 5 graining reagent 'as apart of the saponifying so lution, this graining reagent may be added sub sequently to the saponifying reagent, as described in Scott Patent 2,300,749. The remixing step, after removal of part of the saponifying reagent from the mixer and before centrifugation, may also sometimes be- omitted. Many other possi bilities for modi?cation fall within the scope of the invention, and I do not therefore wish to be limited except by the scope of the following claim. I claim: ' In the manufacture of soap, the process com prising continuously converting fat into soap by mixing said fat vigorously with a saponiiying re agent at a saponifying temperature during pas sage through a mixing zone, graining the soap resulting from said mixing step, thereafter pass 6 . ing the resulting mixture 0! grained soap and aqueous phase through an aging zone in which the mixture is churned by agitation of a degree ‘ less than that maintained in the preceding mix ing zone, removing a part of the aqueous phase ' by gravity settling through said aging zone, pass ing aqueous phase and grained soap from said aging zone into a second mixing'zone in which they are agitated more vigorously than in the aging zone until substantially uniform disper sion of the soap is obtained,” and ?nally passing the mixture resulting from agitation in said last mentioned mixing zone to a centrifugal separator and thereby separating the grained soap from aqueous phase. LEOPOLD SENDER.