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Патент USA US2411469

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Nov. 19, 1946.
2,41 1,469
Filed Nov. 25, 1943
Patented‘ Nov. 19’, 1946
Leopold Sender, Baltimore, Md., assignor-to The
Sharples Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa., a cor
poration of Delaware
Application November 25, 1943, Serial No. 511,706
1 Claim. (Cl. 260-418)
The present invention relates to the art of
soap making, and was conceived as a method of
making soap continuously with the aid of cen
trifugal separators.
posed between these two mixing steps. In the
practice of the present invention, the fat and
reagent are ?rst mixed during maintenance of a
saponifying temperature to cause saponi?cation,
Processes for the manufacture of soap by pass- 5 and the soap formed asa result of the reaction
ing a saponifying reagent continuously into conis grained. The resulting mixture is then sub
?uence with a source of fat, saponifying the fat
jected to aging by maintenance of a period Of
by passage of the mixture at saponifying temrelative quiescence or lesser degree of agitation,
perature continuously through mixing apparatus,
and a part of the aqueous phase settles from
and separating spent reagent from soap by cen- 10 the grained soap during this aging step and is
trifugation are described and claimed in the paremoved. The mixture of grained 8091p and Spent
tents of Ashton T. Scott, 2,300,749 and 2,300,750,
saponifying reagent remaining after removal of
of November 3, 1942. The present invention is
a portion of said saponifying reagent is then pref
primarily a development and improvement with
erably subjected to a further period of agitation
respect to the procedure of these two patents.
15 in order to provide sufiicient dispersion of the
In the processes of the above-mentioned Scott
‘soap in the aqueous phase to afford substantially
patents, the fat is continuously saponi?ed by
uniform distribution of the soap in that phase as
treatment with a saponifying reagent such as lye,
the mixture is passed to the centrifugal separa
the saponi?cation being accomplished by intensetor for separation of the remaining spent reagent
ly mixing the fat and lye while passing them 20 from the grained soap.
at a saponifying temperature through mixing apThe succession of steps of the invention, as de
paratus. The resulting soap-containing mass is
scribed above, may be performed both in the ?rst
maintained under intensive agitation until it is
stage of soap making as described in connection
passed into a centrifugal separator for removwith the ?rst stages of the respective Drier Pet
ing the spent aqueous reagent from the soap, 25 ents to Scott discussed above, and in any or all
The soap is grained, and thus conditioned for
of the series of subsequent saponifying stages, of
removal of the spent aqueous reagent, prior to
which each involves addition of saponifying l‘e
centrifugation, by the addition of a salt solution,
agent, graining and separation as described in
or an excess of saponifying reagent which serves
the prior Scott patents. Each stage in which a
as a salting-out agent. In the process of Pat- 30 saponifying reagent is added is thus referred to
cut 2,300,750, the salting-out operation is accomas a “saponifying stage” herein, even though the
plished by addition of the salting-out agent beaddition of saponifying reagent in the last such
fore the start of the saponi?cation reaction.
stage may be wholly or partly for the purposes
The present invention may include any or all
of recovering glycerine and Preparation for ?n
of the features of either of the prior patents to 35 ishing, and no actual saponi?cation occurs in
Scott discussed above. It includes steps of e?ectsuch stage.
ing continuous saponi?cation by passage of the
By the Practice Of the invention as discussed
fat and saponifying reagent together through a
above, the following advantages are attained.
saponifying mixer, graining the mixture by addiThe quiescent treatment or churning obtained
tion of a salting-out agent either simultaneously 40 in the aging step causes a change in the mix
with the saponifying reagent or subsequently to
ture which facilitates subsequent centrifugation.
the addition thereof, and centrifugation of the
The removal of a part of the aqueous phase dur
mixture of spent saponifying reagent and grained
soap resulting from the saponi?cation while the
ing this aging step also improves centrifugation,
and makes it possible to improve the through
grained soap is in a condition of substantially 45 put of the centrifugal in separated soap or to
uniform dispersion in the spent saponifying reimprove the degree of removal of aqueous phase
The novel feature of the present invention con-
from the soap product. It has been found that,
in cases in which the saponi?ed and grained mix
sists in the fact that the mixing step by which
ture presents substantial dii?culty of separation
intimate contact of the saponifying reagent with 60 in the practice of the Scott patents, the inclu
the fat is attained to cause the saponi?cation and
sion of the intervening aging step in accordance
to bring the soap formed by the saponifying re
with the present invention assists in avoidance
action into a state of uniform dispersion is di
vided into two steps, and a step of aging and sep
of these di?iculties.
The aging treatment also provides a longer
oration of a part of the aqueous phase is inter- 55 time of contact between the fat and lye, or the
_ 2,411,409
formed soap and lye, and this longer period of
contact with the saponifying reagent tends to
destroy constituents of the mixture which would
otherwise cause rancidity of the soap after the
soap-making operation has been completed.
In addition to the above advantages, vthe aging
treatment, by giving a longer time of contact
‘of the unsaponi?ed fat with’ the lye, assists in
depletion of the lye and attainment of a higher
degree of saponi?cation.
than would be the case if the mixture from mixer
I‘ were to be introduced directly from that mixer
into centrifugal 18. This may cause dimculty in
of separation of a subsequent stage; i. e., the _
or a solution derived from a subsequent stage of
subsequent centrifugation unless corrected. In
order to attain a degree of uniformity of mixing
of aqueous phase and grained soap ?owing from
ager I5 sufficient to insure ef?cient centrifuga
tion, the grained soap-containing mixture ?ow
ing from ager I5 is passed through a mixer l6
which provides a higher degree of agitation than
ager l5 and effects uniform dispersion of the soap
The detailed nature of the invention and its
in the remaining aqueous phase before the ma
attendant advantages will be better understood by
terial enters the centrifugal.
consideration of the following detailed vdescrip
From the' mixer l6_,_the mixture of spent re
tion in the light of the attached ?ow sheet, in
which the single ?gure illustrates a preferred 15 agent and grained soap is passed to centrifugal
I 8 for separation of the spent reagent from the
embodiment of the invention.
soap as in the two Scott patents referred to
Referring to the flow sheet by reference char
acters, fat from container I0 is passed into con
After discharge from the centrifugal 18, the‘
?uence with saponifying reagent from container
II. This saponifying reagent may be an aqueous 20 'largely saponi?ed mass containing the soap
formed in the ?rst stage is subjected to a second
solution of lye and salt, designed to effect sapon
stage of saponi?cation in order to complete con
i?cation of the fat and graining of the soap
version of the source of fat into soap. As in the
formed by the saponifying reaction, as described
prior Scott patents, this may be accomplished by
in Scott ‘Patent 2,300,750. As illustrated in the
introduction of the saponifying reagent into the
?ow sheet, the solution of lye and brine employed
cover of centrifugal l8. Thus, a solution of lye
in the ?rst stage of saponi?cation may be a so
and brine, which‘may either be a fresh solution
lution derived in whole or in part from the step
treatment, is introduced from container [9
The fat 80 into the cover of centrifugal I8 by pump 20,
and the resulting mixture is passed thence by
, from container l0 and saponifying reagent from
container I I may be pumped into con?uence with _ pump 2| to mixer 22, through this mixer 22 to
process may involve counter-current operation as
described in the prior Scott patents.
each other by pumps I2 and [3 to and through
the mixer M in the desired ratio. The reaction
ager 23 and from ager 23 through mixer 24 to
centrifugal 25, these elements of the flow sheet
mixture, or its, constituents,v is (are) heated to.a 85 accomplishing the same functions as are per
formed by the pumps and elements 14, i5, i6
temperature (e. g}, 200° F.) su?iciently high to
and. N3 of the ?rst stage of the process, as de
effect saponi?cation of most of the fat during
scribed above.
passage through the mixer Hi. The mixture is
The soap discharged from the second stage
maintained in a state of intensive agitation dur
ing passage through the mixer l4 in order to in 40 centrifugal 25 may be subjected to further
treatment, as described in the two Scott patents
sure rapid saponi?cation of the fat. When a
referred to above, and if such further treatment
graining agent such as salt is included with the
includes further steps of saponi?cation, they
saponifying reagent, the soap is grained prompt
will preferably include an aging step, as de
ly upon formation thereof. It is possible, how
ever, to introduce the saponifying reagent and 45 scribed above with respect to the ?rst two stages
of treatment. The performance of the step of
graining agent separately, as described in Scott
aging has a particular advantage in the last stage
Patent 2,300,749, and when operation of this type
is accomplished, the graining agent is preferablyv
of soap making, since the maintenance of the
fully saponi?ed soap-containing mixture in con
added before the reaction mixture leaves the
tact with an excess of the free alkali for a sub
mixer ill, or at least before it enters the ager i5. ‘
stantial period of time assists in avoiding rancid
The reaction mixture is passed continuously
ity, as discussed above, and it is therefore de
vfrom mixer it through an aging tank 55. The
sirable to provide an aging period after the fat
mixer id is preferably provided with agitating
has been fully saponi?ed.
blades to insure violent agitation, but the ager
The partly spent aqueous solution discharged
i5 need not be provided with such elements. It 55
from the centrifugal 25 may be passed by pump
is desirable that the mixture be gently agitated
21 to container II for reuse in the ?rst stage of
during passage through the ager I5, but this re
sult can be accomplished either by the natural
the process, in order to make the ‘process truly
movement of the mixture through that tank, or
counter-current, as described in the Scott pat
by provision of agitating blades which provide 60 ents referred to above. Aqueous reagent with
much less violence than that maintained in the
drawn from ager 23 through valve 26 may be
mixer l4.
combined with the partially spent aqueous re
The ager i5 is preferably provided with a ta
agent from centrifugal 25 for recycling to the
pered bottom designed to permit removalof spent
earlier stage of the process therewith.
aqueous reagent separated from the grained soap 65
Spent aqueous reagent removed through valve
during the aging step through the draw-off valve
I‘! from ager l5 may similarly be combined with
l1. Thus, the ensuing s -p of centrifugation is
facilitated by removal at this point of a part of
the aqueous phase which would otherwise be re
moved by subsequent centrifugation.
As the result of maintenance of relative quies
cence during passage of the mixture through
the ager I5, aqueous’phase which still remains
dispersed in grained soap ?owing from that ager
aqueous phase discharged from centrifugal l8,
in order that the combined aqueous phase thus
obtained ‘may be subjected to treatment for
70 glycerine
Various modi?cations in the above-described
procedure are available to the person skilled in
the art, anr’ are hence within the scope of the in
will be much less nearly uniformly distributed 76 vention. For example, instead of including the
2,41 1,489
graining reagent 'as apart of the saponifying so
lution, this graining reagent may be added sub
sequently to the saponifying reagent, as described
in Scott Patent 2,300,749. The remixing step,
after removal of part of the saponifying reagent
from the mixer and before centrifugation, may
also sometimes be- omitted. Many other possi
bilities for modi?cation fall within the scope of
the invention, and I do not therefore wish to be
limited except by the scope of the following claim.
I claim:
In the manufacture of soap, the process com
prising continuously converting fat into soap by
mixing said fat vigorously with a saponiiying re
agent at a saponifying temperature during pas
sage through a mixing zone, graining the soap
resulting from said mixing step, thereafter pass
ing the resulting mixture 0! grained soap and
aqueous phase through an aging zone in which
the mixture is churned by agitation of a degree
‘ less than that maintained in the preceding mix
ing zone, removing a part of the aqueous phase
' by gravity settling through said aging zone, pass
ing aqueous phase and grained soap from said
aging zone into a second mixing'zone in which
they are agitated more vigorously than in the
aging zone until substantially uniform disper
sion of the soap is obtained,” and ?nally passing
the mixture resulting from agitation in said last
mentioned mixing zone to a centrifugal separator
and thereby separating the grained soap from
aqueous phase.
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