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Патент USA US2411630

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N0“ 26, 1946»
E. H. LEHMAN ET AL
SHOCK ABSORBER
Filed Dec'. 26, v1.944
2,411,630
Patented Nov. 26., -1946
ì
uNlf'rslaziDl STATES
_
2,411,630
PATENT oFFlcE
2,411,630 Y
SHOCK Aßsonßnn
Edward H. Lehman, Chicago, vand George E. Dath,
Mckena, Ill., assignors to W. H. Miner, Inc.,
Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Delaware
Application December 26, 1944, Serial No. 569,817
5 Claims.
(Cl. 213-221)
.
l
,
2
,
D_-D-D; a preliminary spring resistance E; va
main spring resistance F; and a retainer bolt G.
lThe housing A is in the form of a tubular cas
ing of hexagonal, transverse cross section, closed
at its rear end by a transverse, vertical wall II,
This invention relates to improvements in
shock absorbers, and more particularly to shock
absorbers employed as buffers for railway cars.
One object of the -invention is to Aprovide a sim
ple and efficient shock absorber employed as a
D
which is extended laterally outwardly at opposite
sides of .the housing, providing ñanges I2-I2.
buffer for railway cars having preliminary spring
action to absorb the lighter shocks to which the
mechanism 'is subjected, and relatively high fric
The housing A is secured to the end of the car
tional resistance to absorb the heavier shocks, ~
by bolts Iii-i3 and I3-l3 extending through the
wherein the ‘frictional resistance is produced by
relatively movable friction elements which vbe
iianges I2_-I 2 of the housing A and the end Wall
lll offthe car.
come operative after a predetermined compres~.
sion of the Inechanismi_-«
A more specific object'of the invention is to
provide a mechanism as set forth inthe preced
`The combined buffer head and friction casing
B comprises the casing I4 andthe bulïer head
proper i5. rThe casing I4 is in the form of a
tubular shell of hexagonal, transverse cross sec
ing paragraph, wherein the relatively movable
tion, and isclosed >at its front end by the buffer
»friction elements include a >friction casing and a
head proper l5, which forms a transverse wall of
spring resisted friction clutchslidable within the
said casing and extendsv laterally'outwardly be
casing, ’the clutch including frictionv shoes and a
yond'the same. VThe casing I4 is slidingly tele- '
20 scoped Within vthe `hexagonal housing A and
wedge block adapted tohave wedging engage
`snugly ñts the same so that the buffer head is»
ment with the shoes after a predetermined
amount of Ycompression of the mechanism, the
held against rotation with respect to the housing.
The rear end of the casing I4 is open and said
A v wedge block being held spaced from the shoes in
open end has >the side Walls thereof laterally in
»the normali-ull release position of the mechanism
by ‘spring means which provides the preliminary 25 wardly thickened, -as indicated at I6, said thick
~ ened portion of the lcasing forming the friction
spring action by vcompression thereof whilethe
wedge block -is .being moved toward the shoes.
shell proper of the same. The Wall portions I6
of the casing present three inwardly or forwardly
«converging friction surfaces 'Il-Il-I‘l of V
Other objects of the invention will more clearly
appear from the description andcl'aims herein
after following.
shaped transverse cross section. At the rear end
^
of the casing I4, the same is provided with an
'In the drawing forming a part of this speci
ñcation, Figure 1 is'a longitudinal, vertical sec
tional view of our improved buffer 4mechanism in
position on the end-of a car. Figures 2 and 3
are transverse, vertical sectional views, on an
inturned, annular stop ñange I8 which overhangs
.the ends of the vshoes D--D-D and restricts out
ward movement of the latter.
The wedge C >is in the form of a hollow block
of hexagonal, transverse cross section having a
enlarged scale, corresponding substantially to the
rearwardly projecting, peripheral flange I9 of
lines V2-'-`2 and 3-3 of Figure 1. Figure 4 -is a
. view, similar. to Figure 1, of thev rear end portion
of the shock absorber, illustrating another em
bodiment of the invention. ’
f
~ hexagonal outline, thereby providing a rear
wardly facing seat 20. The seat 20 is adapted to
v
40 receive an inwardly projecting, hollo-W boss> 2| on
In said drawing, I0 indicates a portion of the
end wall of a railway car, the portion illustrated
being to one side of the longitudinalcenter line
of the car and having 'our improved buffer mech- ~
Y the -ïend wall I'I of the housing A, As will be evi
nisms cooperate 'in a well-known’ manner with a
~ cross section.
dent, the wedge block is thus seated on the hollow
boss 2I and held ’against rotation by interlocking
engagement with said boss, which 'is also of hex
anism mounted thereon. As will be understood, 45 a'gonal, -transverse cross section. At the forward
'y the buffer 'mechanism is duplicated on-the otherv >or'inner end thereof, the wedge‘block C has three
"wedge faces 22-22-22 of V-shaped, transverse
-side of the end of _thecar and the two mecha
pair of similar bulîer »mechanisms on'the end
of an adjacent car.
.
~
'
y Referring first to the embodiment ofthe in
vention-ill'ust'rated in Figures 1, 2, and 3, our im
proved `buffer mechanism `comprises »broadly a
housing A; >a combined buffer head andfriction
' casi-'ng Bg'ïa wïedgelmember TC ; threeïfric'tion-shoes 55
The. wedge `faces 22-22-22 are
arranged symmetrically about the longitudinal,
central axis of
ïwardly‘of `the
wedge block C
`'abutment face
the -mechanism and converge for
same. The forward end of the
is flat and presents a transverse
23 forV the front end of the pre
liminary spring resistance E.
.
~
' The friction shoesD-D-D are arrangedin
2,411,630
3
4
teriorly of the casing I4 of the combined buffer
wedge faces of the Wedge and shoes, and forced
to slide with ‘respect to the friction casing I4.
During this action, the spring F, which resists
movement of the shoes, is compressed and high
frictional resistance is provided between the shoes
head and friction casing B.
Each shoe D ha-s a
longitudinally extending friction surface 24 on
the outer side thereof of V-shaped', transverse
cross section. The friction surfaces 24-24--24 of
the three friction shoes D-D-D cooperate re
spectively with the three frictiony surfaces
I'I-I'I--I'I of the casing I4. On the inner side,
each shoe D is laterally enlarged, and the en
largement thereof has a, V-shaped wedge face 25 10
and the friction casing I4 to absorb the heavy
shocks encountered in service. Inward move
`ment of the: combined buffer head and friction
casing B is limited by engagement of the buffer
The preliminary spring E is in the form of a
head proper i5 with the front end of the housing
A. When the actuating force is removed, the
expansive action of the springs E and F restores
all of the parts to the normal full release position
shown in Figure l, rearward movement of the
shoes'D-D--D with respect to the friction casing
I4 being limited by the flange I8 of the latter,
and outward movement of the combined buffer
relatively long, light, helical coil, bearing at its
head and friction casing B being limited by the
front end on the front wall I5 of the casing I4
retainer bolt G.
Referring next to the embodiment of the in
vention illustrated in Figure 4, the construction
thereon adapted to be engaged by the correspond
ing V-shaped wedge face 22 of the wedge block Y
C. The enlargement of the shoe also presents
a transverse abutment face 26 at its inner end
which serves as a seat for the front end of the
spring resistance F..
and at its rear end on the end face 23 of the
wedge block C. As shown most clearly in Figure
-1, the spring E extends between the shoes
D-D--D and normally holds the wedge block C
spaced rearwardly from the shoes.
The main spring resistance F is in the form of 25
a relatively heavy coil which surrounds the pre
liminary spring E and has its front and rear ends
bearing respectively on the end wall I5 of the cas
ing I4 and the abutment faces 2%-26--25 of the
three friction shoes D-D-D. The spring F is
under predetermined initial compression and
holds the friction shoes D-D-D seated against
the retaining flange I8 of the casing I4.
The retainer :bolt G, which holds the mecha
nism assembled and of uniform overall length,
has a head 21 at its front end seated in a suitable
is the same as that of the mechanism described
in connection with Figures 1, 2, and 3, with the
exception that a spring follower ring is interposed
between the outer coil spring and the shoes, and
that the outer coil spring is lighter than the inner
coil or preliminary spring. In Figure 4, the parts
which are identical with those shown in Figures
l, 2, and 3, are indicated by the same reference
characters as used in Figures 1, 2, and 3. In Fig
ure 4, the preliminary spring, which is indicated
by I-I, is heavier than the outer or main spring
resistance, which is indicated by J.
The spring follower ring, which is interposed
between the friction shoes and the rear end of
the spring J, is indicated by K. This spring fol
pocket in the buffer head proper l5 of the com
lower ring is in the form of a tubular collar hav
bined buffer head and friction casing. The shank
ing an inturnedl flange 30 at its rear end. The
-of the bolt G extends through the preliminary
ñange 30 seats on the transverse abutment faces
spring E and aligned openings in the wedge block 40 28-25-2â of the shoes D-D--D and the tubular
collarlike portion of the ring bears on the inner
Gand the boss 2| of the housing A. At the rear
sides of the portions of the shoes which project
- end, the bolt G is provided with a retaining nut
forwardly of the laterally enlarged sections there
28, which is disposed within the hollow boss and
seated against the transverse front wall of the
of. The springY resistance J is under predeter
same. The nut is secured against removal by a
mined initial compression and holds the shoes
locking key 29 extending through the shank of
seated against the stop flange I8 of the casing I4.
the bolt. As will be seen upon reference to Fig
As will be evident, the spring follower ring K
ure 1, the end wall Ill of the car is suitably re
maintains the front or inner ends of the shoes
spread apart at all times during the operation of
cessed to accommodate the nut 28 of the bolt G.
When the mechanism is completely assembled,
the mechanism. The _operation of the embodi
the bolt G is so adjusted that the wedge block C
ment of the invention illustrated in Figure 4 is
is spaced an appreciable distance rearwardly from
substantially the same as that described in con
the open rear end of the friction casing I4 of the
nection with the disclosure of the invention shown
in- Figures 1, 2, and 3.
combined buffer head and friction casing B,
. thereby providing for preliminary compression of g f
the spring resistance E before the wedge faces of
the wedge block engage the wedge faces of the
friction shoes D-D-D to wedge the latter apart
v and move the same inwardly with respect to the
friction casing I4.
‘ We claim:
1. In a shock absorber, the combination with
a friction casing; of friction shoes slidingly tel
escoped within the casing; spring means within
the casing yieldingly opposing movement of the
(50 shoes inwardly of the casing; means on said cas
The operation of our improved buffer mecha
ing engageable by said shoes for restricting out
nism is as follows: Upon inward movement of
ward movement of the shoes; a wedge block nor
the combined buffer head and friction casing B
mally spaced from said shoes to provide lost mo
through pressure exerted thereon by any object,
tion between the shoes and wedge block, said
such as the buffer head of an adjacent car, the 65 block and shoeshaving cooperating wedge faces;
preliminary spring resistance E is compressed
and spring means yieldingly `opposing movement
of said casing and wedge toward each other, said
between the buffer head and the wedge block C,
spring means in expanded condition holding the
the latter being held against rrearward movement
wedge block in said normally spaced relation with
'by abutting the projecting boss on the rear wall
of the housing A. The lighter shocks are thus 70 respect to the shoes with the wedge faces of said
wedge and shoes separated.
absorbed by the spring E'. As the buffer head is
moved inwardly of the housing A, when heavier
2. In a shock absorber, the combination with
a friction `casing having a fric-tion shell section at
shocks are encountered, the friction shoes
D-D-D are moved into engagement with the
_ one end;` of a plurality of friction shoes having
« wedge C and wedged apart by the cooperating“ 75 .» sliding frictional engagement with the interior
2,411,630
5
6
walls of the shell, said shoes having wedge faces
the mechanism; a wedge buttressed against said
housing and held against movement inwardly
on their inner sides; spring means reacting be
tween the casing and shoes, yieldingly opposing
movement of the shoes inwardly of the casing;
thereof; friction shoes slidable within the cas
the wedge faces of lthe shoes; and a preliminary
nary spring resistance reacting between the cas
ing, said shoes and wedge having wedge `faces
a central wedge block normally spaced from the ci engageable with each other after a predeter
casing and having wedge faces engageable with
mined compression of the mechanism; a prelimiá
ing and wedge and yieldingly spacing the wedge
and. yieldingly holding said wedge projected out
from the shoes in a direction lengthwise of the
wardly from the casing in spaced relation to the 10 mechanism; and a, main spring resistance yield
ingly opposing relative movement of the shoes
latter.
and casing lengthwise of the mechanism.
3. In a shock absorber, the combination with a
friction casing having a friction shell section at
5. In a shock absorber, the combination with
a friction casing having a friction shell section
one end; of a wedge, said casing and wedge being
movable with respect to each other lengthwise 15 at one end; of a, plurality of friction shoes hav
ing sliding frictional engagement with the in
of the mechanism; friction shoes having sliding
terior walls of the shell, said shoes having wedge
frictional engagement with the interior walls of
the shell, said'wedge and shoes having wedge
faces on their inner sides; spring means react
ing between the casing and shoes, yieldingly op
faces engageable with each other after a, prede
termined compression of the mechanism, said 20 posing movement‘of the shoes inwardly of the
casing; a spring follower ring interposed between
wedge and shoes having lost motion therebe
vthe preliminary spring and shoes and bearing at
tween during the extent of said predetermined
spring reacting between the wedge and casing
compression of the mechanism and being en
the front and rear sides on said shoes and pre
gageable with each other after said predeter
liminary spring, respectively, said spring follower
mined compression has been taken up; a, main
ring engaging the inner sides of said shoes to
hold the latter spread apart; a central Wedge
spring resistance yieldingly opposing relative
block normally spaced from the casing and hav
lengthwise movement of the casing and shoes to
ing wedge faces engageable with the wedge faces
ward each other; and a, preliminary spring yield
of the shoes; and a preliminary` spring reacting
ingly opposing relative lengthwise movement of
the casing and wedge.
30 between the wedge and casing and yieldingly
holding said wedge projected outwardly from
4. In a shock absorber, ythe combination with
the casing in spaced relation to the latter.
a housing ñxed to the end of a car; of a, com
bined buiïer head and friction casing movable to
EDWARD H. LEHMAN.
ward and away from the housing lengthwise of
GEORGE E. DATH.
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