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Nov. 26, 1946. 2,411,540 L. B. HAIGH ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING _EQUIPMENT Filed July l2, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet l wmblWïQlSìNSÉwk MQ@ w k INVENTOR. ¿fáZ/f ß. N14/GH ATTÜHA/EY l Nov. 26, 1946. 2,411,540 L. B. HAIGH ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATÍFNG EQUIPMENT Filed July 12, 1943 '7 Sheets-Sheet 2 woYeêâ EnSb. @i @. n@ . @Y @l @ .Á¥ @M@gk@Hh aA .EN m.QQQ _W Í @Sve«LM lw Èvk @. w SY ÄÉ, @HY@ä,ë. Nov. 26, 1946. 2,411,540 L. B. HAIGH ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIPMENT Filed July 12, 1945 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR f Nov. 2s, 1946.' L, B_ HMGH 2,411,540v ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIPMENT Filed July 12, 1945 '7 sheets-sheet 4 Nov; 26, 1946. L. B. HAIGH 2,411,540 ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIÈMENT Filed July 12V, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 BY r @5% i ATTÓHNE'Y Z Nov. 26, 1946. 1_, B, HAIGH 2,411,540 ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIPMENT Filed July 12, 1943 '7 Shee‘lLS-Shee‘l*l 6 I0. /ITTÜHNEY Nov. 26, 1946.. l.. B. HAIGH 2:4“,540 ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULÀTING EQUÍPME'NT Filed July 12, 1945 SheetS-Shee’fl 7 @yg-9.1014; INVENTOR. ¿fsL/f ß. f/A/Gf/ BY Ww? ' ATTURA/Z’Y . v 2,411,540 Patented Nov. 26, 1946 AUNITED ySTATES PATENT OFFICE 2,411,540 ELECTRICALLY OPERATED CALCULATING EQUIPMENT Leslie Baines Haigh, West Orange, N. J., assignor to Standard Telephones and Cables Limited, London, England,~»a British company ‘ Application July 12, 1943, seria1'N0.494,2s1 In Great Britain June 6, 1941 6 Claims. 1 This invention relates to calculating equip ment. Electrically operated calculating equipment in which the calculations are performed in radix two has been described in thegapplications of Hartley et al., iìled July 12, 1943, Serial No. 492,282, and Hartley et al., June 24, 1943, Serial N0. 492,060. . (Cl. 23S-61) 2 gether with associated recording and start re lays. Fig. 9 shows the pulsing or cycle relays and their relation to the sequence or progress re lays. Figs. 10 and 10A, taken together, show the re cording and translating relays, together with their associated lamps. The nature of the invention will be better un The present invention relates to means for converting numbers expressed in a ñrst radix l0 derstood from a description of o-ne embodiment thereof taken in conjunction with the accom into equivalent numbers expressed in a second panying drawings in which Figs. 8 to 10 taken radix. together are a circuit diagram of an electrically The object of the invention is to receive in operated calculating equipment by means of formation in the decimal system or radix ten and translate this information one digit at a 15 which an integral number expressed in radix ten is converted rapidly and automatically into time into a radix two system. the equivalent number expressed in radix two. Another object is for this system to operate The radix of any numbering system is a num in connection with another system for further ber which is made the base of the system. Thus, calculations, such as that disclosed in the appli 10 is the radix or base of the decimal system and cation of Hartley et al. 52-36---7, ñled July 12, it is therefore called the radix ten system. In 1943, Ser. No. 494,292, and the information can the radix two system the base is 2 and hence be transmitted to the second system either by the name “radix two.” means of manually'operated keys to set up a In order to translate from the radix ten sys number in the radix two system or it may be tem into the radix two system the former is transmitted from contacts and relays. broken-down into twos or a multiple thereof. vAnother object is to provide a system which Also in order to place the radix two `system on a may be expanded or continued in any desired number` of digits by a process similiar to that shown in the drawings. decimal basis for arithmetical calculations, each time a 2 appears in the radix ten system, a 10 The invention is illustrated in the accompany 30 is substituted in the radix two system. For ex. ample, if an 8 or 23 appears in the radix ten ing drawings in which: '. system, a 103 is substituted in the radix two 'sys Fig. 1 Ishows a broken-down sequence chart tem. As another example, if ’7 or 22 plus 21 plus showing just the pulsing or cycle relays AP, C, 2o is found in the radix ten system, it is trans and 'I' and their control oi the seduence or lated into 102 plus 101 plus 10° in the radix two progress relays J, K and L. system. In the process of addition in the radix Fig. 2 shows a sequence chart broken-down two system, where 0 and l only are used, it is including~ the relays listed in Fig. 1 and in addi done as follows: 19100 added to 101 equals 11001; tion the points at which certain operations take the process being different from the usual in that place when the ñrst digit key is operated. Fig. 3 'shows the above relays listed in Fig. l 40 the sum of the two l’s in the hundreds column equals 2 but since 2 is not used, a zero is substi and in addition the points where certain operaK tuted and a 1 carried over to the thousands col tions take place when a second or subsequent digit key has been operated. umn. This general method is used to facilitate the operation and release of relays for digit 2 of the 45 circuit design. I Fig. 4 shows a complete sequence chart for the number 25 used for illustration. Fig. 5 shows the operati-on and release of all relays for the digit 5 in the illustration 25. Fig. 6 lshows a sequence chart with the oper ation and release of’all relays for the ñrst digit In the circuit shown numbers are entered into the equipment'digit by digit in the usual order of descending denominational values by means oí ten keys, shown in Fig. 8, one for each dig ital Value to be entered. As each digit is 'sub mitted, the radix two equivalent of the radix ten number so far keyed is displayed on a lamp 5 in the number 58 used for illustration. Fig. 7 shows a sequence chart with the opera indicator (Fig. 10), whereupon another digit `may tion and release of all relays for the digit 8 in be superimposed. Digits may be submitted at the illustration 58. Fig. 8 shows the numerical and start keys, to 55 the rate of about three per second. 2,411,540 3 4 For inserting the radix ten digits, a set of ten ing relays into the calculator, stored therein, and digit keys is shown for convenience, but these can clearly be replaced by the contact pairs of displayed. The second digit of the radix ten number is then keyed and calculation begins. coupling relays or multi-position switches ar ` Considered in radix ten, the keying of this sec ranged to connect the circuit to any >kind _of de` vice which represents a digit of a radixten num~ bei- by grounding one of ten wires. The display lamps can equally clearly be replacedv yby con- . . ond>> digit implies that the number so far sub mitted has become, by that keying action, a two digit number with the first digit transferred from denomination 100, which it previously occupied to tacts of a coupling relay, arranged to connect> Vdenomination 101, and the second digit placed in the circuit at the desired moment to any kind 10 denomination‘100,'i. e., a number having a total of radix two storing or indicating device, which ’ > value equal to ten times the value of its first digit, is designed to operate from a> potential on one plus the value of its second digit. N ow the equiv of two wires in each denomination. , ` ' alent in radix two of the radix ten number l0 is the number 1010 Calculator or translator 15 The calculator is a straightforward accumu (since, in radix ten, 10=8+2=23+21> lator arranged for the addition of numbers in It follows, therefore, that the radix two equivalent radix two, as described in the above mentioned of the two-digit radix ten number keyed is equal Hartley et al. application, ñled July 12, v1943, to 1010 times (computed in radix two) the radix Serial No. 494,282, and may be extended for as 20 two equivalent of the ñrst digit keyed, plus the many denominations in radix two as may be re# radix two equivalent of the second digit keyed. quired for the radix ten numbers which are to The following information gives the arithmeti be converted, i'. e., seven denominations for two cal calculations for the illustration 25 in simpli digit numbers, ten for three, fourteen for four, ñed and complete form: ' ~ Y etc. Key 2 is operated in the decimal or radix ten 25 » Ineach denomination (except the highest, 2N), system. `In the radix two system, as explained there is a “new factor” relay A, an “aggregate” above, this digit 2 is translated into'lO and if no relay Z and an “aggregate-retaining” relay B. other key is operated this digit has been com The operated condition of> any of these relays pleted and is displayed on lamps as 10 with cer represents the value 1 vin the denomination con cerned, and the unoperated condition represents 30 tain zeros in front which have no signiñcance. Key 5 or the second digit is then operated in the value 0. A new factor is added in two stages the decimal or radix ten system andthe total of to an aggregate already registered by the Z re 25 is broken down into 2 times 10 plus 5. The lays.v First, the old aggregate is transferred from substitution of 10 in the radix two system for 2 the Z to the B relays, and the new factor Ais en in the radix ten system was described above. 10 tered on the A relays. Second, the holding circuit in the radix ten system is broken down into 8 of the Z relays is opened and the latter imme plus 2 or 23 plus 21 in the decimal system and diately re-operate in a new combination repre then in the radix two system, 10 being substituted senting the sum of the numbers registered by the A and B relays, and the new aggregate may then 40 for the 2’s, it equals l03 plus 101 or 1000 plus 10 or 1010. The 5 in the decimal system is broken be displayed on the lamps. ' down into 4 plus 1 or 22 plus “20. In the radix Principle of conversion ofv multi-digit radix ten two system, since lO’s are substituted for the 2’s, numbers into radia: two this is translated into 102 plus 100 or 100 plus l which equals 101. Therefore, from the above cal ‘ The value_'of a digit entered in radix tenis re culations, for the fina1 answer inradix two we corded by operating‘a combination ofthe live -have 10><1010 plus lOl, which equals 11001, The translating’relays PA-PE (Fig. 8). The combi lamps corresponding to the l’s would then be nations are so chosen that PA operated represents lighted and the numbers indicated with two zeros the value 1 in denomination ‘20 of a radix two in front which have no significance. number, PB the value 1 in denomination 21, PC the value l in denomination 22, and PD the value Detailed circuit operation 1 in denomination 23, while PE operated repre Before starting the detailed operation of the sents the value 0 in all the four denominations. circuit it will clarify the operation if the sequence The ñve relays are connected to the ten keys in charts shown in Figs. 1 to 3 are reviewed ñrst. accordance with the following table, from which it wil1 appear that the set of relays constitutes a 55 This will give a broad picture as to what to ex pect in the detailed operation. For the first digit device'for translating any single digit in radix as shown in Fig. 2, the pulsing and progress relays igen directly into the equivalent radix two num do a lot of operating and releasing without any er.` apparent useful purpose. Certain cycles of these 60 relays are required'for the calculation of the sec ond and sub-subsequent digits. The relays are Baàìilëigen Translating relays operated radix two allowed to go through the same cycles for they ñrst number digit to avoid circuit complication. The sequence charts shown in Figs. 4 to 7 indicate the same 0 PE 0000 65 sequence as the detailed operation. Theymay 1 PA 0001 2 PB 0010 . ì .3 y ' ' 4 PC 5 PO s PB Equivalent PA 0011. PA. 0101 , 0100 Po VPn 7 PC 8 . PD 9 PD PB ono PA 0111. *1000 PA 1001 be referred> to either with the detailed operation or separately. It is supposed that an operator desires to ob tain the radix two equivalent of the radix ten 70 number 25. To place the circuit in operation, the operator throws the locking key “start” and ST operates.` As soon as the ñrst digit of a radix ten number to be’ converted is keyed, the equivalent radixftwo number is entered from contacts of the >tran,Slat ' Lamps NLG, 5LB, ALD, SLS, 2L0, ILû and ULD burn in a circuit to ST2 and display the radix 2 number 0000000. The circuit can be traced to 2,411,540 6 5 the zero lamps through 0Z4 to EIZI back C6, DC2 back and ST2. The operator depresses key> 2 and PB operates. DC operates to PE2 and number display ceases, open at DC2. PB locks over DC2 to ST2. J operates over STI, KI! back and LE back to DCI. AP operates over J Il, T3 and C5 baci: loclrs over API to T2. C operates to APE. J locks to C4. K operates over J3 iront to Cil and locks over both KEI through LS back and lil to DCI and C4 respectively. T operates slowly to C5. AP, open at T2, releases. C, open at APE, re leases. J, open at C11 and KI I, releases. T, open at C5, releases. AP operates Kill, T3 and C5 back and locks to T2, followed by C to APE. K again locks to CII. L operates over K0 iront and J 8 back to C5; and locks over L55 to DCI. T operates slowly to C5. AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C. K, open at Cil and Lïâ, releases. T, open at C5, re leases. IA operates over L2, PBS and T3 to C5 and locks over IAI and ST3 to TI. This trans fers the record from the key relays to the A relays. AP operates over L5, T3 and C5 and locks over API to T2, followed by `C to APì. IZ operates over IA2 front, IBS back, 0152 back to C2 iront. This transfers the record from the A relays to the Z relays. M operates over K8 bach, J 0 back to Cd and locks over MI, ALS to PE2. T operates to 2Z and 4Z lock to APS back through AL2 and ST5. IIA, open at CI and TI, releases. 2B, although open at C3 front, holds (or releases and re-operates) to C3 back over Ll and 2Z2. @B operates to C3 back over ¿Z2 and L7. K, open at C12», releases. T, open at C5, releases. 0A operates over LI, PAS, T3 and C5 and looks over ¿EAI and ST3 to Tl. 2A op erates over L3, PCS, T3 and Cil and locks to ÈAI, ST3 and TI. This transfers the record from the key relays to the A relays. locläs over AP operates over L5, T3 and Cä API to T2, followed by C at APE. âëZ operates @A2 front, 0133 back, and C2 iront. SZ operates over 3A2 back, SBS back, 3 iront, 252 front, to C2. 2Z releases at APS back and C?. basl; The sum` or” 1, represented by 2A operated, and 1, repre sented by 2B operated, is l0 in radix two. The value 0 in denomination 22 is thus correctly re corded by release of 1 is “carried over” to the next higher denomination ‘23 and recorded, since neither 3A nor 3B is operated, by the opera» tion of SZ. as stated. leases. PB, open at DCE, releases as soon as key M operates over K0 back, JS back to Cil and locks through MI front, ALS and PAE. T oper ates to C5, slowly enough to allow SEZ, EZ time to operate. DC, open at lVII, release . L, open at DCI, releases. PC and PA, open at DCiì, release as soon as key 5 is allowed by the operator to re store. AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C at APZ. SZ, BZ and ¿IZ lock to APS back. lVi, open at Cil, 2 is allowed by the operator to restore. AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C. IZ locks through ALE, ST5 to APB back.. M, onen at 0A and 2A, and 4A, open at CI, release. T re leases at C5. 2B and AB, open at CS, release. C5, slowly enough to allow IZ time to operate. DC, open at Ml, releases. L, open at DCI, re C4 and PE2 releases as soon as PB has released. IA, open at CI, releases. T releases at CE. Lamps NLll, 5Li3, ALS, SLB, ELS, l I, A53 burn releases as soon as PC and PA have released. Lamps 5LB, ¿ELLI and SLI, 2L0, IL@ and 0L! burn in a circuit to C0 and display the radix two number 0011001, the desired equivalent of the radix ten number 25. At this stage, ST and in a circuit to C6, D02 back, ST2 and diss-lay the radix two number 0000010, the equivalent of the ‘ill the aggregate relays GZ, SZ and »CIZ alone remain operated. radix ten number 2. At this stage ST and the The operator, having submitted the complete aggregate relay IZ alone remain operated. radix ten number and read the computed equiv The operator depresses key s PC and .PA alent radix two number, restores lrey “start”; operate. DC operates over MI ba to PC2 and PAZ, and number display ceases, onen at DCE e ST, QZ, SZ and llZ release and display @eases The circuit is again in its original condition. to ST2. PC and PA lock over D02. J operates It is to be observed that any combination of over STI, KI I back, Lil back to DCI. 2A operates digits that has been entered by means of the digit over J2, IZB, T3 and C5 and locks over 2AI keys appears finally as a number in radix two on through ST3 to TI. This transfers the record from the Z relays to the next column in the A i, the Z relays. Each time a digit key is depressed, one or more of the translating relays ‘PA-PE op relays which is part ci the calculation. erate, followed by DC and J, and that thereafter' AP operates over J t, T3, C5 and locks over API the three relays AP, C and T operate and 'release to T2, followed by C to IZ, open at C2 baci: in turn three times in self-timing circuits and in and AP back, releases. 2Z operates over 2A?. dependently of the A, B and Z relays; and that front, T53 back, IAII back, EEZ back to C2 front. K, L and M serve to count the three cycles of AP, J locks to Cil. K operates over Je iront to Cil and C and T. Each time C is operated calculation locks over KI I front, LIE baclr to DCS. aroerates takes place, the Z relays operating in a combina to C5, slowly enough to allow ‘EZ time to onerate. tion determined solely by the conditions of the AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C at 2Z locks through ALE, ST5, C2 bael: and to APS .~. A and B relays. The immediate result of the operation of a back. 2A, onen at Cl, releases. ‘EB operates over 222 and K9 to CE back. J, onen Cri, re - digit key, íollowing operation oi relays D, C and J, is to cause the number stored on the relays to be multiplied by 10 in radix two the prod uct to be recorded on the A relays. The first op eration or relay C causes this to be transferred to the Z relays by means oi the circuits or adding front holds over (or releases ZBI. 2Z, and-although rre-operates) open at to C2 front the number recorded on the A relays to the num ber recorded on the Z relays, the latter being tZ overalso IB?.operates back, iAflover back, #A22BZ5 front, frontals“ and “f A2le, 3A@ " zero at the present stage. The Yfollowing is an il lustration in which an operator desires to obtain back, 3BE back to C2 iront. lí to over duo, T, open at C5, releases. ¿A operates over sa, mvo T3 to C5 and locks over IAI, and TI. AP operates over KI 0, T3 C5 and locks o'rer API to T2, followed by C at AF2. 2B looks to APS K1. locks Lover operates L@ toover DCI.K8 Tfront, onerates J bach to to C0 slowly enough to allow “EZ and 4Z time to operate. AP, open at T2, releases, followed by C at APZ. the radix two equivalent of the radix ten number 58. The ñrst digit 5 is broken .flown into d+l. or 22 plus 20. In the radix two system equiv' alent is 102 plus 100, or 100 plus 1 which equals 2,411,540 101. The total 58 is broken down into 5 times 10 plus 8. In the decimal system the 10 is broken down into 8 plus 2 or 23 plus 21. In the radix two system this is translated into 103 plus 101, or 1000 plus 10, which equals 1010. In the radix ten system the digit 8 is broken down into 23 which translated into radix two system is equal to 103 or 1000. erates through C5 front. AP releases at T2. C releases at AP2. 3A and 5A release at CI and TI . IB and 3B release at C3 front and AP3 front. K releases at C4. AP operates through L5, T3 and C5 back. T releases at C5 front. C operates at AP2. M operates through K8 back, J8 back ' and Clä. DC releases at MI back. T operates at Therefore we have 101 times 1010 plus C5 front. PD releases at DC2 front. L releases at DCI. AP releases at T2. M releases at PD. C releases at AP2. T releases at C5 front. This 1000 or at total of 111,010. The following is a detailed operation of the circuit for the illustration of the radix ten num leaves relays 5Z, 4Z, 3Z and IZ operated. This lights the final lamps for the combination of digits 5 and 8 and is indicated at 111,010. ber 58. The start key is operated and it operates relay ST. This lights the zero lamp for each digit shown on the circuit. The circuit can be vtraced It has been shown that when 2A and 2B are both operated, 1 is “carried over” to the next through CS, DC2 back, to ST2. Key 5 is oper ated and operates PC and PA relays. Relay DC operates through M I back, AI3, to PA2 and PC2. This extinguishes the lamps at DC2 back. J op erates through STI, KII back, L6 back to DCI. AP operates through J6, T3 to C5 back and locks 20 to API and T2. C operates at AP2. K operates at J8 front and C4. T operates slowly at C5. AP releases at T3. C releases at AP2. J releases at C4. T releases at C5 front.V AP operates through KID, T3 to C5 back and locks through API to T2. C operates at AP2. L operates through K8 front, J8 back and C4. T operates at C5 front. AP releases at T2. C releases at AP2. K releases at Cil, T releases at C5 front. higher denomination. The calculator, in fact, effects “carry over” automatically in all circum stances, without introducing any delay in the op eration of the Z relays. ' In denomination 20, it will be observed that UZ operates if 0A or 0B is operated, but not if both are operated. In the latter case (only), the front contact of @A3 is grounded and 1 is carried over to denomination 2'1. If 0A or 0B or neither is op erated, the back contact of GA3 is grounded and (I is carried over to denomination 21. In denomination 21, IZ operates if either 0 is carried over from denomination 2° and IA or IB is operated alone, or 1 is carried over from 0A operates through LI, PA3, T3 and C5 back. denomination 2l’ and IA and IB are both operated 2A operates through L3, FC3, T3 and C5 back. 30 or both unoperated. The armature of IA3 is This transfers the record from the key relays to grounded and 1 is carried over to denomination the A relays. AP operates through L5, T3 and 22 if either IA and IB are both operated (whether C5 back. C operates at AP2. [IZ operates through GAZ front, 0B3 back, C2 front. ZZ op- ‘_ erates over 2A2 front, 2B3 back, IAlI back, IB2 back, C2 front. M operates over K8 back, J5 back and Cil. DC releases at MI back. T oper ates at C5 front. L releases at DCI. PA and PC‘ release at DC2. AP releases at T2. M releases f at PA2 and PC2. C releases at AP2. 0A and 2A release at CI front. T releases at C5. This lights lamps 000101; This represents the radix two equivalent of the digit 5. The following is the detailed operation for digit 8 in the illustration 58. The relays left operated from the above op eration are ST, BZ and ZZ. Key 8 is operated and it operates relay PD which locks through PDI to DC2 front. DC operates through MI 50 back, AL3 and PD2. J operates through STI, K6 back, L5 back and DCI. AP operates through J6, T3 and C5 back. 3A operates through J3, 2Z3, T3' and C5 back. IA operates through JI, 023, T3 and C5 back. This transfers the record from the previously operated Z relays to the next column to the A relays. C operates to AP2. K operates through J8 front and C4. 0Z and ZZ release at C2 back. IZ operates through IA2 front, IB3 back, 0B2 back and C2 front. SZ op 60 erates 3A2 front, 3B3 back, 2A@ back, 2B2 back, and C2 front. This transfers the record from the A relays to the Z relays. T operates at C5 front. AP releases at T2. C releases at AP2. IA and 3A release at TI and CI. 3B operates through 3Z2 to K9 and C3 back. J releases at C4. IB operates through IZ2, K9 and 3C back. T releases at C5. 3A operates through K2, IZ3, T3, to C5 back. 5A operates through Kil, 3Z3, T3 to C5 back. AP operates through KID, T3 and C5 back. .C operates at AP2. 4Z operates through ¿IA2 back, ëBS back, 3A3 front, 3B2 front and C2 front. 5Z operates through 5A2 front, 5B3 back, lIAlI back, IJBZ back to C2 front. L operates through K8 front and J8 front and C4. T op or not 1 has been carried over from denomina tion 20) or 1 is carried over from denomination 2° and IA or IB is operated alone. ’I'he armature of IAQ is grounded and 0 is carried over to denom ination 22 if either IA and IB are both unop erated or 0 is carried over from denomination 20 and IA or IB is operated alone. In all other intermediate denominations, the conditions for operating the Z relay and for car rying 1 or 0 over to the next higher denomination are the same as in denomination 21. In denomination 2N, i. e., the highest denomi nation for which provision is made, there is no A relay. NZ operates if either 0 is carried over from the next lower denomination 2N-1 and NB is operated or if 1 is carried over and NB is un operated. The front contact of NBZ is grounded and 1 is carried over to a denomination not pro vided for, if 1 is carried over from denomination 2N-1 and NB is operated. In the'latter event, AL operates and locks to ALI; the operated Z re lays, open at AL2, release; DC, open at ALS, re leases; and the radix two number 0 is displayed, indicating that the capacity of the calculator has been exceeded. This condition persists until key “start” is restored. What is claimed is: 1. Calculating equipment comprising means for entering thereinto by successive digits an in tegral number expressed in a first radix, elec trically operated means for transforming each of a succession of digits of said number in turn, as it is entered, commencing with the digit of highest denomination, into the equivalent num ber in a second radix as if said digit were of lowest denomination, and means including said elec trically operated means, effective upon entry of each digit of lower denomination, for computing a number in said second radix equivalent to the value of preceding digit or digits raised to the next higher denomination in said first radix and for adding to the result of said computation the 2,411,540 9 10 number expressed in said second radix which is for adding to the product the equivalent in said equivalent to the Value of the lower denomination second radix of the digit last entered, and means of said number expressed in said iirst radix. for rendering available the number which is the 2. Calculating equipment comprising means result of said addition. for entering thereinto by successive digits an in~ 5. A calculating apparatus for translating a tegral number expressed in a first radix, elec number expressed in radix ten into a number ex trically operated means for transforming the pressed in radix two, comprising a plurality of in digit of highest denomination of said number up put wires, there being one for each digit from on entry thereof into its equivalent in a second zero to nine, means to enter the successive digits radix, means elîective upon entry of a digit of of a number expressed in radix ten into said ap next lower denomination for multiplying said paratus by altering in sequence the circuit con equivalent by the value of said ñrst radix ex ditions of a combination of said input wires, a pressed in said second radix, and for adding to the plurality of output wires, and means operatively product the equivalent in said second radix of controlled by the circuit conditions of said input said digit of next lower denomination of said first wires and comprised solely of relays and contacts operated thereby for altering upon entry of each mentioned number, and means for rendering available the number which is the result of said successive digit, the circuit condition of a com addition. bination of said output Wires in accordance with 3. Calculating equipment as -claimed in claim 2 the equivalent expressed in radix two of the num in which said first radix is ten and said second 20 ber expressed in radix ten which has been en radix is two. tered into said apparatus. 4. Calculating equipment comprising means 6. A calculating apparatus, as deñned in claim for entering thereinto digit by digit commencing 5, in which the means for altering the circuit con with the digit of highest denomination an in dition of a combination of the output wires in tegral number expressed in a first radix, means 25 cludes a plurality of storage relays which operate automatically responsive to the entry of each when the next succeeding digit is entered into digit for converting said digit into its equivalent said apparatus and which cooperate to calculate in a second radix, for multiplying the equivalent the equivalent in radix two or" the digit in that in said second radix of any combination of digits denomination plus the radix two equivalent of of said number previously entered by the value of 30 any preceding denominations. said ñrst radix expressed in said second radix and LESLIE BAINES HAIGI-î.