Патент USA US2411559код для вставки
Nev. 26, 1946. ` F. soNlN Erm. METHOD FOR FORMING FUR FILLED YARN 2,411, 559 Filed Oct. l1, 1943 «24 _ @om Patented Nov. 26, 1_946 2,411,559 UNITEDy STATES einem ori' ici: ' 2,411,559» . METHOD EUR FORMING FUR FILLED YARN Frances Sonln and Mor?is II. Siegel, ` l New York, N. Y. Application-October 11, 1943, Serial No. 505,716 i8 Claims. . The invention relates to a method and appara tus for forming filled or core yam to- be woven into a fur filled fabric in making artificial fur from_ which may be-fashioned coats and other articles usually made from natural fur. . symbolic outline, with the contents of the hopper at the vleft side of Fig. 2 omitted, Vand which machine'in its operation discloses one way in which the method aspects ofthe invention may be practiced; in this showing the driving mecha nism for actuating the several movable parts have <The primary objectof the invention is to utilize and thus provide a new market for a presently . cheap form of waste fur hairs which, due primarily to the extremely short length of most of the hairs, . are of no practical use and can thus be purchased cheaply from the fur industry. 'I‘his waste comes from clipping, cutting; shavings, combings and dyeing in the treatment of fur skins and exists - been omitted to avoid confusion of showing con ventional drive mechanism; S , Fig. 2 isa vertical sectional view taken in the as an indefinite fluffy mass oi’ entangled hairs medial longitudinal plane through Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is an enlarged plan view of the top of the treating compartment at the upper right of varying lengths but mostly of short lengths. This waste material is at present being thrown ' away bythe furriers as a useless by-product of hand portion of Fig. 2 showing the parallel rela their work. Thepresent‘disclosure contemplates tion oi' the core forming thread to the discharge the formingoi’ an end _product from this waste slot; material and which end product is a woven fabric @il which will have most of the visual characteristics of the fur side of a natural skin. ì In actual practice, it has been found possible vto mix the hair from. different kinds of animal Y .2 In the accompanying drawing: _ ’_ Fig. `l is a plan view of a machine forming a preferred embodiment of the apparatus aspect of the disclosure with parts shown largely in ' ' Fig. fi is an enlarged detail view in axial sec tion of the ironer shown in smaller form in ad vanceoí the slot in Figs. l and 2; Fig. 5_is a view of a short length of the finished yarn as it comes od the'machine, highly magnified ` skins in practicing the method herein featured 2% in an attempt to show its details and shown partly and in this way to give a wide variety of novel in longitudinal section; and y and beautiful eiîects to the resulting fabrics not Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view of the yarn known with the natural skins.y y shown in Fig. 5 taken on the plane indicated by Considering the method aspect of the present the line @-â of Fig. 5. ' e disclosure, the object is to provide an improved ad The machine i0 may be divided for purposes technique for utilizing the fur waste> asa coating of description into a measuring device il, a com ' for a thread or similar filament to form a fur iilled »yarn capable of being used conventionally in a fabric weaving machine. The method par-' ticularly contemplates the'forming of the yarn 35 by a ‘sequence of steps including a disintegrating and opening out of the mass of indeñnitely inter A meshedV hairs in which this waste is available; bined disintegrating and hair applying device l2 . and an organization i3 of thread treating ele-l ments. ' The measuring device il comprising an open top hopper it -provided in lan inside wall and midheight thereof with a discharge port I5. ‘Posi tioned in order from left to right in the hopper the prelayin-g of the hairs at least somewhat in i -»is‘a feeder i3 and a measuring drum I] for parallelism; a gentle lifting of the. hairs ony to a 40 receiving the Awaste from the feeder. Between . travelling thread, in distinction from blowin the drum il and the port l5 is a stripper I8 for them on to the thread, and which thread is prefer-r dipping a layer of waste off the drum, through ably rotating about its own axis and sometimes port i5 and thus into the first or receiving com coated with an adhesive. v - Various other` objects and advantages of the 45 _invention will be in partobvious from a consider ation of the method -features of the disclosure andfrom an inspection of the :accompanying> ' drawing and in part will be more fully set forth in the following -particular description of one 50 method of practicing the invention, and the inven.. tion also consists in certain new and novel modi ñcations of the preferred method and other fea tures' 'of construction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed. » partment i9 of the device i2. ~ ~ The feeder I6 comprises a broad bladed up standing pusher plate 20 slidably mounted for reciprocatory movement along the inclinedouter side 2| of the hopper I4._ The pusher is hung from a lever 22 so as to swing therefrom and the lever is operatively connected to the drive mech anism of the machine (not shown) to operate with suflicien't activity to maintain the fur waste against the measuring drum I1 as it is introduced into thefhopper. The pusher in its elevating 55 movement permits the waste to fall between itself> ' i 2,411,559 3 4 drum! ' Within the compartment 3| are journalled three picker -rollers 4I, 42 and 43 intergeared with _ The measuring drum is a metal wheel mounted to be driven from shaft 23 connected to the main driving mechanism. The periphery of the drum is a narrow band 26 in one _form of the drive about one and one-half inches wide andI provided with a plurality of `circumferentially spaced apart short ledges 25 extending-trans versely of the band 2d. Each ledge is provided at its outer edge with .a flange 25’. All of the flanges extend in the direction of rotation of the drum, that is in a clockwise direction.. A doctor 23, provided with outwardly projecting wire spring fingers 26’ is mounted for rotation above the drum to feed the material thereto. The flanged ledges 25 on the drum act as the drum rotates from left to right about its top to coact with the doctor to withdraw from the mass of hair in the hopper ‘a- measured amount of the mass per rotation of the drum and doctor and , tane aperture 32 and hence into the compartment and the drum I1 and in its lowering movement packs the waste against the perimeter of the Ul each other and with the main drive to rotate counter-clockwise. lThe several picker rollers act on the matted hair to disintegrate the same. They tear the hair particles apart, open up the mass, or differently expressed, reduce the specific density of the original stock until it assumes a light, fluffy cloud -like effect as it accumulates in the upper portion. of the compartment 3i. In one practical operation‘and where a ñne grade of fur hair was used, the hair particles were separated so that the mass might be said to be translucent when light was directed~t\- ough a thickness thereof of about one foot. > he fur » material follows the path indicated by the lìarrows moving upwardly through the constricted\throat 31 into _the lower part of portion 36, then‘laterally through aperture 32 and then upwardly in the compartment 3 I. ' The top wall 44 ofthe casing 29 is provided draws it out into a long, thin ribbon-like form having the width of the drum.v The ledges are very small extending -beyond the drum about 312 with a long, narrow slot 45 providing a discharge of an inch so that-the resulting ribbon of matted hair has about that thickness as it leaves the is particularly noted that there is no fan or other air pressure or blower means acting on the mass of hair as it moves through the casing 29 to opening from the- top of the compartmentl 3i. It drum. As the drum- rotates it advances this rib wards the discharge slot. The pickers and par bon over the top of the drum, past the stripper I8 and as a freely floating streamer on through the 30 ticularly the terminal pickers `4I---43 are revolv ing at high speed and'. they may generate a gentle, port I5 and into the compartment I9.> barely perceptible updraft which assists ln mov The stripper I8 includes a shaft 21 geared ex ing the disintegrated and flocculent mass of hair ternally of the hopper to thedrum shaft 23 and in a foam-like stream through the slot. The final extending from the shaft 21 is a plurality, shown to be four, of blades 28 of somewhat stili and yet ~ discharge through the slot appears to be more of a pushing action of the advancing mass than a slightly flexible leather, The stripper rotates blowing action. The resulting fluff simply moves counter-clockwise and the outer edges of its upwardlyv and thus against the actionof gravity blades engage the ribbon of matted hair and as would a foam from beer or other gas charged bodily raises it off the drum so that very little, if any, of the hair which has so passed as a rib 40 liquid. A11 that is visible is that a cloud of loose hai;` rises up out of the slot in a fairly uniform bon over the top of the drum is ever carried about rate per unit of length along the entire length After the ledges 25 of the slot. pass the point I5 they begin to pick up the waste In those cases where the waste hair used is of which accumulates in the bottom of the hopper and the pusher plate tends to pack the waste 4: the straight, non-curling type a peculiar phe- . nomena takes place in the upper portion of the somewhat so that there is a fairly uniform density .compartment 3| just below the slot. 4The ñnal to the ribbon. The thin ribbon of hair iloats away picker 43 exerts an orientating action on the from the stripper and moves gently into the com mass to lay the hairs in the same direction. The partment I9 as indicated by the arrows. hairs for the most part arrange themselves in understood that at this point the hair while it , the under side of the drum. is in ribbon form is still in an indefinitely matted parallelism with their original outer or pointed condition and_still has about the density of the >original stock as it is fed into the hopper. The device I2 comprises an upstanding metal casing 29 provided with a dividing wall 30 form ing two compartments, the first or receiving com ends pointing in the direction of travel of the upper portion of the top picker roller 43, that is pointing to the left4 in the showing in Fig. 2._ Of course, this means that the hairs so point ing have their thiol; end, base or root ends point ing to the right of the showing as they are lifted through the slot. While all of the hairs Communication is provided be-v are not so orientated, and as a matter of fact tween the compartment by an aperture 32 about mid-height of the wall 30, Just below the aper 60 all of them are not even brought into parallelism but remain intertwined with each other, still most ture 32, roller 33 coacts with a guide piece 34 of the hairs‘and particularly the long, thin fur to divide the compartment I9 into a lower receiv hairs are so arranged with their pointed ends ing portion 35 and an upper discharging portion pointing in the same direction. The extremely 36 and to form a constrictive throat» 31 between partment I9 and a second or discharging com partment 3|. the roller 33 and guide piece 34. . ` Journalled within the portion 35 and located one above the other are two picker rollers 38 and 39 intergeared exteriorly of the casing t`o rotate in the same direction, that is, counter-clockwise short hairs in theI mass have a tendency to remain in a more or less matted form but, of course, not so matted as in the original stock. In those cases where a curling, screw-like or wavy type of fur hair is used, as in the case of as indicated by the arrows. In the lower part of 70 sheep’s wool, the hair is disintegrated and dis the upper portion 36 is journalled a single picker roller 40 intergeared to rotate counter-clockwise and thus in a direction to receive the material discharged> through the throat 31 and advance the same with an undersweeping action through 75 charged through the slot as previously described, but in these cases there is no noticeable arrange ment of the hair particles in parallel relation and4 no unidirectional pointing of the original outer endsvof the hairs. This is presumably- due to the 2,411,559» fact that m sheep's wool, for instance, the hair _ » . ~ e - is circumferentially compacted; the hair more is, interlocked by its screw or spiral construction.l and thus resists'the action of the pickers to sep- Ä' thoroughlyintertwined and pressed ilrmly into the adhesivecoating. The resulting yarh is of arate and arrange it in parallel relation. much less diameter than when fed into the The thread treating device> i6 includes a set of drawing rollers ‘it for drawing a single thread t ironer. _ ‘ ` Itis noted that the thread andsubsequent yam under tension from a supply spool (not shown) I is advanced in the same direction, that is from and across the slot ¿it in position to receive the right- to left in the showing in> Figs. 1 and 2, in discharge from the same. The slot is quite nar row and dimensioned so that the thread almost 10 which the lstraight _hairs point as they were dis charged through the slot. This means, of course, - but not quite acts as a closure for the same as that most oi' the hairs are laid _on the thread with shown in Fig. 3. Differently expressed, the thread is centered over the slot and there. is provided , their pointed ends in advance and due to the -twist 'of the yarn as it passes through the ironer on opposite sides of the thread long clearances these hairs> will be formed in the yarn with a of extremely narrow width. ’ Considered from right to left of the showing in Figs. l and 2„- there is disclosed a spring 15 screw-like or spiral lay'and with their pointed ends in advance, that is, pointed to the left. pressed presser fooi-,161 for restraining the free dom of movement of the thread under the pull In this operation all of the hairs do not so lie within the outlines of the matted hair covering on the core forming thread. A certain percentage- fróm the ‘revolving thread. From the block- 60 -The- resulting yarn y isdifiicult to show pie . ing action of the rollers 46. It is suggested that 20 ofthe threads, and usually the longer threads, in some cases the thread be coated with glue or ' having their inner, wider or base-ends embedded other suitable adhesive and for »this purpose in the adhesive and in the closely matted coating, v there is shown an adhesive pot 48 mounted with . but theseY pointed hair ends. extend freely out the presser foot on a bracket 49 carried by wardly from the coating in somewhat spaced ’ the casing 29. The thread is passed over and’in 25 apart relation `along the entire length of the illn-v engagement with the flat top of a steel block- 50 ished yarn. ., which acts to prevent the hairs from flying loose -toriallydue to the iìneness of the hairsjbut ref the covered yarn is passed through bore 5i of an erence to Figs. 5 and 6 will show the yarn aty - ironer 52 mounted on top of the casing 29. The 30 least in a crude way. In these ngures the cen . bore El is of conical form as shown in Fig. 4 with the larger endv forming the intake end for receiv ing the `coated thread or yarn. The disclosure contemplates the twisting of the thread and resulting yarn about its own axis during the period while it is receiving the hair" over the slot and while being drawn through the ‘ tral core is formed by the twisted -thread t,tcoated_with a. thin layer ofadhesive g and into which adhesive the coating c of matted hairs is more or less embedded. The ~ free outwardly pointing hairs are shown at h. By the time the yarn has reached th drawing rollers 46 it Vhas passed along a stretch suñicient to insure an‘air drying and lis delivered to the take up spool inA a commer cially dry condition. Incidentally, no more ad iron‘er. For this purpose,v the yarn is passed through the ‘este as of rotary twister es includ-, ing a tubular shell mounted for rotary movement hesive is used than is just suilicient to insure the about its own axis in a bearing 56 carried by 40 sticking of the hair- to the thread. bracket 5l in turntcarried by casing is. By means of a driving connection with a source Within the bore 5t are mounted four grooved of power the speed of the measuring drum l'i spools 59 each free to turn about its own axis, and pickers 38-43 is so synchronized with the two on each side of the thread. The spool axes travel of the thread t `and resulting yarn y under extend in parallel relation and transversely of the pull of the drawing rollers 46 that the requi- . the axis of rotation of the twister. The two site amount of fur covering is located on the middle spools are arranged so‘that their adja thread per unit length to sive the requisite extent cent peripheries are each inset slightly beyond , of covering. For the purpose of controlling the the path of the thread thereby to cause the 50 relative speeds of the ‘different drawing rollers, thread as it passes through the rbore to assume drum and picker rollers to meet the varying con the wavy or undulated offset form shown in Fig. ditions imposedy by different types of fur in use `2. Di?ferently described, the plane tangent to for the time being, the machine will include con >the spools of one set is offset inwardly beyond ventional change speed mechanism. the plane tangent tothe spools of 'the other While this disclosure features the use of a. sin set. The twister is provided with a driving pulley gle thread, and which in practice is a strong cot 59 belted to the drive mechanism and intended ton thread, it is within the scope ofthe disclo to be" driven at high speed. _The twister acts sure to use two threads parallel to each other on the yarn to give it a definite tortional twist and which threads become twisted one on the and this twist extends` from the presser footñ'i 60 other conventionally. In this case, theadhesive to the drawing rollers d6, the twist being clock -may be omitted or> materially reduced as the wise between the twister and rollers and counter i twisting of two threads one> on the other is sufclockwise between the twister and presser foot. ficient in most 'cases' to hold the fur coating in During the movement of the twisted thread in place until it reaches the ironer. As the coated its `advance along the slot, it is dragged through 65 core, either of the single or double thread, passes the long narrow stream of loosely matted cloud of hair rising out of the slot and acts to pick up the hair. It is understood that as it passes through the mass of hair the thread is rapidly ro- . through the ironer the coating will be rather firmly packed into' place. The iìnished yarn y formed is wound on to a take up spool 60 replaceably mounted on shaft . tating so that the hair for the most part is twisted 70 6i operatively connected to the drive mechanism. on to the thread to form a closely matted inner layer with many of the hairs sticking outwardly from the hair coating. ` The spool 601s used conventionally in a fabric ' weaving machine and the yarn'thereon is woven into a cloth which on both sides looks very much As the coated thread is advanced through the like‘the fur side of a natural fur skin. It par-> ironer 52 the more or less loose short hair coating 75 takes of the appearance of the hair of the animal o ¿4111559 which supplied the waste cuttings. For instance, waste hair from a gray squirrel can-be made into a yarn, the yarn into a fabric and the fabric into an artificial gray squirrel coat which looks as if ' it were made from natural gray squirrel skins. Fabrics made from the waste hair cuttings from a long haired animal like a fox produce a beauti ful black or brown soft glossy surface which with its ñne hair ends produces the silky effect of a high price skin of fox. By suitably mixing in the hopper the waste hair from different kinds of fur an indeñnite number of diñerently appearing forms of result ing fabric may be obtained. , While fur hair of both the straight and curled variety has been speciñcally described herein, it is within the scope of the disclosure to use other forms cf waste material such, for instance, as picking actions to distintegrate the material of the ribbon progressively to form the same nnally into a light fluffy mass and with the’hair par ticles sufficiently separated so that the mass is translucent and gently lifting, in distinction from blowing or throwing or hurling, the same gently and while causing it to assume a unilateral dimension as it is caused to be transferred on to a thread passed therethrough and along the path defined by said .unilateral direction. ‘ 5. In the'art of forming a. ßlling for a yarn, the method which consists in withdrawing from a mass of matted fur hairs a limited amount of - the same per unit of time in the forming of a thin ribbon, subjecting the same while exposed tov the environmental air condition to successive picking actions to'distintegrate the material of -the ribbon progressively to form the same finally _ into a light fiuffy mass and with the hair par» 20 ticles more or less adhering to an extremely lccse We claim: matted lform but sufñciently separated so that l. In the art of forming a fur covered yarn, the mass is translucent and causing the mass the method which consists in drawing from an while in such translucent form. to assume a indefinite matted mass of fur Waste hairs a thin lengthwise form and causing the mass to be V layer of the same in measured amounts per unit of time, discharging the layer into a confined 25 moved by the pushing action of the advancing space; progressively disintegrating the material so mass and causing the translucent mass to rise discharged to separate the same into a ñne ñoat upwardly direct from the last picking step to a ing fluff, causing the nud at the end of the dis discharge point while maintaining its translu integrating step to move gently upwardly and cent condition. ` thus against the action of gravity and in_to a nar 30 6. In the art of treating a matted mass of row, long- path and causing an adhesively coated straight fur hair, the method which consists in. thread to traverse along the length of said path subjecting the mass to a picking action to dis and closely above the same to pick up the fur integrate the mass and to cause the hairs for fluff as it rises on to the thread, the travel of the the most part to assume a substantially parallel thread and the amount of fur waste advanced in relation, and subjecting the resulting hair to the the layer per unit of time being synchronized to effect of a lifting pressure while carrying the provide the requisite degree of fur coating on the mass of carded hair to assume a unilateral form thread per unit of length. ' extending in the direction in whichA the hairs for feathers. f - 2. In the art of forming a fur covered yarn, -the most part lie at theßtermination of the pick the method which consists in drawing from an 40 ing action. indefinite. matted mass of fur waste hairs a thin 7. In the art of treating a matted mass of layer of the same in measured amounts per unit straight fur hair, the method which consists in of time, discharging the layer into a confined space, progressively disintegrating the material so discharged to separate the same into a fine float subjecting the mass to a picking action to dis integrate the mass and to cause the hairs for the J most part to assume a substantially „parallel re lation and causing those'hairs which are in such parallel relation to pass upwardly through a nar row slot extending in the direction of such par ing fluff, causing the :duif at the end of the dis integrating step to move gently upwardly and thus against the- action of gravity and into a nar row, long path and causing .an adhesively coated thread to traverse along the length of said path and closely above the same to pickup/the fur allel relation. . fluff as it rises on to the thread, while twisting the threadv about its own axis as it passes along 8. In the art of filling yarn the method which consists in drawing a thread through a. mass of fur hairs where the hairs extend for the most part in the direction of the length of the thread said path. while twisting the thread and subjecting the . 3. In the art of preparing lfrom an indefinite 55 thread with its layer of hairs thereon to an iron matted mass of waste fur hairs a fur coating for ing action, said ironing action progressively a yarn, the method which consists in forming a drawing the yarn radially inwardly, thus causing Athin layer from the original matted mass, dis the h'air to become condensed and matted cir charging the layer as formed into a confined cumferentially about Ythe twisting thread. space free of any fan or other air pressure or UU 9. The method of producing from a matted blower action, subjecting the same while in said mass of fur hairs a thin flat ribbon of the same, space to a distintegrating action to reduce the » and separating its hairs into a fluffy mass caus original density to a light ñuffy mass and causing ing the ñuify mass to assume a unilateral form and applying said fluffy mass to a travelling the iinal mass to float from its point of disinte gration to its point of discharge in substantially thread when> the thread and unilateral mass are quiescent air upwardly and thus rcontra to the in parallel relation. action of gravity as it is discharged from said 10. The method of feeding yarn filling mate rially upwardly in a long narrow sheet, drawing , confined space directly into the atmosphere and substantially without assistance from any kinetic a yarn thread _across said sheet in position to pick up the filling, ironing the filling on to the force inherent in the air in said space. thread, while rotating the resulting yarn. 4. In the art of forming a filling for a yarn, 11. The method of drawing. yarn under ten- ` the method which consists in withdrawing from sion first through an ironer to compact and re a mass of matted fur hairs a limited amount of duce the diameter of the yarn and them through the same per unit of time in the forming of a, thin ribbon, subjecting the same to successive 75 a' twister to twist the yarn about its own axis 2,441,559 . "10 ~ 9 and thus give it a tortional twist as thefyarn in a fixed plane, and directing thañuñ while in . is drawn through the ironer. said plane on to a thread travelling in said plane - l 4 12. In the art of forming a fur covered yarn, the method which consists in drawing from an and thus through the layer of small thickness of fluff while twisting the thread. t indefinite matted mass of fur waste hairs a thin 15. In the art of forming a fur ñlled yarn, the layer of the same in measured amounts per unit method whichconsists in forming in-space a thin of time, discharging the layer into a conñned layer of fur hair fluff disposed in a plane, pass space, disintegrating the material so discharged ing an adhesively coated thread under tension to separate the same into a flneiloating nuff, through said ñuii" while in such plane to cause the causing the ñuff at the end of the disintegrating 10 thread to pick up particles of the ñuff and twist step to move gently into a narrow, long path and ing the thread in one clockwise direction while causing an adhesively coated thread to traverse passing along the place where the thread picks along the length of said path to pick up the fur up the ñuñ’. t ' .iiulî 4as it moves on to the thread, the trave1 of 16. The method of claim 15 and> wherein the~ the thread and the amount of fur wasteadvanced 15 thread is twisted in the opposite direction after 4in the layer per unit of time being synchronized it has passed said place there-by tending to release to provide the requisite degree of fur coating on the tension on the thread after the ñufi has been I the thread per unit of length. applied thereto. 13. In the art of forming a fur covered-yarn, 17. The method of claim 15 _and in which the the method which consists in drawing from an 20 resulting yarn is ironed to circumferentially com indefinite matted- mass of fur Waste hairs a thin ' layer of the same in measured amounts per unit of time, discharging the layer into a confined ‘ space, progressively disintegrating the material pact the hair into the adhesive coating. 18. In the art of forming a fur ñlled yarn with a closely matted inner layer, which consists in causing an originally more or less matted mass of so discharged to separate the same into a finel 25 fur hairs to assume the form of a light fluffy floating fluff, causing the ñuiî at the end of the mass with at least some of the hair orientated disintegrating step to move gently into a narrow, into parallel relation with their pointed ends -long path and causing an adhesively coated pointed in the same direction, advancing the thread to traverse along the length of said path mas's by a pushing action of the advancing mass and closely adjacent to the same to pick up the 30 in distinction 4from a blowing action on to a fur fluff as it advances on to the thread, while thread under tension and travelling in the direc twisting the thread about its own axis as it passes tion in which the pointed ends of the hairs point along said path. , i and twisting the thread _in one rotary direction as 14. In the art of_ forming a filled yarn, the v it advances across the place where it receives method which consists in drawing from a mass 35 the hairs and twisting the resulting 'ñlled yarn of ñlling material a layer of the same, disinte grating the layer to separate the same into aìoose - mass of ñne floating ñulî with its particles sub stantially separated, causing the ?luñ to assume a. layer of relatively small thickness and disposed in the opposite rotary direction immediately after it has passed said space. . ' ’ ' ‘ FRANCES SONIN. MORRIS H. SEGEL.