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Патент USA US2411482

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Nov. 19, 1946.
2,411,482 '
TURBINE com-1201.. '
Filed May 25, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet i
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?rkain’é'lmzmd Vanda/see
'4 521g
NOV. 19, 1946.
Fiied May 25, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
720% Ed»: wad Vanderaee
Patented Nov. 19, 1946
Arnold E. Vandersee, Chicago, 111., assignor of
one-half to Henry W. Dieringer, Chicago, Ill.‘
Application May 25, 1944, Serial No. 537,292 I
7 Claims. (Cl. 253-40)
The’ present invention relates to a turbine'con
trol. Speci?cailyjthe improvements are direct
ed to means for controlling turbines such as used
for feeding metal wire in metal spraying guns
whereby the speed of travel of the wire. may be
regulated to accommodate the machine for use
with metal having di?’erent'fusing points. Thus
which may be impelled therea‘gainst from varying
‘directions or at successively di?erent angles
thereby to augment ‘the driving action of the ?rst
stream'or to hold the same to retard the speed
of the turbine as driven by said ?rst stream and
saidr?rst section.
It is one of the principal objects of this inven
the machine has a wide range of utility depend
tion to simplify the construction of a turbine
ing upon the character of the metal wire. The
present control permits the feed to be operated at 10 control such as contemplated herein, and to im
prove the ei‘?ciency, operation and dependability
a slow speed for metals with high fusion points
of such turbine control.
and at a high speed for metals of comparatively
It is also one of the principal objects of this
low_ fusion points.
to provide control means, preferably
In the past it has been customary to obtain
utilizing a pressure ?uid, that may be' discharged
control in the speed of wire feed in a spray gun
in a direction against a bladed control member
by means of the application of friction to the
to act as a brake thereon and retard the speed
turbine. Alternatively, it has been the custom to
of rotation of a turbine that preferably drives
vary wire feed speed by means of changing the
the control member. In this connection the
pressure of the incoming, turbine drivingv ?uid.
pressure ?uid stream may be readily changed as
Certain disadvantages have attended the use
‘of the foregoing methods of speed control. First; 20 to its direction of ?ow for the purpose of reducing
the braking action against the turbine until such
since during the metal spraying operation, the
point where the pressure ?uid stream is dis
turbine necessarily travels at a very high R. P. M.,
charged against the control member in the di
the application of friction to the turbine or an
rection of rotation of the turbine to thereby tend
assd’ciated rotating part is attended by the dis
to increase the power output thereof.
advantages well known in such types of brake
It is also an object of this invention to provide
mechanisms. Speci?cally,‘ it has been found
a metal spraying machine with turbine control
that due to the high speeds at which the turbine
means whereby the metal wire may be fed at‘dif
travels when braking action is applied, the fric
tionally engaged parts rapidly wear with the re 30 ferent speeds to the nozzle of the sprayer device.
This arrangement permits the sprayer to be used
sult that they-must be replaced at frequent in
with a variety of different kinds of metals merely
by regulating the speed of the feed in accordance
Second; the reduction in speed of wire feed by
with the type of metal used. ‘
changing the speed of rotation of the turbine
It is also an object of this invention to provide
through control of ?uid pressure results in a ma 35
a metal sprayer apparatus with control'means
terial decrease in the feeding forces when the
that comprise a rotor for driving the wire and a
pressure is so reduced. Under such circum
brake member co-operating therewith and
stances,’ while the speed of the wire is thus con
which the stream of pressure ?uid is
trolled in the desired manner the force by which
directed in a manner to increase or diminish the
it is fed is greatly reduced. When it is con 40 speed
of the turbine rotor.
sidered that the wire is usually somewhat com
It is, also one of the objects hereof to provide
pressed during its feed between rotating knurled
control means for turbines wherein the pressure
gripping wheels which are driven by the turbine,
?uid that is employed‘to actuate or rotate the
it will be seen that this reduction in force of the
turbine is also utilized for the purpose of regulaté
pressure ?uid is attended by a loss of power of
ing the speed of the turbine rotor.
such magnitude that the force required to feed
Additional objects, aims and advantages of the
the wire is also lost.
invention contemplated herein will be apparent
It is therefore an important object of the
present invention to provide an improved, vari
_ to persons skilled in the art after the construction
able speed turbine including a plurality of sec 50 and operation of the turbine control is under
stood from the within description.
tions that are associated to rotate in unison, one
It is preferred to accomplish the numerous
of said sections being arranged to receive a uni
objects of this invention and to practice the im
directional stream of pressure ?uid for impart- ,
. ing rotation thereto, and the other of said sec
tions being arranged to receive a stream of ?uid
provements in substantially the manner herein
after fully described and as vmore particularly
explained in the claims. Reference is now made
to the accompanying drawings which form a part
On the drawings:
Figure 1 is a vertical side or longitudinal ele
vation of a metal spraying apparatus showing the
- instrumentalities of the present invention in
stalled thereon.
Figure 2 is a vertical edge elevation of the
ed across these apertures. The other or inner
wall 23 of the turbine chamber has a shoul
dered central opening 24 in it to receive anti
irict'ion bearing members 25 for 'journalling the
adjacent portion of the turbine shaft ZBthat _
projects into the housing in the manner shown
in Figure 3. '
The main body portion I9‘ is provided with a '
chamber 21? alongside the turbine housing 20
turbine housing with the upper portion broken
away and with the control valve structure in ver 10 and there is a threaded opening 28 at the end
of chamber 2? opposite the turbine’ housing in
tical axial section on the plane of line 11-11 of .
Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a vertical axial section at the plane
of line III-m on Figure 1 looking in the direc
tion of the arrows.
Figure dis a fragmentary'section oi." a portion
of the structure comprising the pressure con
trol, the view beingin section at the plane of
line IV-IV on Figure 2 looking in the direction
of the arrows.
Figure 5 is a fragmentary view in section
taken at the plane of line V-V on Figure 2 and
looking in the direction of the arrows.
axial alignment with the shouldered opening 24.
.The adjacent end of the turbine shaft 28_ex
tends into this end opening 28 where it is re
ceived in anti-friction bearings 29 that are seat
ed in a cap Bil screwed in the opening 28. The
inner portion of the cap 30 is hollow and is pro
vided with a shoulder 31 to press against the
edge ‘of one of the races of the anti-friction
device 2d and the adjacent portion of the shaft
25 is provided with a shoulder 32 to engage the
adjacentedge of the other anti-friction race.
The portion of the shaft 26 within the housing
at has a hub 33 secured to it by means of a nut
Figure 6 is a plan, somewhat diagrammatic in
form; of the transmission devices for driving the 25 25a. screwed upon the threaded end of the shaft
wire feed.
The drawings are to be understood as being
more .or less of a schematic character and are
for the purpose of disclosing a typical or pre
to urge the other edge of the hub against the '_
anti-friction device 25 and thus press said de
vice against an annular abutment 26a on shaft ‘
The hub 33 is a part of a rotor or wheel mem
ferred form of the improvements thatare con 30
ber which comprises a disk 51 having upon one
templated herein. In these drawings like refer
side a plurality of turbine blades or impeller
ence characters identify the same parts of the
blades 31%. These blades are preferably of innate
different views.
shape, that is, they are, concavo-convex in sec
For the purpose‘oi disclosing a typical instal
lation of this control device it has been shown 35/ tion as shown in Figure 5. 'The branch passage
way ls receiving the pressure ?uid from valve
in connection with a metal spraying apparatus
controlled passageway in the head ll discharges‘
but it will be understood that the principles
this ?uid into the housing 20 directly against
hereof are applicable to other types of appa
the work faces of the impeller blades or
ratus wherein a turbine is employed.
The metal spraying apparatus which is shown 40 The passageway i9 is disposed somewhat tangent
to the blades 313 as will be seen in dotted lines in
in longitudinal side elevation in Figure 1 com
Figure 4 and in full lines in Figure 5. The force
prises a body it at the front or forward end of
of the pressure ?uid impinging upon the'blades
which a head member H is secured. This head
or ?ns 363 will rotate the turbine and ‘the shaft'
member is provided with a plurality of pas
26 upon which it is mounted. The turbine shaft
sageways (not shown) that are controlled by a
226 is provided, adjacent its bearings 29 with a
valve 83 having an operating ‘handle iii. The
worm 35 meshing with a worm wheel 36 on a
discharge nozzle i2 is suitably coupled to the
- shaft 37 disposed transverse ‘to the axis of the
forward face of the head H and is provided with
turbine shaft 26 as shown in Figure 3.
passages vfor pressure ?uid and for oxyacetylene
A suitable power transmission means (Fig. 6)
gas or the like. There is a central bore through 50
operatively connects the shaft 31 to the wire‘
the nozzle for the metal wire it that is to be
driving means id to actuate the latter, whereby
fused and sprayed. The wire is is fed through
a guide or channel Ida in the body by a suitable . ‘the wire is fed through guide 10a to the nozzle
l2. One of the knurled feed wheels I8 is secured
driving means such as knurled feed wheels one
to the adjacent end of a countershaft 60 that
of which is shown at it that are actuated by the
carries a gear 6| close to said wheel and meshed _,
turbine. One of the passageways in the head
with a corresponding gear preferably on the hub
ii is registered with a passageway ill 'in the
of the opposing-feed wheel. The other end of .
main body portion it! that leads in the direction
‘of the turbine where it is forked to provide two'
' this counter shaft carries a worm wheel 62 that
branches is and 59 respectively. Air or other 69 is driven by a worm 63 on the adjacent portion
of the shaft 31. This arrangement drives the
fluid under pressurev is fed to the passageway I‘?
' opposing feed wheels at the same speed to ad
from the valved head I l through the body mem
vance the metal wire to the nozzle l2.
ber to drive the turbine.
The speed at which the driving means l6 feeds
Referring to Figures 2 and 3 it will be seen
wire is regulated and controlled by means of
that the turbine assembly comprises an open 65
the instrumentalities embodying the present in
faced cylindrical housing or casing 20 that is a
vention that permit the metal sprayer to be
part of the main body part 80 to provide a rotor
changed over from one type of wire to another
chamber that is disposed with its axis transverse
to the length of the metal spraying apparatus
and the line of travel of the wire IS. The open
face of the cylindrical casing is closed by a
merely by proper adjustment of the speed of the
feed. The branch l8 from the ?uid pressure pas
sageway. ll leads into a valve seat 38 in a boss 39
on the lower segment of the turbine housing 20.
?anged removable cover 20a that is secured
A tapered valve body 40 is rotatably mounted in
thereon to provide the outer exhaust wall of the
.the valve seat 38 with a threaded end portion
chamber. This cover is provided with a plu
rality of apertures 2| and a screen 22 is mount 75 of its stem 4| projecting through an end of the
boss, and a nut 42 screwed on this threaded por- tion bears against a washer 43 to hold the valve
body snugly in the seat 38. The end of the stem
opposite the clamping nut has an operating han
dle 44 for rotating the valve body in its seat 38.
wise than necessitated by the scope of the ap
pended claims.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a turbine, drive mechanism, a housing
The valve seat 38 is longer‘ than ‘the body 40 of 5 providing a cylindrical chamber; a turbine mem-g >
ber rotatable in said chamber; means for driv
the valve to provide an annular inner chamber
ing said, turbine; control blades carried by said a
45 at the end of the seat beyond the body that
turbine; *said housing having a passageway ad
is. in communication with the adjacent end of
the branch I 8. The valve body is provided with 10 mitting pressure ?uid into said chamber _ad
Jacent said control blades; a longitudinally bored
a longitudinally ‘extending oblique bore 46,‘the'
rotatable valve at the outlet end of said passage
inner end portion of which communicates with
way having a radially disposed discharge port,
the chamber 45 through the enlarged inlet port
pressure ?uid passageway having a mouth
41 of said bore 46. The other end of this valve
portion confronting said control blades and
bore 46 communicates with a transverse bore 48 16 adapted for registration with said valve discharge
that is‘ preferably radially disposed and consti
port in changed positions of said port for ‘varying
tutes a stream-forming discharge port. The ad
jacent portion of the housing wall is provided ‘ the direction of ?ow of‘ the pressure ‘?uid with
respect to said control blades to thereby modify
with a fan-shaped slit 49,the longer portion of
the rotational speed 01' said turbine.
which extends circumferentially of the inner sur 20
face of the housing wall to provide a discharge
providing a cylindrical chamber; a turbine in
mouth. The narrower portion of the mouth
chamber; a shaft rotatably supporting‘ said
communicates with the stream-forming port 48
turbine; a rotatably supported speed control
of the valve body. Thus there is free communi
member driven by said turbine; a passageway in
cation between the housing chamber and the ax 25 said
housing for discharging pressure ?uid into
ial bore'48 at all times. As shown in Figure 4,
said chamber to constantly drive said turbine; ~
the inner or bottom walls of this fan-shaped slit
and pressure ?uid discharge means arranged to
are at a right angle to each other.
The 'valve
body has a radial pin 38a that limits the rotation .
of the valve to 90° of a circle. Thus the stream
of pressure ?uid may be directed from stream
forming port 48 in any direction within the lim
its of the slot 49.
The valve body and the communicating slit 49
comprise a portion of the\control device of the
present invention. Another or co-operating por
tion of the control device comprises a ‘plurality
of radially disposed ?ns or paddles 50 disposed
direct pressure ?uid against said control mem
. her from one or the opposite direction ‘relative
to the direction or travel thereof, said discharge
means including a regulator device for varying
_ the urge of said pressure ?uid upon said. speed
control member thereby to vary the‘ speed of said
3. In a turbine drive mechanism, a rotatable
member having a plurality of impeller blades, a
' plurality of control paddles carried by said ro
tatable member, ?uid pressure means for rotat
ing said impeller blades and means independent
wheel. These paddles 50 are preferably“ made in 40 of said_ fluid pressure means for directing pres
tegral with the disk 5|, and they are, all'con
sure ?uid against said control paddles variably’
nected to each other by an annular web or lateral
and progressively from opposite directions to pro
?ange 52. As seen in Figures 4 and 5 the paddles ‘
gressively vary the speed of rotation of said con
'5!) correspond in number and arrangement with
trol member, said variation of speed of said con
the turbine blades. 34. These paddles are radially : trol member being e?ective to vary the rotational
disposed and they are preferably tapered in cross
speed of said rotatable member under the in?u
section with their inner portions merged into
ence of the pressure ?uid.
arcuate valleys 53.
4. In a turbine drive mechanism, a rotatable
The arrangement and construction of the valve
turbine including a plurality of impeller ‘blades,
body 40 permits the stream of pressure ?uid to
a plurality of' control paddles carried by said ' ,
be discharged through the stream-forming port
turbine, a common source of pressure ?uid, means
48 at any angle within the limits of the fan
constantly .directing the pressure ?uid against
shaped mouth 49 and the pressure ?uid thus dis
said impeller blades to rotate said turbine and
' charged will travel toward and will impinge upon
move said control paddles in unison therewith
the paddles 50 of the control device. When the
and other means independent of said means for
valve body is in the position shown in Figure 4
directing the pressure ?uid against said impeller
the pressure ?uid will travel in a direction to im
blades for directing a stream of (the pressure ?uid
pinge upon the trailing faces of paddles 50 there
“against said control paddles, said other means
in an annular row upon the disk SI of the turbine
by to urge the control device in the same direc
tion of travel as the turbine is moving as indi
cated by the arrow in Figure 4. When the dis
charge port 48 is at the other limit‘ of'its move
ment or uppermost in Figure 4 the pressure ?uid
stream will-impinge upon the leading faces of the
paddles 50 to retard rotation of the wheel which
will hold back or act as a brake upon the turbine.
In intermediate positions, the port 48 will dis
charge the ?uid in a‘direction so that it is pro
portionately less effective than when it is in its
.being adjustable progressively to change. the di
rection of ?ow of the pressure ?uid stream against
said paddles from one to the other side thereof
for varying the speed of movement of said pad
dles and correspondingly progressively varying
the rotational speed of said turbine under the'in- I
?uence of said pressure ?uid.
5. In a turbine drive mechanism, a housing
providing a cylindrical chamber, a turbine mem-'
ber rotatable in said chamber, ‘means for ldriv- -
ing said turbine .at a fixed predetermined rate,
70 control paddles carried by said turbine, and
It will, of course, be understood- that various
means independent of said turbine driving means
details of construction maybe varied through a
admitting pressure ?uid into said chamber to
wide range without departing from the principles
impinge upon said control paddle,'said means
of this invention and it is, therefore. not the pur
including a shiftable discharge port adapted to
pose to limit the patent granted hereon other 75 progressively
vary the line of approach or said
‘ above mentioned extreme position.
pressure ?uid with respect to said paddles from
one .to the other side thereof for varying the ro
tational speed of said turbine member under the
in?uence of said turbine driving means.
6. In a turbine drive ‘mechanism, a housing
providing a cylindrical chamber, a turbine in said
chamber, said turbine including impeller blades
‘such change oi! angle being e?’ected' thereby to
‘vary the speed of said turbine.
'7. In a turbine drive mechanism, a chamber,
a rotatable member rotatably mounted in said
chamber and having a plurality of vanes extend
ing outwardly therefrom to receive ?uid pres
sure directed thereagainst to‘ actuate said rotat
and having control paddles, a shaft assembly -
able member, ?xed means for directing a drive
stream emitted therefrom with respect to the 20
rotational axis of said control paddles to augment
ted from said ?xed means.
?uid against said vanes to drive said rotatable
separating said turbine; a passageway in said
housing for discharging pressure ?uid into said 10 member, and movable means independent of said
fixed means for directing a stream of control fluid
chamber and against said impeller blades to con
.against said vanes for controlling rotation of
stantly drive said turbine and pressure ?uid dis
said rotatable member as driven by the fluid from
charge means independent of said ?rst-named
said ?xed means, said movable means being
passage arranged to direct a stream of pressure
?uid against said control paddles during ?ow of 15 mounted to be variably and progressively shift
ed to alter the direction of emission of the ?uid
said driving pressure ?uid, said discharge means
therefrom from opposite directions to impinge on
including a regulating valve having a discharge
one side or the other of the vanes to augment or
port, said valve ‘being adapted for rotation to
counteract the e?eot of the driving ?uid emit
progressively vary the angle of the pressure ?uid
_ or oppose the rotation thereof by said turbine,
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