Патент USA US2411630код для вставки
N0“ 26, 1946» E. H. LEHMAN ET AL SHOCK ABSORBER Filed Dec'. 26, v1.944 2,411,630 Patented Nov. 26., -1946 ì uNlf'rslaziDl STATES _ 2,411,630 PATENT oFFlcE 2,411,630 Y SHOCK Aßsonßnn Edward H. Lehman, Chicago, vand George E. Dath, Mckena, Ill., assignors to W. H. Miner, Inc., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Delaware Application December 26, 1944, Serial No. 569,817 5 Claims. (Cl. 213-221) . l , 2 , D_-D-D; a preliminary spring resistance E; va main spring resistance F; and a retainer bolt G. lThe housing A is in the form of a tubular cas ing of hexagonal, transverse cross section, closed at its rear end by a transverse, vertical wall II, This invention relates to improvements in shock absorbers, and more particularly to shock absorbers employed as buffers for railway cars. One object of the -invention is to Aprovide a sim ple and efficient shock absorber employed as a D which is extended laterally outwardly at opposite sides of .the housing, providing ñanges I2-I2. buffer for railway cars having preliminary spring action to absorb the lighter shocks to which the mechanism 'is subjected, and relatively high fric The housing A is secured to the end of the car tional resistance to absorb the heavier shocks, ~ by bolts Iii-i3 and I3-l3 extending through the wherein the ‘frictional resistance is produced by relatively movable friction elements which vbe iianges I2_-I 2 of the housing A and the end Wall lll offthe car. come operative after a predetermined compres~. sion of the Inechanismi_-« A more specific object'of the invention is to provide a mechanism as set forth inthe preced `The combined buffer head and friction casing B comprises the casing I4 andthe bulïer head proper i5. rThe casing I4 is in the form of a tubular shell of hexagonal, transverse cross sec ing paragraph, wherein the relatively movable tion, and isclosed >at its front end by the buffer »friction elements include a >friction casing and a head proper l5, which forms a transverse wall of spring resisted friction clutchslidable within the said casing and extendsv laterally'outwardly be casing, ’the clutch including frictionv shoes and a yond'the same. VThe casing I4 is slidingly tele- ' 20 scoped Within vthe `hexagonal housing A and wedge block adapted tohave wedging engage `snugly ñts the same so that the buffer head is» ment with the shoes after a predetermined amount of Ycompression of the mechanism, the held against rotation with respect to the housing. The rear end of the casing I4 is open and said A v wedge block being held spaced from the shoes in open end has >the side Walls thereof laterally in »the normali-ull release position of the mechanism by ‘spring means which provides the preliminary 25 wardly thickened, -as indicated at I6, said thick ~ ened portion of the lcasing forming the friction spring action by vcompression thereof whilethe wedge block -is .being moved toward the shoes. shell proper of the same. The Wall portions I6 of the casing present three inwardly or forwardly «converging friction surfaces 'Il-Il-I‘l of V Other objects of the invention will more clearly appear from the description andcl'aims herein after following. shaped transverse cross section. At the rear end ^ of the casing I4, the same is provided with an 'In the drawing forming a part of this speci ñcation, Figure 1 is'a longitudinal, vertical sec tional view of our improved buffer 4mechanism in position on the end-of a car. Figures 2 and 3 are transverse, vertical sectional views, on an inturned, annular stop ñange I8 which overhangs .the ends of the vshoes D--D-D and restricts out ward movement of the latter. The wedge C >is in the form of a hollow block of hexagonal, transverse cross section having a enlarged scale, corresponding substantially to the rearwardly projecting, peripheral flange I9 of lines V2-'-`2 and 3-3 of Figure 1. Figure 4 -is a . view, similar. to Figure 1, of thev rear end portion of the shock absorber, illustrating another em bodiment of the invention. ’ f ~ hexagonal outline, thereby providing a rear wardly facing seat 20. The seat 20 is adapted to v 40 receive an inwardly projecting, hollo-W boss> 2| on In said drawing, I0 indicates a portion of the end wall of a railway car, the portion illustrated being to one side of the longitudinalcenter line of the car and having 'our improved buffer mech- ~ Y the -ïend wall I'I of the housing A, As will be evi nisms cooperate 'in a well-known’ manner with a ~ cross section. dent, the wedge block is thus seated on the hollow boss 2I and held ’against rotation by interlocking engagement with said boss, which 'is also of hex anism mounted thereon. As will be understood, 45 a'gonal, -transverse cross section. At the forward 'y the buffer 'mechanism is duplicated on-the otherv >or'inner end thereof, the wedge‘block C has three "wedge faces 22-22-22 of V-shaped, transverse -side of the end of _thecar and the two mecha pair of similar bulîer »mechanisms on'the end of an adjacent car. . ~ ' y Referring first to the embodiment ofthe in vention-ill'ust'rated in Figures 1, 2, and 3, our im proved `buffer mechanism `comprises »broadly a housing A; >a combined buffer head andfriction ' casi-'ng Bg'ïa wïedgelmember TC ; threeïfric'tion-shoes 55 The. wedge `faces 22-22-22 are arranged symmetrically about the longitudinal, central axis of ïwardly‘of `the wedge block C `'abutment face the -mechanism and converge for same. The forward end of the is flat and presents a transverse 23 forV the front end of the pre liminary spring resistance E. . ~ ' The friction shoesD-D-D are arrangedin 2,411,630 3 4 teriorly of the casing I4 of the combined buffer wedge faces of the Wedge and shoes, and forced to slide with ‘respect to the friction casing I4. During this action, the spring F, which resists movement of the shoes, is compressed and high frictional resistance is provided between the shoes head and friction casing B. Each shoe D ha-s a longitudinally extending friction surface 24 on the outer side thereof of V-shaped', transverse cross section. The friction surfaces 24-24--24 of the three friction shoes D-D-D cooperate re spectively with the three frictiony surfaces I'I-I'I--I'I of the casing I4. On the inner side, each shoe D is laterally enlarged, and the en largement thereof has a, V-shaped wedge face 25 10 and the friction casing I4 to absorb the heavy shocks encountered in service. Inward move `ment of the: combined buffer head and friction casing B is limited by engagement of the buffer The preliminary spring E is in the form of a head proper i5 with the front end of the housing A. When the actuating force is removed, the expansive action of the springs E and F restores all of the parts to the normal full release position shown in Figure l, rearward movement of the shoes'D-D--D with respect to the friction casing I4 being limited by the flange I8 of the latter, and outward movement of the combined buffer relatively long, light, helical coil, bearing at its head and friction casing B being limited by the front end on the front wall I5 of the casing I4 retainer bolt G. Referring next to the embodiment of the in vention illustrated in Figure 4, the construction thereon adapted to be engaged by the correspond ing V-shaped wedge face 22 of the wedge block Y C. The enlargement of the shoe also presents a transverse abutment face 26 at its inner end which serves as a seat for the front end of the spring resistance F.. and at its rear end on the end face 23 of the wedge block C. As shown most clearly in Figure -1, the spring E extends between the shoes D-D--D and normally holds the wedge block C spaced rearwardly from the shoes. The main spring resistance F is in the form of 25 a relatively heavy coil which surrounds the pre liminary spring E and has its front and rear ends bearing respectively on the end wall I5 of the cas ing I4 and the abutment faces 2%-26--25 of the three friction shoes D-D-D. The spring F is under predetermined initial compression and holds the friction shoes D-D-D seated against the retaining flange I8 of the casing I4. The retainer :bolt G, which holds the mecha nism assembled and of uniform overall length, has a head 21 at its front end seated in a suitable is the same as that of the mechanism described in connection with Figures 1, 2, and 3, with the exception that a spring follower ring is interposed between the outer coil spring and the shoes, and that the outer coil spring is lighter than the inner coil or preliminary spring. In Figure 4, the parts which are identical with those shown in Figures l, 2, and 3, are indicated by the same reference characters as used in Figures 1, 2, and 3. In Fig ure 4, the preliminary spring, which is indicated by I-I, is heavier than the outer or main spring resistance, which is indicated by J. The spring follower ring, which is interposed between the friction shoes and the rear end of the spring J, is indicated by K. This spring fol pocket in the buffer head proper l5 of the com lower ring is in the form of a tubular collar hav bined buffer head and friction casing. The shank ing an inturnedl flange 30 at its rear end. The -of the bolt G extends through the preliminary ñange 30 seats on the transverse abutment faces spring E and aligned openings in the wedge block 40 28-25-2â of the shoes D-D--D and the tubular collarlike portion of the ring bears on the inner Gand the boss 2| of the housing A. At the rear sides of the portions of the shoes which project - end, the bolt G is provided with a retaining nut forwardly of the laterally enlarged sections there 28, which is disposed within the hollow boss and seated against the transverse front wall of the of. The springY resistance J is under predeter same. The nut is secured against removal by a mined initial compression and holds the shoes locking key 29 extending through the shank of seated against the stop flange I8 of the casing I4. the bolt. As will be seen upon reference to Fig As will be evident, the spring follower ring K ure 1, the end wall Ill of the car is suitably re maintains the front or inner ends of the shoes spread apart at all times during the operation of cessed to accommodate the nut 28 of the bolt G. When the mechanism is completely assembled, the mechanism. The _operation of the embodi the bolt G is so adjusted that the wedge block C ment of the invention illustrated in Figure 4 is is spaced an appreciable distance rearwardly from substantially the same as that described in con the open rear end of the friction casing I4 of the nection with the disclosure of the invention shown in- Figures 1, 2, and 3. combined buffer head and friction casing B, . thereby providing for preliminary compression of g f the spring resistance E before the wedge faces of the wedge block engage the wedge faces of the friction shoes D-D-D to wedge the latter apart v and move the same inwardly with respect to the friction casing I4. ‘ We claim: 1. In a shock absorber, the combination with a friction casing; of friction shoes slidingly tel escoped within the casing; spring means within the casing yieldingly opposing movement of the (50 shoes inwardly of the casing; means on said cas The operation of our improved buffer mecha ing engageable by said shoes for restricting out nism is as follows: Upon inward movement of ward movement of the shoes; a wedge block nor the combined buffer head and friction casing B mally spaced from said shoes to provide lost mo through pressure exerted thereon by any object, tion between the shoes and wedge block, said such as the buffer head of an adjacent car, the 65 block and shoeshaving cooperating wedge faces; preliminary spring resistance E is compressed and spring means yieldingly `opposing movement of said casing and wedge toward each other, said between the buffer head and the wedge block C, spring means in expanded condition holding the the latter being held against rrearward movement wedge block in said normally spaced relation with 'by abutting the projecting boss on the rear wall of the housing A. The lighter shocks are thus 70 respect to the shoes with the wedge faces of said wedge and shoes separated. absorbed by the spring E'. As the buffer head is moved inwardly of the housing A, when heavier 2. In a shock absorber, the combination with a friction `casing having a fric-tion shell section at shocks are encountered, the friction shoes D-D-D are moved into engagement with the _ one end;` of a plurality of friction shoes having « wedge C and wedged apart by the cooperating“ 75 .» sliding frictional engagement with the interior 2,411,630 5 6 walls of the shell, said shoes having wedge faces the mechanism; a wedge buttressed against said housing and held against movement inwardly on their inner sides; spring means reacting be tween the casing and shoes, yieldingly opposing movement of the shoes inwardly of the casing; thereof; friction shoes slidable within the cas the wedge faces of lthe shoes; and a preliminary nary spring resistance reacting between the cas ing, said shoes and wedge having wedge `faces a central wedge block normally spaced from the ci engageable with each other after a predeter casing and having wedge faces engageable with mined compression of the mechanism; a prelimiá ing and wedge and yieldingly spacing the wedge and. yieldingly holding said wedge projected out from the shoes in a direction lengthwise of the wardly from the casing in spaced relation to the 10 mechanism; and a, main spring resistance yield ingly opposing relative movement of the shoes latter. and casing lengthwise of the mechanism. 3. In a shock absorber, the combination with a friction casing having a friction shell section at 5. In a shock absorber, the combination with a friction casing having a friction shell section one end; of a wedge, said casing and wedge being movable with respect to each other lengthwise 15 at one end; of a, plurality of friction shoes hav ing sliding frictional engagement with the in of the mechanism; friction shoes having sliding terior walls of the shell, said shoes having wedge frictional engagement with the interior walls of the shell, said'wedge and shoes having wedge faces on their inner sides; spring means react ing between the casing and shoes, yieldingly op faces engageable with each other after a, prede termined compression of the mechanism, said 20 posing movement‘of the shoes inwardly of the casing; a spring follower ring interposed between wedge and shoes having lost motion therebe vthe preliminary spring and shoes and bearing at tween during the extent of said predetermined spring reacting between the wedge and casing compression of the mechanism and being en the front and rear sides on said shoes and pre gageable with each other after said predeter liminary spring, respectively, said spring follower mined compression has been taken up; a, main ring engaging the inner sides of said shoes to hold the latter spread apart; a central Wedge spring resistance yieldingly opposing relative block normally spaced from the casing and hav lengthwise movement of the casing and shoes to ing wedge faces engageable with the wedge faces ward each other; and a, preliminary spring yield of the shoes; and a preliminary` spring reacting ingly opposing relative lengthwise movement of the casing and wedge. 30 between the wedge and casing and yieldingly holding said wedge projected outwardly from 4. In a shock absorber, ythe combination with the casing in spaced relation to the latter. a housing ñxed to the end of a car; of a, com bined buiïer head and friction casing movable to EDWARD H. LEHMAN. ward and away from the housing lengthwise of GEORGE E. DATH.