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Патент USA US2411540

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Nov. 26, 1946.
2,411,540
L. B. HAIGH
ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING _EQUIPMENT
Filed July l2, 1943
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INVENTOR.
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Nov. 26, 1946.
2,411,540
L. B. HAIGH
ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATÍFNG EQUIPMENT
Filed July 12, 1943
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Nov. 26, 1946.
2,411,540
L. B. HAIGH
ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIPMENT
Filed July 12, 1945
7 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR
f
Nov. 2s, 1946.'
L, B_ HMGH
2,411,540v
ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIPMENT
Filed July 12, 1945
'7 sheets-sheet 4
Nov; 26, 1946.
L. B. HAIGH
2,411,540
ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIÈMENT
Filed July 12V, 1943
7 Sheets-Sheet 5
BY
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ATTÓHNE'Y
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Nov. 26, 1946.
1_, B, HAIGH
2,411,540
ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIPMENT
Filed July 12, 1943
'7 Shee‘lLS-Shee‘l*l 6
I0.
/ITTÜHNEY
Nov. 26, 1946..
l.. B. HAIGH
2:4“,540
ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULÀTING EQUÍPME'NT
Filed July 12, 1945
SheetS-Shee’fl 7
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INVENTOR.
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BY
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2,411,540
Patented Nov. 26, 1946
AUNITED ySTATES PATENT OFFICE
2,411,540
ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING
EQUIPMENT
Leslie Baines Haigh, West Orange, N. J., assignor
to Standard Telephones and Cables Limited,
London, England,~»a British company
‘
Application July 12, 1943, seria1'N0.494,2s1
In Great Britain June 6, 1941
6 Claims.
1
This invention relates to calculating equip
ment.
Electrically operated calculating equipment in
which the calculations are performed in radix
two has been described in thegapplications of
Hartley et al., iìled July 12, 1943, Serial No.
492,282, and Hartley et al., June 24, 1943,
Serial N0. 492,060.
.
(Cl. 23S-61)
2
gether with associated recording and start re
lays.
Fig. 9 shows the pulsing or cycle relays and
their relation to the sequence or progress re
lays.
Figs. 10 and 10A, taken together, show the re
cording and translating relays, together with
their associated lamps.
The nature of the invention will be better un
The present invention relates to means for
converting numbers expressed in a ñrst radix l0 derstood from a description of o-ne embodiment
thereof taken in conjunction with the accom
into equivalent numbers expressed in a second
panying drawings in which Figs. 8 to 10 taken
radix.
together are a circuit diagram of an electrically
The object of the invention is to receive in
operated calculating equipment by means of
formation in the decimal system or radix ten
and translate this information one digit at a 15 which an integral number expressed in radix
ten is converted rapidly and automatically into
time into a radix two system.
the equivalent number expressed in radix two.
Another object is for this system to operate
The radix of any numbering system is a num
in connection with another system for further
ber which is made the base of the system. Thus,
calculations, such as that disclosed in the appli
10 is the radix or base of the decimal system and
cation of Hartley et al. 52-36---7, ñled July 12,
it is therefore called the radix ten system. In
1943, Ser. No. 494,292, and the information can
the radix two system the base is 2 and hence
be transmitted to the second system either by
the name “radix two.”
means of manually'operated keys to set up a
In order to translate from the radix ten sys
number in the radix two system or it may be
tem into the radix two system the former is
transmitted from contacts and relays.
broken-down into twos or a multiple thereof.
vAnother object is to provide a system which
Also in order to place the radix two `system on a
may be expanded or continued in any desired
number` of digits by a process similiar to that
shown in the drawings.
decimal basis for arithmetical calculations, each
time a 2 appears in the radix ten system, a 10
The invention is illustrated in the accompany 30 is substituted in the radix two system. For ex.
ample, if an 8 or 23 appears in the radix ten
ing drawings in which:
'.
system, a 103 is substituted in the radix two 'sys
Fig. 1 Ishows a broken-down sequence chart
tem. As another example, if ’7 or 22 plus 21 plus
showing just the pulsing or cycle relays AP, C,
2o is found in the radix ten system, it is trans
and 'I' and their control oi the seduence or
lated into 102 plus 101 plus 10° in the radix two
progress relays J, K and L.
system. In the process of addition in the radix
Fig. 2 shows a sequence chart broken-down
two system, where 0 and l only are used, it is
including~ the relays listed in Fig. 1 and in addi
done as follows: 19100 added to 101 equals 11001;
tion the points at which certain operations take
the process being different from the usual in that
place when the ñrst digit key is operated.
Fig. 3 'shows the above relays listed in Fig. l 40 the sum of the two l’s in the hundreds column
equals 2 but since 2 is not used, a zero is substi
and in addition the points where certain operaK
tuted and a 1 carried over to the thousands col
tions take place when a second or subsequent
digit key has been operated.
umn.
This general method is used to facilitate the
operation and release of relays for digit 2 of the 45 circuit design.
I Fig. 4 shows a complete sequence chart for the
number 25 used for illustration.
Fig. 5 shows the operati-on and release of all
relays for the digit 5 in the illustration 25.
Fig. 6 lshows a sequence chart with the oper
ation and release of’all relays for the ñrst digit
In the circuit shown numbers are entered into
the equipment'digit by digit in the usual order
of descending denominational values by means
oí ten keys, shown in Fig. 8, one for each dig
ital Value to be entered. As each digit is 'sub
mitted, the radix two equivalent of the radix
ten number so far keyed is displayed on a lamp
5 in the number 58 used for illustration.
Fig. 7 shows a sequence chart with the opera
indicator (Fig. 10), whereupon another digit `may
tion and release of all relays for the digit 8 in
be superimposed. Digits may be submitted at
the illustration 58.
Fig. 8 shows the numerical and start keys, to 55 the rate of about three per second.
2,411,540
3
4
For inserting the radix ten digits, a set of ten
ing relays into the calculator, stored therein, and
digit keys is shown for convenience, but these
can clearly be replaced by the contact pairs of
displayed.
The second digit of the radix ten
number is then keyed and calculation begins.
coupling relays or multi-position switches ar
` Considered in radix ten, the keying of this sec
ranged to connect the circuit to any >kind _of de`
vice which represents a digit of a radixten num~
bei- by grounding one of ten wires. The display
lamps can equally clearly be replacedv yby con- . .
ond>> digit implies that the number so far sub
mitted has become, by that keying action, a two
digit number with the first digit transferred from
denomination 100, which it previously occupied to
tacts of a coupling relay, arranged to connect> Vdenomination 101, and the second digit placed in
the circuit at the desired moment to any kind 10 denomination‘100,'i. e., a number having a total
of radix two storing or indicating device, which ’ > value equal to ten times the value of its first digit,
is designed to operate from a> potential on one
plus the value of its second digit. N ow the equiv
of two wires in each denomination.
, ` '
alent in radix two of the radix ten number l0 is
the number 1010
Calculator or translator
15
The calculator is a straightforward accumu
(since, in radix ten, 10=8+2=23+21>
lator arranged for the addition of numbers in
It follows, therefore, that the radix two equivalent
radix two, as described in the above mentioned
of the two-digit radix ten number keyed is equal
Hartley et al. application, ñled July 12, v1943,
to 1010 times (computed in radix two) the radix
Serial No. 494,282, and may be extended for as 20 two equivalent of the ñrst digit keyed, plus the
many denominations in radix two as may be re#
radix two equivalent of the second digit keyed.
quired for the radix ten numbers which are to
The following information gives the arithmeti
be converted, i'. e., seven denominations for two
cal calculations for the illustration 25 in simpli
digit numbers, ten for three, fourteen for four,
ñed and complete form:
'
~
Y
etc.
Key
2
is
operated
in
the
decimal
or
radix
ten
25
» Ineach denomination (except the highest, 2N),
system. `In the radix two system, as explained
there is a “new factor” relay A, an “aggregate”
above, this digit 2 is translated into'lO and if no
relay Z and an “aggregate-retaining” relay B.
other key is operated this digit has been com
The operated condition of> any of these relays
pleted and is displayed on lamps as 10 with cer
represents the value 1 vin the denomination con
cerned, and the unoperated condition represents 30 tain zeros in front which have no signiñcance.
Key 5 or the second digit is then operated in
the value 0. A new factor is added in two stages
the
decimal or radix ten system andthe total of
to an aggregate already registered by the Z re
25 is broken down into 2 times 10 plus 5. The
lays.v First, the old aggregate is transferred from
substitution of 10 in the radix two system for 2
the Z to the B relays, and the new factor Ais en
in the radix ten system was described above. 10
tered on the A relays. Second, the holding circuit
in the radix ten system is broken down into 8
of the Z relays is opened and the latter imme
plus 2 or 23 plus 21 in the decimal system and
diately re-operate in a new combination repre
then in the radix two system, 10 being substituted
senting the sum of the numbers registered by the
A and B relays, and the new aggregate may then 40 for the 2’s, it equals l03 plus 101 or 1000 plus 10 or
1010. The 5 in the decimal system is broken
be displayed on the lamps.
'
down into 4 plus 1 or 22 plus “20. In the radix
Principle of conversion ofv multi-digit radix ten
two system, since lO’s are substituted for the 2’s,
numbers into radia: two
this is translated into 102 plus 100 or 100 plus l
which equals 101. Therefore, from the above cal
‘ The value_'of a digit entered in radix tenis re
culations, for the fina1 answer inradix two we
corded by operating‘a combination ofthe live
-have 10><1010 plus lOl, which equals 11001, The
translating’relays PA-PE (Fig. 8). The combi
lamps corresponding to the l’s would then be
nations are so chosen that PA operated represents
lighted and the numbers indicated with two zeros
the value 1 in denomination ‘20 of a radix two
in front which have no significance.
number, PB the value 1 in denomination 21, PC
the value l in denomination 22, and PD the value
Detailed circuit operation
1 in denomination 23, while PE operated repre
Before
starting
the detailed operation of the
sents the value 0 in all the four denominations.
circuit it will clarify the operation if the sequence
The ñve relays are connected to the ten keys in
charts shown in Figs. 1 to 3 are reviewed ñrst.
accordance with the following table, from which
it wil1 appear that the set of relays constitutes a 55 This will give a broad picture as to what to ex
pect in the detailed operation. For the first digit
device'for translating any single digit in radix
as shown in Fig. 2, the pulsing and progress relays
igen directly into the equivalent radix two num
do a lot of operating and releasing without any
er.`
apparent useful purpose. Certain cycles of these
60 relays are required'for the calculation of the sec
ond and sub-subsequent digits. The relays are
Baàìilëigen Translating relays operated radix two
allowed to go through the same cycles for they ñrst
number
digit to avoid circuit complication. The sequence
charts shown in Figs. 4 to 7 indicate the same
0
PE
0000
65 sequence as the detailed operation. Theymay
1
PA
0001
2
PB
0010
.
ì
.3
y
'
'
4
PC
5
PO
s
PB
Equivalent
PA
0011.
PA.
0101
,
0100
Po VPn
7
PC
8 .
PD
9
PD
PB
ono
PA
0111.
*1000
PA
1001
be referred> to either with the detailed operation
or separately.
It is supposed that an operator desires to ob
tain the radix two equivalent of the radix ten
70 number 25. To place the circuit in operation,
the operator throws the locking key “start” and
ST operates.`
As soon as the ñrst digit of a radix ten number
to be’ converted is keyed, the equivalent radixftwo
number is entered from contacts of the >tran,Slat
'
Lamps NLG, 5LB, ALD, SLS, 2L0, ILû and ULD
burn in a circuit to ST2 and display the radix
2 number 0000000. The circuit can be traced to
2,411,540
6
5
the zero lamps through 0Z4 to EIZI back C6, DC2
back and ST2. The operator depresses key> 2 and
PB operates. DC operates to PE2 and number
display ceases, open at DC2. PB locks over DC2
to ST2. J operates over STI, KI! back and LE
back to DCI.
AP operates over J Il, T3 and C5 baci:
loclrs
over API to T2. C operates to APE. J locks to
C4. K operates over J3 iront to Cil and locks
over both KEI through LS back and lil to DCI
and C4 respectively. T operates slowly to C5.
AP, open at T2, releases. C, open at APE, re
leases. J, open at C11 and KI I, releases. T, open
at C5, releases.
AP operates Kill, T3 and C5 back and locks to
T2, followed by C to APE. K again locks to CII.
L operates over K0 iront and J 8 back to C5; and
locks over L55 to DCI. T operates slowly to C5.
AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C.
K,
open at Cil and Lïâ, releases. T, open at C5, re
leases. IA operates over L2, PBS and T3 to C5
and locks over IAI and ST3 to TI. This trans
fers the record from the key relays to the A relays.
AP operates over L5, T3 and C5 and locks over
API to T2, followed by `C to APì. IZ operates
over IA2 front, IBS back, 0152 back to C2 iront.
This transfers the record from the A relays to the
Z relays. M operates over K8 bach, J 0 back to Cd
and locks over MI, ALS to PE2. T operates to
2Z and 4Z lock to APS back through AL2 and ST5.
IIA, open at CI and TI, releases. 2B, although open
at C3 front, holds (or releases and re-operates) to
C3 back over Ll and 2Z2. @B operates to C3 back
over ¿Z2 and L7. K, open at C12», releases. T, open
at C5, releases. 0A operates over LI, PAS, T3 and
C5 and looks over ¿EAI and ST3 to Tl. 2A op
erates over L3, PCS, T3 and Cil and locks to ÈAI,
ST3 and TI. This transfers the record from the
key relays to the A relays.
locläs over
AP operates over L5, T3 and Cä
API to T2, followed by C at APE. âëZ operates
@A2 front, 0133 back, and C2 iront. SZ operates
over 3A2 back, SBS back,
3 iront, 252 front,
to C2.
2Z releases at APS back and C?. basl; The sum`
or” 1, represented by 2A operated, and 1, repre
sented by 2B operated, is l0 in radix two. The
value 0 in denomination 22 is thus correctly re
corded by
release of
1 is “carried over”
to the next higher denomination ‘23 and recorded,
since neither 3A nor 3B is operated, by the opera»
tion of SZ. as stated.
leases. PB, open at DCE, releases as soon as key
M operates over K0 back, JS back to Cil and
locks through MI front, ALS and PAE. T oper
ates to C5, slowly enough to allow SEZ, EZ time to
operate. DC, open at lVII, release . L, open at
DCI, releases. PC and PA, open at DCiì, release
as soon as key 5 is allowed by the operator to re
store.
AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C at APZ.
SZ, BZ and ¿IZ lock to APS back. lVi, open at Cil,
2 is allowed by the operator to restore.
AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C. IZ
locks through ALE, ST5 to APB back.. M, onen at
0A and 2A, and 4A, open at CI, release. T re
leases at C5. 2B and AB, open at CS, release.
C5, slowly enough to allow IZ time to operate.
DC, open at Ml, releases.
L, open at DCI, re
C4 and PE2 releases as soon as PB has released.
IA, open at CI, releases. T releases at CE.
Lamps NLll, 5Li3, ALS, SLB, ELS, l I,
A53 burn
releases as soon as PC and PA have released.
Lamps
5LB, ¿ELLI and SLI, 2L0, IL@ and
0L! burn in a circuit to C0 and display the radix
two number 0011001, the desired equivalent of
the radix ten number 25. At this stage, ST and
in a circuit to C6, D02 back, ST2 and diss-lay the
radix two number 0000010, the equivalent of the ‘ill the aggregate relays GZ, SZ and »CIZ alone remain
operated.
radix ten number 2. At this stage ST and the
The operator, having submitted the complete
aggregate relay IZ alone remain operated.
radix ten number and read the computed equiv
The operator depresses key s
PC and .PA
alent radix two number, restores lrey “start”;
operate. DC operates over MI ba
to PC2
and PAZ, and number display ceases, onen at DCE e ST, QZ, SZ and llZ release and display @eases
The circuit is again in its original condition.
to ST2. PC and PA lock over D02. J operates
It is to be observed that any combination of
over STI, KI I back, Lil back to DCI. 2A operates
digits that has been entered by means of the digit
over J2, IZB, T3 and C5 and locks over 2AI
keys appears finally as a number in radix two on
through ST3 to TI. This transfers the record
from the Z relays to the next column in the A i, the Z relays. Each time a digit key is depressed,
one or more of the translating relays ‘PA-PE op
relays which is part ci the calculation.
erate, followed by DC and J, and that thereafter'
AP operates over J t, T3, C5 and locks over API
the three relays AP, C and T operate and 'release
to T2, followed by C to
IZ, open at C2 baci:
in turn three times in self-timing circuits and in
and AP back, releases. 2Z operates over 2A?.
dependently of the A, B and Z relays; and that
front, T53 back, IAII back, EEZ back to C2 front.
K, L and M serve to count the three cycles of AP,
J locks to Cil. K operates over Je iront to Cil and
C and T. Each time C is operated calculation
locks over KI I front, LIE baclr to DCS.
aroerates
takes place, the Z relays operating in a combina
to C5, slowly enough to allow ‘EZ time to onerate.
tion determined solely by the conditions of the
AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C at
2Z locks through ALE, ST5, C2 bael: and to APS .~. A and B relays.
The immediate result of the operation of a
back. 2A, onen at Cl, releases. ‘EB operates over
222 and K9 to CE back.
J, onen
Cri, re
-
digit key, íollowing operation oi relays D, C and
J, is to cause the number stored on the relays
to be multiplied by 10 in radix two
the prod
uct to be recorded on the A relays. The first op
eration or relay C causes this to be transferred
to the Z relays by means oi the circuits or adding
front
holds over
(or releases
ZBI. 2Z,
and-although
rre-operates)
open at
to C2 front
the number recorded on the A relays to the num
ber recorded on the Z relays, the latter being
tZ
overalso
IB?.operates
back, iAflover
back,
#A22BZ5
front,
frontals“
and “f A2le, 3A@ " zero at the present stage. The Yfollowing is an il
lustration in which an operator desires to obtain
back, 3BE back to C2 iront. lí
to
over
duo,
T, open at C5, releases. ¿A operates over sa, mvo
T3 to C5 and locks over IAI,
and TI.
AP operates over KI 0, T3
C5 and locks o'rer
API to T2, followed by C at AF2. 2B looks to APS
K1.
locks Lover
operates
L@ toover
DCI.K8 Tfront,
onerates
J bach
to to C0
slowly
enough to allow “EZ and 4Z time to operate.
AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C at APZ.
the radix two equivalent of the radix ten number
58. The ñrst digit 5 is broken .flown into d+l. or
22 plus 20. In the radix two system
equiv'
alent is 102 plus 100, or 100 plus 1 which equals
2,411,540
101. The total 58 is broken down into 5 times
10 plus 8. In the decimal system the 10 is broken
down into 8 plus 2 or 23 plus 21. In the radix
two system this is translated into 103 plus 101, or
1000 plus 10, which equals 1010. In the radix ten
system the digit 8 is broken down into 23 which
translated into radix two system is equal to 103
or 1000.
erates through C5 front. AP releases at T2. C
releases at AP2. 3A and 5A release at CI and
TI . IB and 3B release at C3 front and AP3 front.
K releases at C4. AP operates through L5, T3
and C5 back. T releases at C5 front. C operates
at AP2. M operates through K8 back, J8 back
' and Clä. DC releases at MI back. T operates at
Therefore we have 101 times 1010 plus
C5 front. PD releases at DC2 front. L releases
at DCI. AP releases at T2. M releases at PD. C
releases at AP2. T releases at C5 front. This
1000 or at total of 111,010.
The following is a detailed operation of the
circuit for the illustration of the radix ten num
leaves relays 5Z, 4Z, 3Z and IZ operated. This
lights the final lamps for the combination of
digits 5 and 8 and is indicated at 111,010.
ber 58. The start key is operated and it operates
relay ST. This lights the zero lamp for each digit
shown on the circuit.
The circuit can be vtraced
It has been shown that when 2A and 2B are
both operated, 1 is “carried over” to the next
through CS, DC2 back, to ST2. Key 5 is oper
ated and operates PC and PA relays. Relay DC
operates through M I back, AI3, to PA2 and PC2.
This extinguishes the lamps at DC2 back. J op
erates through STI, KII back, L6 back to DCI.
AP operates through J6, T3 to C5 back and locks 20
to API and T2. C operates at AP2. K operates
at J8 front and C4. T operates slowly at C5.
AP releases at T3. C releases at AP2. J releases
at C4. T releases at C5 front.V AP operates
through KID, T3 to C5 back and locks through
API to T2. C operates at AP2. L operates
through K8 front, J8 back and C4. T operates
at C5 front. AP releases at T2. C releases at
AP2. K releases at Cil, T releases at C5 front.
higher denomination. The calculator, in fact,
effects “carry over” automatically in all circum
stances, without introducing any delay in the op
eration of the Z relays.
'
In denomination 20, it will be observed that UZ
operates if 0A or 0B is operated, but not if both
are operated. In the latter case (only), the front
contact of @A3 is grounded and 1 is carried over
to denomination 2'1. If 0A or 0B or neither is op
erated, the back contact of GA3 is grounded and (I
is carried over to denomination 21.
In denomination 21, IZ operates if either 0 is
carried over from denomination 2° and IA or IB
is operated alone, or 1 is carried over from
0A operates through LI, PA3, T3 and C5 back.
denomination 2l’ and IA and IB are both operated
2A operates through L3, FC3, T3 and C5 back. 30 or both unoperated. The armature of IA3 is
This transfers the record from the key relays to
grounded and 1 is carried over to denomination
the A relays. AP operates through L5, T3 and
22 if either IA and IB are both operated (whether
C5 back. C operates at AP2. [IZ operates
through GAZ front, 0B3 back, C2 front. ZZ op- ‘_
erates over 2A2 front, 2B3 back, IAlI back, IB2
back, C2 front. M operates over K8 back, J5
back and Cil. DC releases at MI back. T oper
ates at C5 front. L releases at DCI. PA and PC‘
release at DC2.
AP releases at T2.
M releases f
at PA2 and PC2. C releases at AP2. 0A and 2A
release at CI front. T releases at C5. This
lights lamps 000101; This represents the radix
two equivalent of the digit 5.
The following is the detailed operation for
digit 8 in the illustration 58.
The relays left operated from the above op
eration are ST, BZ and ZZ. Key 8 is operated
and it operates relay PD which locks through
PDI to DC2 front. DC operates through MI 50
back, AL3 and PD2. J operates through STI,
K6 back, L5 back and DCI. AP operates through
J6, T3 and C5 back. 3A operates through J3,
2Z3, T3' and C5 back. IA operates through JI,
023, T3 and C5 back. This transfers the record
from the previously operated Z relays to the next
column to the A relays. C operates to AP2. K
operates through J8 front and C4. 0Z and ZZ
release at C2 back. IZ operates through IA2
front, IB3 back, 0B2 back and C2 front. SZ op 60
erates 3A2 front, 3B3 back, 2A@ back, 2B2 back, and C2 front. This transfers the record from
the A relays to the Z relays. T operates at C5
front. AP releases at T2. C releases at AP2. IA
and 3A release at TI and CI. 3B operates
through 3Z2 to K9 and C3 back. J releases at C4.
IB operates through IZ2, K9 and 3C back. T
releases at C5. 3A operates through K2, IZ3, T3,
to C5 back. 5A operates through Kil, 3Z3, T3 to
C5 back. AP operates through KID, T3 and C5
back. .C operates at AP2. 4Z operates through
¿IA2 back, ëBS back, 3A3 front, 3B2 front and C2
front. 5Z operates through 5A2 front, 5B3 back,
lIAlI back, IJBZ back to C2 front. L operates
through K8 front and J8 front and C4. T op
or not 1 has been carried over from denomina
tion 20) or 1 is carried over from denomination 2°
and IA or IB is operated alone. ’I'he armature of
IAQ is grounded and 0 is carried over to denom
ination 22 if either IA and IB are both unop
erated or 0 is carried over from denomination
20 and IA or IB is operated alone.
In all other intermediate denominations, the
conditions for operating the Z relay and for car
rying 1 or 0 over to the next higher denomination
are the same as in denomination 21.
In denomination 2N, i. e., the highest denomi
nation for which provision is made, there is no
A relay. NZ operates if either 0 is carried over
from the next lower denomination 2N-1 and NB
is operated or if 1 is carried over and NB is un
operated. The front contact of NBZ is grounded
and 1 is carried over to a denomination not pro
vided for, if 1 is carried over from denomination
2N-1 and NB is operated. In the'latter event,
AL operates and locks to ALI; the operated Z re
lays, open at AL2, release; DC, open at ALS, re
leases; and the radix two number 0 is displayed,
indicating that the capacity of the calculator
has been exceeded. This condition persists until
key “start” is restored.
What is claimed is:
1. Calculating equipment comprising means
for entering thereinto by successive digits an in
tegral number expressed in a first radix, elec
trically operated means for transforming each of
a succession of digits of said number in turn, as
it is entered, commencing with the digit of
highest denomination, into the equivalent num
ber in a second radix as if said digit were of lowest
denomination, and means including said elec
trically operated means, effective upon entry of
each digit of lower denomination, for computing
a number in said second radix equivalent to the
value of preceding digit or digits raised to the
next higher denomination in said first radix and
for adding to the result of said computation the
2,411,540
9
10
number expressed in said second radix which is
for adding to the product the equivalent in said
equivalent to the Value of the lower denomination
second radix of the digit last entered, and means
of said number expressed in said iirst radix.
for rendering available the number which is the
2. Calculating equipment comprising means
result of said addition.
for entering thereinto by successive digits an in~
5. A calculating apparatus for translating a
tegral number expressed in a first radix, elec
number expressed in radix ten into a number ex
trically operated means for transforming the
pressed in radix two, comprising a plurality of in
digit of highest denomination of said number up
put wires, there being one for each digit from
on entry thereof into its equivalent in a second
zero to nine, means to enter the successive digits
radix, means elîective upon entry of a digit of
of a number expressed in radix ten into said ap
next lower denomination for multiplying said
paratus by altering in sequence the circuit con
equivalent by the value of said ñrst radix ex
ditions of a combination of said input wires, a
pressed in said second radix, and for adding to the
plurality of output wires, and means operatively
product the equivalent in said second radix of
controlled by the circuit conditions of said input
said digit of next lower denomination of said first
wires and comprised solely of relays and contacts
operated thereby for altering upon entry of each
mentioned number, and means for rendering
available the number which is the result of said
successive digit, the circuit condition of a com
addition.
bination of said output Wires in accordance with
3. Calculating equipment as -claimed in claim 2
the equivalent expressed in radix two of the num
in which said first radix is ten and said second 20 ber expressed in radix ten which has been en
radix is two.
tered into said apparatus.
4. Calculating equipment comprising means
6. A calculating apparatus, as deñned in claim
for entering thereinto digit by digit commencing
5, in which the means for altering the circuit con
with the digit of highest denomination an in
dition of a combination of the output wires in
tegral number expressed in a first radix, means 25 cludes a plurality of storage relays which operate
automatically responsive to the entry of each
when the next succeeding digit is entered into
digit for converting said digit into its equivalent
said apparatus and which cooperate to calculate
in a second radix, for multiplying the equivalent
the equivalent in radix two or" the digit in that
in said second radix of any combination of digits
denomination plus the radix two equivalent of
of said number previously entered by the value of 30 any preceding denominations.
said ñrst radix expressed in said second radix and
LESLIE BAINES HAIGI-î.
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