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Патент USA US2411644

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’ Nov. 26, 1946.;
7
N75, WELTQN'
STAPLE FIBER§
-
2,411,644
PRODUCTION THEREOF
Filed Aug"; 15, 1942
}
INVENTOR.
NUFMHN 5. Maura/v
2,411,644
Patented Nov. 2c, 1946 ,
UNlTED swim PATENT OFFICE '
2,411,644
‘ STAPLE
PRODUCTION THEREOF
. Norman S. Welton, Nitro, W. Va., assignor to
American Viscose Corporation, Wilmington,
‘ DeL, a corporation of Delaware
'
1
‘
Application August 15, 1942, Serial No. 454,963
1
13 Claims. (Cl. 164-—,36)
,
This invention relates to a novel staple ?ber
product ‘and a process and apparatus for produc
‘
2
'
and arranged to compress a substantial length 0
the continuous ?lamentary tow adjacent the -
insit.
. It is well recognized that the tendencies of sta
ple ?bers to cohere is a highly desirable property
> for improving the strength and handle of the
textile materials made therefrom such as yarns, ’
position of cutting simultaneously with the cut-'
I ting. Further objects and advantages of the
invention will appear from the drawing and the
description thereof hereinafter.
.
In the drawing, illustrative of the invention,
felts, and the like, and that this property of co
Figure 1 isa plan view of one form of cutting
herence of the ?bers has a great in?uence upon
device capable of accomplishing the invention,
subsequent textile processing, such as carding, 10 and J
spinning, and the like. In order to enhance this Figure '2 is an enlarged view of a portion of the
tendency of staple ?bers to cohere, it has been
device of Figure 1 showing more clearly the rela
the practice heretofore to impart a crimpiness to
tionship of the cutting elements.
_
the entire length of the continuous ?lamentary
In general, the process of this invention in
material from which the ?bers are cut or to the
volves the application of both compressive and
entire length of the ?bers after they are cut from
shear forces transversely of a bundle of contin
a continuous ?lamentary tow of little or no crimp.
uous ?lamentary material which is in a some- a
Such treatments involve a special step of
what softened or plastic condition. The bundle
mechanical or chemical processing of the tow or
of ?lamentary material may have any cross-sec
?bers. It has now been found possible to obtain 20 tion, such ,as round, elliptical. or generally rec
much of the desired coherence and concomitant
tangular. The application of such combined
properties by a novel procedure of cutting which
forces causes a crowding of the ?laments for a
imparts an irregular condition to the ends of a
considerable distance along the length of the '
portion of the ?bers. This irregular condition
bundle in the neighborhood of the application of
comprises any one or more or all of a number of 25 the‘forces. This crowding causes irregular dis
characteristics‘ consisting of irregularly-spaced
tortions in the individual'?laments which become
microscopic corrugations extending partially or
set upon subsequent dryingv of the ?lamentary
- completely around the fiber,‘ mangled and torn
material. .The resulting staple ?ber product
portions having irregular barb-like projections or
which is sheared from the continuous ?lamentary
a crimpiness along the end portions of'the ?bers. 30 bundle simultaneously with the application‘of the
It has been found that the presence of such
compressive forces comprises individual ?bers at
irregularities along a minor portion of the
least some of which have a minor portion of their
lengths of the ?bers even where present in but a
length in a crimped, barbed, or corrugated condi
minor proportion of the entire lot of ?ber to be
tion' or in a combination of these conditions and
spun or otherwise processed, imparts a marked 35 the remainder of their length in a substantially
improvement in their properties, and especially
undistorted or less severely distorted condition.
in their coherence.‘
‘Hie somewhat softened or plastic condition of
: Accordingly, it is the object or this invention to i
the continuous ?lamentary bundle‘may be ‘ob
provide a novel staple ?ber product having im
proved cohesive properties by virtue of thepres
ence of a crimpiness, barb-like projections, or
irregular corrugation or a combination ‘of these
characteristics in a minor portion oi’ the length >
40
of the individual ?bers. A further object or the
process for producing 45
such ?bers, such process involving the exertion
of compressive forces generally transverse of ‘a
- invention is to provide a
somewhat softened tow of ’ continuous ?lamen
tained by suitable treatment of the ?lamentary
bundle before it isv subjected to the compression
cutting. Instead of applying a special softening
and plasticizing agent for the particular mate
rial, a recently spun ‘continuous ?lamentary tow
coming from the spinning machine in a still plas
tic condition may be subjected directly to the
compression-cutting. For example, a continuous
?lamentary material obtained from viscose still
in a somewhat gelatinous condition as it comes
from the preliminary washing baths, or a dry
50 spun cellulose acetate tow still containing a small
' lengths. A further object of the invention is to
residue. of solvent therein, may be directly sub
provide a cutting apparatus for producing the
jected to the compression-cutting. With such
improved staple ?ber product‘from a somewhat .1 materials as regenerated cellulose or cellulose
tarymaterial an appreciable distancealong the
‘ends of the ?bers as they are being cut to staple
softened tow of continuous ?lamentary material
suchapparatus having cutting edges constructed
acetate, the ‘softened condition may be obtained
so merely by application of moisture or steam.
_
2,411,044
cutter angle C 75°, edge angle E 80°, back angle
A cutter arrangement capable of imparting the
B 25° and the edge thickness t 1/3: inch.
For all practical‘ purposes, One may start with
a knife presenting a cutter angle as above de
?ned of 90° or of even ‘greater size and allow the
knife to become blunt during operation so that
combined compressive and shearing forces is
illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 where it is asso
ciated with a Beria type of staple ?ber cutter.
As shown, the cutter comprises a rotatable disc
2 having the centrally located axial channel 3
communicating with the radial channel 4, the
?lamentary bundle being fed into the rotatable
. it then presents a cutter angle of less than 90°
I and preferably between about 55° to 85". Where
as it has heretofore been customary to main—
tain the knives of a staple cutting machine in a
10
ducted through the radial channel by virtue of
sharpened condition, the discovery upon which
disc by way of the axial channel and being con
centrifugal force set up by rotation of the disc
or by a jet of fluid, such as air or ‘water, di
my invention is based makes it desirable to avoid
the condition of sharpness as hitherto under
rected into the axial channel. Suitable means,
stood.
>
not shown, are provided to rotate'the disc. A
Instead ‘of having the blunt leading face 6 of
knife 5 having a leading face 6 is supported sov 15 the knife extending clear across the width there
that its cutting edge '7 cooperates with the pe
of. an ordinarily sharp knife may be dulled or
riphery of the disc to sever the ?lamentary ma
blunted along that portion of its width which
terial extending therefrom upon each revolution
cooperates with the radial channel to cut the
thereof.
staple ?bers. The blunting should be such as to
Referring to Figure 2, the various angular re 20 provide a leading face having a. thickness pref
lationships of the cutting device will be de?ned
erably of the order of 1/64 to 3/16 inch extending
as follows:
at an angle within the range of 55° to 85° speci?ed
Angle B, hereinafter called the “back angle,"
above for cutter angle C. Where such a dulled or
is the angle between the tangent and the back
blunted knife is employed. .it may be desirable‘
25
face of the knife.
to grind down the remaining sharp width of the
Angle C,_hereinafter calledthe ‘fcutter angle,"
blade in order to assure'better contact of the
is the angle between the tangent to the disc and
dulled portion‘ with the cooperating edge 8 of the
the leading face of the knife. In the claims the
annular channel'though it is not essential that
line of the tangent to the disc is referred to as
absolutely perfect contact nor in fact that even
the "line of‘ shear.”
reasonably good contact be made between these
Angle E, hereinafter called the “edge angle,”
is the angle between the back of the blade and
the leading face 6 of the blade.
/
In accordance with the invention the cutter
angle C is preferably less than 90° and falls
preferably within a range of about 55°-to about
85°. The back angle B may vary from 0 to 30°
and the edge angle E makes up the balance of
cooperating edges since the compressive forces
are enhanced by avoiding ‘perfect contact.
The leading face 8 of the blade, instead of
being constituted by a relatively ?at surface, as
shown, may be rather irregular and mayjin fact
be constituted of small serrations or undulations,
the grooves between which extend generally in
the direction of the thickness of the leading
180°. From a practical standpoint, back angle
8.
.
B is preferably made about 23° to 25° and edge 40 face
Although the invention has been speci?cally
angle E would therefore'vary from about 81 to
described and shown in connection with a Beria
102°’ depending on the values of cutter angle C I type
of cutter in which a knife cooperates with a
and of back angle B desired. The thickness of
rotating disc as a co-operating shear member,
the leading face 6 of the knife designated t in 45 other types of cutters may be employed, such as
Figure 2 is preferably on the order vof 1/04 to 3/m
one comprising, as a co-operating_shear member
of an inch. Giving the thickness .of the lead
ing face dimensions of the order of 3/16 inch and
larger makes cutting somewhat more dif?cult but
has, the advantage of increasing'the length, of
a ?xed table across which a bundle of ?lamentary
material is passed and a knife reciprocable or
otherwise swingablewith respect to a cutting edge
of the table and having a leading face for cooper
50
the crimped and/or corrugated portion of the
ation therewith set at an angle corresponding to
?bers.,
.
It will be observed that the cutter angle C is
such that the leading face 6 tends to compress
the ?laments in the neighborhood of cutting.
While it is not absolutely essential, it is preferred
to bevel, roughen or otherwise blunt the edge 8
_ that of cutter angle C of Figure 2. In such em
bodiments, the companion cutting edge of the
?xed table is preferably beveledor roughened or
both in a manner similar to that of the edge 8
of the annular channel in the disc as shown in
Figures 1 and 2.
'
.
whichthe radial channel makes with the disk
The cutting operation described above may im
periphery and with‘ which the edge 6 of the knife
part the above-described irregularities to but a
cooperates to effect cutting. This beveling and
60 small proportion of the ?bers produced at each
roughening has the effect of assuring the produc
cut or to a much larger part thereof and, if de
tion of crimpiness and/or irregular corrugation
sired, even to substantially all of them, depending
on the leading ends‘ of the ?lamentary tow so
upon such conditions as' the‘ volume of the file.
that the ?bers cut upon the next revolution of
mentary bundle being cut, and the extent of
the disc will have both ends crimped and/or
irregularly corrugated. Occasionally, bushings
' plasticity of the ?laments in the bundle. How
ever, the employment of blunt knives in the man
ner hereinabove described assures that at least
are employed within the radial channel of the
disc and present the edge against which the
knife operates. In such event, the edge of the
bushing corresponding to- edge 8 is preferably
some portion of the ?bers will have the desired
beveled or roughened or both as in the case
the ?lamentary bundle. The character of the
irregularity may be varied by variation of the sev
eral factors. For example, by operating upon
shown where no bushing is employed.
A preferred embodiment uses a beveled and
irregularity along one or both of their ends re
gardless of the volume or extent of plasticity of
?laments in a softer condition, ‘the fibers pro
duced show an increase in the microscopic cor
75
nel or bushing therein, and a knife having its
roughened operating edge 8 of the radial chan
2,411,044
rugationsand barb-like projections. _ On the other .
hand, by operating upon ?laments which are com
pletely set up so that they are subject to little
or no plastic ?ow, the ?ber product shows few
or no ?bers having the corrugated or barbed con
ranged ‘to present a cutter angle with respect to I
the line of shear and a-companion blunt edge
with which the blunt knifeis arranged to co
operate.
'
,
5. In apparatus for producing staple ?ber,
dition, the crimped condition being presentin
means for cutting a bundle of continuous ?la—
mentary material to discontinuous lengths com
prising a blunt knife having a leading face of a
thickness of the order of Va to 1356 of an inch
are only crimped and others which exhibit the 10 and presenting a cutter angle between about 55°‘
microscopic corrugations.
to 85° with respect to the line of shear and a
Fibers which have the microscopic corrugations ' companion blunt edge with which the blunt knife
or ‘a barbed condition superimposed on the crimp
is arranged to cooperate.
~
-,
ing show improved spinning capabilities and par
6. In apparatus for producing staple flben a
ticularly an enhanced cohesiveness as compared 15 rotatable member'having a channel therethrough
stead. By mixing ?laments in a somewhat plas
‘ tic condition with others completely set up, it is
possible to obtain cut ?bers comprising some that
' with those having only a crimpiness or only the
corrugated or barbed condition. It is to be un
derstood that my invention contemplates a fiber '
for guiding ?lamentary material outwardly7
therefrom, a blunt knife having its cutting edge
arranged for cooperation with the rotatable
product comprising any proportion of ?bers one
member, and means for rotating said member to
or both of whose ends have been crimped, barbed 20 effect periodic cutting'of the ?lamentary bundle?
and/or corrugated whether produced directly by
the cutting procedures herein disclosed or whether -
obtained by mixing a portion of a ?ber product
‘ so obtained with any proportion of one or more
by said knife and simultaneous compression by
said knife of the ?lamentary bundle in the neigh
borhood of the position of cutting.
'
‘7. _In apparatus for producing staple ?ber, a roe
staple. ?ber products produced by other pro 25 tatable member having a channel therethrough 5
cedures. It also contemplates applying the novel y having a radially extending portion opening into
cutting operation vto bundles of criinped as well 1‘ the periphery thereof for guiding ?lamentary
as to uncrimped continuous ?laments and also to
material outwardly therefrom, and a blunt
e
bundles of ?laments in a condition such that after
having a leading face arranged to present a cut-- '
cutting they set up to a crimped condition along 30 ter angle of less than 90° with respect to a tan
their entire length.
I
»
'
; sent to the periphery of the rotatable memberv
While preferred embodiments have been dis
through the knife edge.
~
closed, thedescription isintended to be illustrative
only, and it is to be understood that changes and '
8. In apparatus for producing staple ?ber, a
rotatable member‘ having a channel thereth'rough
variations may be made without‘ departing from 35 having a radially extending portion opening into
the spirit and scope of the invention as defined
by the appended claims. ‘
“
the periphery thereof for guiding ?lamentary
-
materialoutwardly therefrom, and a blunt
is
I claim:
'
‘
having a, leading face arranged to present a cut
1. In apparatus for producing staple ?bers,
ter angle with respect-to a tangent to the periph=
means for‘ cutting a bundle of continuous ?la 40 cry of the rotatable member through the
ire
mentary material to discontinuous lengths com
edge. .
prising a vblunt knife and a co-operating shear
_ 9. in apparatus for producing staple ‘?ber, a
I rotatable member having a channel therethrough
member, said knife and shear member being pro
vided with e?ective shearing edges and being rel
atlvely movable in opposite directions to cause
said edges to become opposed and then topass
having a radially extending portion owning into
the periphery. thereof for guiding ?lamentary
material outwardly therefrom, a blunt knife have
each other in the line of shear direction, said blunt
knife having a leading ‘face arranged to present
a cutter angle of less than 90° with respect to the line of shear.
_
i
.
2. In apparatus for producing staple ?bers,
means for cutting af-bundle of continuous ?la
mentary material‘ to discontinuous lengths com
. 50
ing a leading face of a thickness of the order oi» A
1/64 to $56 of an inch and presenting a cutter angle '
between about 55° to 85° with respect to, a tangent
to the periphery of ’ the
rotatable member
through the knife edge cooperating therewith.
10. In apparatusfor producing staple
er, a
rotatable member having a channel therethrough
__having a radially extending portion opening into
prising a blunt knife and a co-operating shear
member, said knife and shear member being pro 55 the periphery thereof for guiding ?lamentary
' vided with e?ective shearing edges and being
material outwardly therefrom, a blunt mare
relatively movable in opposite directions to cause
having a leading face of a thickness of the order »
said edges to become opposed and then to pass
of 1,64 to 8%‘; of an inch and presenting a cutter
each other in the line of ‘shear direction, said blunt
angle between about 55° to 85° with respect to
knife ‘having a leading face of a thickness of the
a tangent to the periphery of the rotatable mem
order of 1/64 to it; of an inch and arranged to
her ‘through the knife edge cooperating there- ‘
present a cutter angle of less than 90° with re
with, the edge of the opening of said radial than,“
spect to the line of shear.
'
nel in the periphery of the rota-table mber
3. In apparatus for producing staple ?ber,
being blunt.
means for cutting a bundle of continuous file- 65
11. In a method of producing staple ?bers, the mentary material to discontinuous lengths com
steps of cutting a bundle of continuous ?lamenn
prising a blunt knife having a leading face ar
tary material in a somewhat ‘plastic condition
ranged to present a cutter angle of less than 90°
into discontinuous lengths, presenting a blunt .
with respect to the line of shear and a companion
knife against said .bundle of ?laments and caus~= '
blunt edge withwhich the blunt knife is arranged 70 ing said knife to coact with a companion blunt
to cooperate.
.
edge to provide a line‘oi shear and causing a
4. In apparatus for producing staple ?ber, ' leading face of said knife to present an angle of
means for cutting a bundle of continuous fila
less than 90° to said line of shear.
mentary material to discontinuous lengths com
12. In a method of producing staple ?bers, the
prising a blunt knife having a leading face ar 75 steps of cutting a bundle or continuous ?lamen
'
2,411,644
tlary material in a partially plastic condition to
dlscontinuous lengths by subjecting the material
’t< transverse compression along a' substantial
ptrtion thereof immediately adjacent the cutting
position between opposed o?set surfaces extend
ing transversely of the bundle and relatively mov
ing toward and through the bundle of material
from opposite sides thereof in adjacent tangen
tially related paths to effect shearing thereof '
tary material in a partially plastic condition to
discontinuous lengths by subjecting the material
to transverse compression along a substantial
portion thereof immediately adjacent the cutting
position, between opposed oifset surfaces extend
UL ing
transversely of the bundle and relatively
moving toward and through the bundle of mate
rial from opposite sides thereof in adjacent tan
gentially related paths to e?ect shearing‘ thereof
while simultaneously feeding the material at high '
while simultaneously feeding the material at high 10 .velocity to the cutting position, both of said sur
velocity to the cutting position, one of said sur- '
faces being inclined at an acute angle from the
faces being inclined at an acute angle from the
line 01 shear. .
line of shear.
NORMAN S. WELTON.
13. In a method of producing staple ?ber, the
steps of cutting a bundle of continuous ?lamen 15
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