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Nov. 26, 1946.
o,‘ M. BURKH'ARDT
' 2,411,650
VALVE LINKAGE
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed March 25, 1943
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ATTORNEYS
NOV. 26, 1946-
o, M, BURKHARDTV I
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' 2,411,650." I
VALVE LINKAGE
Filed March 25, 194:5’
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INVENTOR,
orro M BURKHARDT
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BY
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ATTORNEYS.
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7 2,411,650,
Patented Nov. 26,; 1946
UNITED STAT B3 ' PATENT .OFFICEE. I‘ ‘i
‘ , 2,411,650
f vALvE LINKAGE_ I s
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.
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ottoMaBurkhard?Euclid,
- ' Application March’ 25, 1943,Serial No. 480,430
. 1'7'Claims. (011231-90)
contour must be designed so as to
This invention relates to the art ‘of internal
impart high
accelerations. For the samelreasomthe revolu-‘
tion speed of the motor must be high. However,
combustion engines and especially the valve link‘
there remains one recourse for the engine designer
engines, especially those of the air-cooled type as l , to reduce the pressure and hence the yield and
surge within the valve linkage and that is to de
extensively and successfully used in aircraft, have
age
thereof.
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The valve mechanisms ‘of internal combustion
sign the reciprocating parts with respect to weight
within the. bounds of safety. But these efforts
are entirely limited. For instance, a lighter link
to be provided with a certain clearance in order
to allow for expansion and contraction of the
various co-acting parts. Conventional manually
adjustable valve mechanisms have to be securely
‘10 age means more yield which in turn induces
or valve rebound. Or, ifa designer‘ adds
locked after being iadjusted,“lest-all of’ theirin- " I surge
to'lthe-v‘alve linkage .a clearanceregulator with
' herent di?iculties be greatly‘aggravated; ‘Devices _
for automatically} regulating‘ this clearance‘- are
the thought of controlling and relieving the vsitua
tion and if the regulator be of undue'weight, ‘it is
well' known’ and instances‘ of - such device's-"are
quite possible that this. added weight "will .cause
actual harm to the :m'otion’of the valveand so
preclude the bene?t thatbit 'is intended :to ‘pro-I
found in my own‘ United" States Patents‘ No.
1,916,191,‘ No. 1,948,063, N0.-'2,2:0'0,152, No. 2,222,138
and No. 2,283,536,1n which the objects and func
.duce.
tions of such devices are'ifully explained.
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‘ While Ipreviously recognizedthe possibility of
.To those who are familiar with the functions _ avoiding the‘agg'ravation-l of surge, yet ‘none of
20
of high-speed valve mechanisms, it is well known
my prior regulators noran-y; other device, known
that the motion of the valve is the resultant of
to me; was ever conceived or so constructed as to
two. motions; vvnamely, thatsdetermined by the
contour of the'camsurfac'e which actuates the
co-act with other parts ;of the valve linkage in
such manner as to actually prevent, ,or;,eliminate
valve linkage, and such motion.‘ asiis ‘sometimes . ' surge- and other undesirable phenomena-‘from
referred to as _“false m‘otion”r'andioriginates' in as
the motionof the valve and its linkage,this fur
ther accomplishment being true of._my presenting
the yield and the restitutionofithis iyield “within
the linkage. The latter mIStiOn-isb‘etter known
as “surge” of the linkage orfas “vvalve"bounce,-"’
as morefully explained in the'fszfArE; Journal
of March '1939,-page 109i1
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' vention only, so far as I am aware.- ,
.‘ , Accordingly,v one object of: my; present; inven
tion is to devise ameth‘odand means for actually
preventing any undue risein pressure'in the valve
‘1.1
. ' Now, no matter what improvementsare made in
linkage which may be the result of either exces
sive clearance or dynamic disturbancesin the
valve linkage, thereby eliminating surge and
members remain'securely held together; and this
other objectionable motions from the desired mo-'
- constitutesa distinguishing characteristic of the 35 tion of the valve and its linkage in an internal
present invention. It is evident that anyloose
ness in the linkage would aggravate the" surge
As a means of accomplishing the general ob-,
or false motion or false clearance or‘ cause un
ject
of the present invention, as justnow brie?y
timely adjustment of theclearance “regulator,
stated, there are contemplated several 'other'ob
these difficulties being experienced more or less
jects which-will also be brie?y mentioned.
in all valve mechanisms." Large clearances in
One of these other objects‘; is ‘to. sovv devisea'
high speed mechanisms cause heavy'impacts,
clearance regulator that a certainimotionitheree
this connection,'it still remains very important.
that, > during the entire vvalve-lift, all linkage
combustion,
noise and‘ failures. In order to obtain high‘e?i
ciency in high speed internal combustion engines,
engine.
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of, together withanother featuretobe later de
break up the surge in'the valve'link
the valves must be opened and closed quickly 45 scribed,,will
age and ensure more ,precisevalvemotion and
and at exact intervals of jthecycles, and they . consequently substantially ‘reduce ‘or entirely
must not be held open or-even be unduly late in ‘ eliminate valve rebound andvalve n'oiseandpre
closing. Obviously these requirements necessi-v
vent pumping open of the valve.
tate precise motion and under very high pressures
-.
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Another of these objects is to ensure a precise
which, however, are a cause of'surge. High pres
sures are the result of three factors: (1) design,
ofithe cam contour; (2) mass of the valve link-t
age;-and (3) the square-ofthe revolutionspeed
valve lift which starts and stops at predetermined
intervals of each cam shaft rotation'funder all
reasonable conditions. v More‘ _'speci?cally, my
clearance regulator is so conceived as to become
-‘~ In the‘interest' of high power output, thecam 65 a'virtual unit, with every'part substantially locked
0f the motor.
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2,411,650
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by pressure from the beginning to the end of the
valve movement. That is, it is contemplated that
clearance hollow element '1 having a spherical
end "lb, for contacting the conventional push
rod P, and a cylindrical sleeve portion which is
provided with two inclined oblong slots la located
diametrically opposite each other. Element 7 is
located within the adjusting screw member t by
a pin 6a which has its ends mounted in member 6
any additive or subtractive adjustment which the
clearance regulator is to perform, takes place
only while the valve is ?rmly upon its seat; so
that neither surge within the linkage nor any
motion of any linkage member, other than that
determined by the geometry of the cam contour,
will take place during the period of valve move
ment. Thus precise valve timing is assured. ,
and extends through slots ‘la.
Spring H3 is so
placed between members 6 and ‘I that it con
10
Another of these objects is to devise a clearance
regulator that is capable of highly e?icient opera
tion and that is of such weight that it will either,
and it thereby urges the valve end of "the rocker
arm to remain in ?rm contact with the valve;
and the push rod, through the tappet, is held in
add not any or only an insigni?cant amount of
mass to the valve linkage and is hence particu
larly well adapted for the accomplishment of i
stantly urges the latter. to- telescope: outwardly
?rm contact with the cam C. This action is lim
15 ited by pin 6a coming to the end of inclined slots
7a,.and this limitation ensures the constant clear
ance ll. Any adjustment beyond clearance I! is
‘Still another of these objects is to provide a
accomplished by torque spring 12, one end of
dwell period or periods during the operation of the .
which is .anchored on pin I6 which in turn is
valve linkage so as to relieve or remove the cause 20 mounted in suitable holes 8 in the end 3 of the
of surge; which "object may be accomplishedby
rocker'arm R, while the other end or" spring I2
a speci?c designing, ofthe surface contour. of
is anchored on vpin 76a which in turn isanchored
the cam. ?ank itself which eifects actuationof
in adjusting screw member 6.
the valve-linkage. This is the other featurethat
The upper end of adjusting-screw member 6 is
is above referred to in connection with the auto. 25 provided with two diametrically opposite’ prongs
matic clearance regulator.
[8 which serve a triple purpose, as will be ex
It is also anobject of this invention to so de
plained. First, pin 16- is set ina de?nite relation
vise a clearance regulator that a certain ‘inci
to the prongs“). When this relationchanges
dental motion within the same will serve in an
during operation, it servesgat once-as a visual
especially efficient manner to facilitate the start. 30 means or tell-tale that-an adjustment-may be de
ing ofthe engine.
sirable; whereas, with conventional valve .mech
Other objects will appear. iromthe following
anisms, the motor hasto be warmed-up before
descriptionand claims when considered together
its condition with respect-to:adjustmentcanzbe
withthe accompanying drawings.
determined accurately, Second, if the mechanism
Fig. 1 is a diagram illustrating. the periods of 35 is utterly neglected for, a long time, or in casev of
the object above stated.
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acceleration and retardation :during the. opening
and closing. of the valve;
failureof any part,‘ prongs |8.'_»wil1.ab.ut against
pin i61- which provides a de?nite stop analogous
to the locking’ means of._the manualadjustment.
Fig. 2 is a graphic illustration of my provision
of dwells inan acceleration period and the~cor
responding lift curve and velocityof the valve; -
Third, the prongs l8 serve as-a means for-remov
40
ing, insertingor manuallyadjusting ‘the regu
Fig. 3. is avertical sectional view ‘of the auto
lator if and when required,
I will nowdescribeone complete cycle. ofroper
forms part of the present-invention;
‘
ation of my present device, as thus ‘far-set forth.
Fig. 4-is’an enlarged side elevation of one mem
The. cam C, through the tappet, urges thepush rod
45 P in the direction of opening the valve V.‘ Member
ber-thereof; and
r
Fig. 5'is a sectional viewtaken» on~1ine> 5'—5'of
'I'is then»v being .pushed into member 6,.‘ and the
Fig. 3.‘
straight edges ' of" slots > 1a. slide along. pin 6a.
It is to be understood that the present form’ of
Inasmuch’ as S_l0ts;1a:are inclined relative to the
disclosure is merely for the purpose of illustra
axis of the motion, member Twill undergo. a slight
tion and that there might be devised various mod
angular motion induced by their engagement with
matically. adjustable. clearance regulaton that
i?cations. thereof ‘ without departing from ~ the
piny?a. The reaction of, this. motion will .be-im
parted to pin 6a which :will tend to turn the ad
spirit of the invention’ as herein set'forth and
claimed.
In view of the fact that clearance regulators
justing screw member 6 in the oppositeidirection;
and this tendency to turn member 6:.vzill be uti;
lized to prepare this memberforth‘e shock that is
have been embodied in valve linkage mechanisms
and such organizationsin general are. therefore
familiar to those who are conversant with the
to come.v
Frequently suddenpressure ». changes
thread connections'a small amount; but ‘the afore
said pressure in the present caseprevents any
such small amount‘of:screwing..together between
that itmay ?rst be fully and clearly understood 60 the members. Theresistance..whichnmember. E
how this particular form of regulator is particu
o?ers to member 1 ‘while thelatt'ergtelescopes into
larly well adapted for co-ordination with theother
the member 6, has a tendencyptdexertapressure
feature, to be later described, in the accomplish
on the threadsof member ?'whichxarelaninstant
ment of a particularly improved result which
later to transmit the pressure requiredto .operr the
prior art, I wil1.?rst describe my present'im
proved form‘of automatic clearance regulator so
constitutes the purpose-of this invention—namely,>
to effect .a precise and smooth valve-lift through
theelimination of undue pressures and the con
sequent yield, restitution, surge and ‘valve re
bound.
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Referring to the drawings, thereis indicated
at 3 the push rod end of the conventional rocker
arm R which, as is customary, is provided with
a screw-threaded hole. Screwed‘into this hole
is the hollow cylindrical adjusting screw. mem
65
valve.
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When the main acceleration -:is imparted tothe
linkage in conventional mechanisms: at {?rst the
valve willnotopen-asquickly asexpected because
of yield in the;lin-kage.,, Them; as-this?yieldiin
the. linkage progresses: the velocity . of ‘ tlievalve
will be less thanrequiredior. atrue kinematicre
lationship between :the- driving and driven mem~
bers. Consequently,- the- pressure -must'rise-_be
yond that determined by the cam acceleration in
ber-B, within which theregis mounted: a constant. 75 order} to make up for lag in velocity; and travel,
angelic? ;
thei'increase-in pressure. causing
have’ provided means for maintaining a‘ little pres
sure the-linkage during the periods of restié
more
/ linkage-
yield-until a balance is reached. >Any excess
tution within the linkage.‘ This is‘ accomplished
pressure in the linkage'will increase the velocity
of the ' valve beyond thV t required for true kine;
by means of spring‘ H], as indicated in Fig. 3 of
age and‘ also the cause of abnormally high valve
closing velocities and consequent rebound of the
valve.
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the‘drawi‘ngs. At the vbeginning of acceleration,
spring Ill is ‘compressed ‘until a shoulder on‘the
spherical partof element 1 contacts a co-acting
5
matic _'relationship, this being the basis for what
is-iabove' referred toassurge in the valve link
shoulder on part 6. ' The energy'stored in spring‘
l0>is then ready to later extend the linkage'an
amount ‘corresponding to any false play that may
’
But this yield and restitution within the valve‘
occur in the linkage.- The existence of a small
linkage and the consequent lag and gain in valve
velocity is periodic and can be broken up by an
aperiodic force and thereby relieved if‘not en
amount of pressure in the linkage prevents‘the?
clearance regulator. from acting during‘ the valve
lift period‘ which, in some cases where no such
tirely veliminated. In order to break up the surge
provisionis made, results in pumping open of the
in the linkage and to ensure‘more' precise valve
motion, twoprecautions are taken in the present
provision; First, I have provided aperiodic accel
valves. ~ Now, if the restitutionoffthe‘yield dur
ing the dwell period should permit 'the valve to
speed up beyond the velocity of the graph, then
eration of the linkage to permit restitution of yield
there might tend to develop a little slack in the
before this unavoidable condition-causes surge.
linkage. Spring l0 however causes telescoping
20
Aperiodic acceleration is here attained by break
element 1 to ‘follow so quickly that no untimely
ing up the conventional continuous acceleration
adjustment of member 6 can take place. ‘Spring?
into periods of action each followed by a period
H1 in fact continues to exert pressure and no
of rest to permit the energy stored up in the .
slack can occur in the linkage until the valve is
linkage to spend itself usefully at intervals rather
than to permit it to speed up the linkage beyond 25: closed and the clearance H has been fully es
tablished.
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the‘point determinedby the kinematic relation
' Thus the best result may be accomplishedby
ship'between the cam and valve, with the con
an accurately functioning clearance regulator,
sequent objectionable result above referred to.
such as‘is' the subject‘ matter in part of the pres-v
Proceeding upon the theory that surge is due to
ent invention, when combined with my present
yield and ‘restitution within the valve linkage, I 30 provision in the cam contour, as also, contemplat
will-now explain this particular precaution ‘which.
herein. For instance, in conventional mech
I- propose to take in order-to preventor eliminate ‘' ed
anisrns, the element 1‘ would at a given'point of
this objectionable conditionw
the cycle start to lift the valve and impose an
/ i-Referring to Figs. land 2 of the present draw
‘
‘ the distance A——B
ingsglet
represent a cam angle
‘of about v120 degrees which’is approximately the
length of the valve lift exclusive of the ramps.
Duringthis lift it is mypurpose to have no other
motion in any part‘ of the linkage including the
clearance regulator except that induced'by ‘an 40
acceleration whichilasts approximately 29 degrees
and is followed by about 31 degrees of retarda;
tion, and then the valve is fully’ open. Now, in;
stead of having the‘ plus acceleration come in one
impact upon the linkage; because of yield after
only a -few degrees of the cam shaft motion, the
cam contour would start to move the linkage and
impose undue, pressure again a few degrees later.
. Before such undue pressure and consequently un
due yield ,occur'?in' theplinkage, according to‘my
present invention as herein disclosed, there may
be provided a dwell in the cam contour to relieve
the linkage momentarily of all acceleration; - at
which moment, there is 'quick'restitutionof the
'
within the linkage rather than a forcing of
block;~ADEF-,~¥I vhave in'this particular instance ' . yield
the valve to a velocity'higher' than that deter
provided" four or more or less dwells, during each
of‘ which the yield of ‘the linkage is given time
for restitution. This means thatthe valve will
not atjEF receive a largebulk of energy released
from 5the linkage but rather this ‘energy will have
dissipated‘itself in a number of small vquantities
mined by'its relationship to the cam contour.
Spring It) helps to ensure that at no time will
there be any slacknesswithinthe valve linkage.
This provision of a dwell can be repeated 3, nurn;
during theidwell‘ periods. To “be sure, thevphe
ber of times during the valve-accelerating period,
if so desired. However, the break-up of the ?rst
nomenon might ‘still exist but to a much smaller
degree; in fact, the effect of this phenomenon
linkage requires by far the greatest effort.
nowlbe'comes practically nil, by virtue of this fea- :'
tur'e‘o'f my present invention in co-ordination with
impulse, as a rule, su?ices as the starting of the
This same treatment can be applied to the
In Fig. 2 of the present drawings I have illus
trated a lift curve that embodies aperiodic accel
“retardation” period and thus it. is possible to
control or prevent rebound of the valve; which
ensures'increased e?iciency of engine operation
and longer operative condition ‘of the mecha-'
eration. While, (according to my present inven
nism.
tion, the cam contour may be provided with one
element 1 to telescope out of adjusting screw 6
the other feature above described.
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Upon closing of the valve, spring l0 forces
or more dwell portions, yet such a dwell portion
I until pin 6a. comes to the end of slots 1a and the
would beso minute as to render it rather imprac
clearance H is ‘established. During this telescop-'
tical to illustrate upon the “cam surface itself.
ing,
member ‘I is free to move axially along its own
Also, the factors ofvelocity and acceleration must
axis
a limited distance. Having attained a de?
be taken into account and included in any illus
nite axial velocity relative'to member 6, member
tration. For these reasons, I have here resorted
‘I is urged by the inclination of or a curve la’ in
to a graphic form of illustration of this feature
slots
‘((1 to assume a rotary, motion; and, while
and have indicated the corresponding dwell or
dwells in Fig. 2 of the drawings.- Buteven’ so, it 70 member 1 is being‘ rotated in .the one direction,
member 6 is screwed a very small amount in the
will beobserved that such dwell is not actually
opposite direction into the part '3. The inclina
perceptible in the graphicrepresentation of the
tion of or the location of a curve 1a" in slots 1a‘
lift. curve, as illustrated in this‘ ?gure ofthe
issuch that the progressingseparation of mem
drawings; These dwellsare indicated at d. -
‘As? my second precaution in‘ this connection, I
bers 6 and '1, dueto the pressure of spring ll),v
2354 156.50‘
8
e?‘ectsthe very‘ slight screwing together {of- ‘mem
.
is» lifted * off- of- its=seat until it ails, 1i?rmly- seated ;.
tact ‘pin’ ISwand :the separation of members 6 and
1 comes to a full stop‘ with the-full'clearance ll
established. The pressure :of-spring I9 is fully
arrested and the torque springdz is freeto screw.
member 6 out of member, 3 the entire :amount
which the‘ two members’ havev beenscrevved to
gether minus that amount which the'linkage may
again so that 'there'lwill be 'no looseness to en
courage false ‘motion or surge‘ or‘ cause, untimely
adjustment .of-the regulator for aafalse clearance.-~
Then‘, during post valve-lift linkage -motion,- this,
same: provision in ' my lmechanisrnqis "effective in
causing-member t automatically to move in the
opposite direction relative to that ofthe linkage
motion during that time so as to ensure clear
have expanded duringhone valves-lifts , .
ancewhichlin turn is removed automaticallyto
Thus the presentspeci?c form-ofelearancarege
ulator contributes'to the smooth operation of the
the necessary extent and to a predetermined limit
while the valveremains seated.
Also, in'mye- present device, there ‘is ensured
a‘constant clearance while the valve is seated
valve linkage; as for instance, the springl ill-helps
to ensure that at~no time will there be any slacke
ness withinthe-valve linkage; and the-weightof - 15 and also some tension within the linkage while
this speci?c-form of regulator‘is another .-con~
the-valve, is off of its seat. so‘ as to be present in
tributing factor, as will now beexplained.
case the speed of'the motor, during diving for in
stance, should rise above that forwhich the valve
As to the matter of=mass of the reciprocating
parts, my present invention makes it possible. to
keep down their weight inasmuch as the con
ventional manual adjusting means is utilized and
springs are designed.
Furthermore, my present clearance regulator
is effective in automatically adjusting the clear- ance within the linkage, for every camshaft
as will appear from the-present'disclosure. It
revolution, to: a‘. minimum without ever causing
will be noted that theconventional ‘manual ad~
the valve to beheld open.
justing screw has been replaced by two parts 6. 25
‘ Thus, from the above, it will -be- seen that
converted into an‘ automatic clearance regulator,
and ‘i co--acting through a pin 6a,- and, since
these two parts are hollow, they can be ‘designed
there is a de?nite co-ordination between thepro»v
vision vof. av dwell. or dwells Vinthe; camv contour.
to weigh’ about the same or onlyverylittle more
and my speci?c formoflclearanceregulator in
than the conventional solid adjusting screw.
accomplishment ofithe desired results. .
The conventional locking’ means, which consists
‘Another advantage of this invention'resides in;
of anut or a bolt and vnut, is here‘ replaced .by.
the light and simple springs ill and E2
the.v
pin l5.- These three parts together-will be a little.
the East that the dwell o-r- dwells, herein pro
vided in the acceleration, will be-effective also in“
breaking up of the effect ‘of the,» load; and conse- _'
lighter than the» conventional locking means.
Consequently, the? automatic adjustment can be ‘
made‘ without adding any weight to the recipro
cating valve linkage. Inasmuch as theclearance
regulator will. eliminate undue impacts and surge
from the-linkage, there may be safely’effected an
even further reductionrin. theweight of th'e‘link
age for a given or-desired rigidity. Thus, with
respect to the factor of weight in the elimination
of surge,- the situation is.- rendered favorable by
my present form of clearance regulator.
As above noted, a further'object of thisaine
vcntion is to facilitate the starting of theengine.‘
This is accomplished byyirtue of a particularv
mot-ion within the clearance regulator which will
quickly re-establith proper clearance that may
have‘ been lostwhile-the'inotor has-been at rest
and perhaps cooled oif considerably. To those
who are familiar with such situations, this will
no doubt be understood from the. operation of.
the present clearance-regulator as herein de-..
quently the strain and fatigue will be reduced
accordingly and the?life. of-the parts will be
lengthenedby virtue ‘of the-consequent reduction
of wear.
40
In a word, my; present invention serves to in
crease the efficiency in the starting and following;
continued operation of the» engine and to
lengthen the lifeofvthe parts of the mechanism ;
involved.-
-
What vI claim is:
1.- In an internal combustion engine, in’ which
the valve linkage of each valve is subject‘to al-.
ternating yield and restitution‘due to pressure
therewithin during actual operation of‘ the same,
and including’ an (individual cam for each valve -
for effecting-the‘actuation of the valve linkage,
eaoh'cam having a dwell portion provided in the
cam>?ank itself thereof so as to permit the
energy stored up ‘in the linkage to spend'itself'
and thereby reduce" the danger of surge'in the
linkage operation.
2.: In an internal combustion engine, in which
scribed and without further explanation,
Thus, in addition to easier starting of the en
the valve linkage is subject'to- alternating yield
gine, brie?y mentioned herein, my present ina
and restitution due topressure therewithin- dure
vention accomplishes other ‘things in addition
ing actual operation of the same, .andincluding
thereto. First, due to the dwell herein provided,
a cam for effectingactuation of the linkage, said .
the tendency of the valve to attain a speed higher
cam: having successive spaced dwell portions pro.- '
60
than that determined by the graph will be very
vided. in the cam ?ank itself thereof so as to per
substantially reduced and likewise the danger
mit the energy stored up in the linkage to spend
of surge. Second, element '9 and spring H] to
itself and thereby reduce theldanger of surge in.
gether ensure that‘ no adjustment can take place
the. linkage operation.
while the valve is off of its seat, thereby avoid
3. In an internal combustion engine, an au
ing the danger. of pumping open of the valve.
tomatically adjustable clearance regulator adapt
To explain more fully~because ofthe mem
ed, foroperation in the valve linkage thereof and .
her ‘i, the screw 5 is in?uenced by a torque de
comprising companion members having resil
rived from an initial pre-valve-lift motion and
tends to move in a directionopposite to that of
the linkage motion during that time, this hav
ing the effect of locking the threaded connection
between the members .3 and '6 prior to the un
seatingof. the valve._- All. linkage members ,re
iently-acting inclined surface engagement = with
each other, with respect to the direction of link
age voperation, for ‘relative longitudinal adjusts
ment between saidimembers in either direction
for eithertakingup- or providing clearance, and‘.
resiliently-acting meansextendingain the path of i
main ?rmly in contact from theinstantthe valve. 75 the linkage ' operation ‘and v‘having/plain surface
_~- 2,411,050
membersin either direction for either taking up
j; engagementwitn one of said members and being
" or providing clearance, means for limiting the
j1ieapab1e or , limited ‘longitudinal ' movement’ 1With
extent of such‘relative adjustment between said
~ i respect thereto’ so as to provide a-?xed'cle'arance,
pressure within the linkage into torqueleffective
members, and resiliently-acting means extending
" in the path of" the linkage operation and having
plain surface engagement with one of said mem
upon said one member and tending, to move the
“same in a direction opposite to ‘that-of said resil
‘7 movement with respect to the same so as to pro
lvsaid means having operative connection‘ with
said one member for converting longitudinal
bers and being capable of limited longitudinal
"iiently-‘aoting means, said parts'v‘being-sojcon- , ‘ vide
' her for converting longitudinal pressure within
' are locked prior tothe unseating of the ‘valve, re
f’the linkage into ‘torque effective upon said one
main ?rmly locked. during the opening- and 0105-,
member and tending to move the same in a di
"ing of the valve, and are unlocked withlsubse
rectionopposite to that of said resiliently-acting
‘ quent removal of excess clearance after the valve
has been closed.
_
_
?xed clearance, {said lasten'amed means
vhaving'operativ'e connection with said one mem- ,
Struct'ed and arranged that all linkage members
means, said parts being so constructed and ar
-
ranged that all linkage members are locked prior
v4. In an internal combustion engine, an au
vto the ,un'seating of the valvea'remain ?rmly
Vf tomatically adjustable clearance regulator adapt-V
"locked; during the opening’ and closing of the
valve, and are unlocked with subsequent removal
"- ed'for' operation in the valve linkage thereof and
comprising companion members ‘having resil
iently-acting‘ inclined surface interengagement,
with respect to the direction of linkage operation,
for relative longitudinal adjustment between said
20 of excess clearance after the valve has been
closed.
i
-
'
'
'
>
I
,
am an internal combustion engine, an au
tomatically adjustable clearanceregulator adapt
members in either direction for either taking up
or providing clearance, > and resiliently-acting‘
means extending in the path of the linkageopera- 'tion ‘and having plain surface engagement with
one of said members and being capable of lim
ed for operation in the valve linkagev thereof and
' comprising companion members having inclined
surface ,interengagement with respect tolthe di
rection of linkage operation for relative longi
tudinal adjustment between said members in
ited longitudinal movement with :respect thereto
either direction for either taking up or providing
"so as to provide a ?xed, clearance'pthere being
clearance, a torque spring?effectively arranged
between said members, ‘means, for limiting the
“provided pin-rand inclined ‘slot engagement be
tween said means and said one member for con- ‘
extent of such relative adjustment between said
vertin'g- longitudinal pressure'within the linkage
members, andv resiliently-acting means extend
ing in thepath of the linkage operation and hav
‘into torque effective‘ upon said one member and
tending to move the same in a direction opposite
ing plain surface engagement with one of said
members and being capable of limited longitudi
nal movement with respect thereto so as to pro
to that of said resiliently-acting means, said‘
parts being so constructed and, arranged that all
linkage members are locked‘prior to theunseat
ing- of: the valve, remain ?rmly locked during the
vide a ?xed clearance, said last-named means
, having operative connection with said one mem
opening an'd'clo'sing» of the valve, and‘ are un
lockedywith subsequent removal of excess clear;
vance after the valve has been closed."
5. In an internal combustion enginegan auto
matically adjustable clearance regulator adapted
for'operation in the valve linkageither'eof (and
comprising companion members having inclined‘
‘surface engagement with each other with respect
to-the direction of linkage operation for relative
longitudinal adjustment between said members in
either directio-nfor either taking‘up or providing
clearance, a torque spring effectively arranged
40
'b'er‘for converting longitudinal pressurewithin
'the'linkageinto torque effective upon said, one
member’ and‘ tending to move the same in adirec
'ti/onopposite to that of said resilientlyeac'ting
meariasaidfv parts being so constructed and ar_
ranged that'all linkage members are locked’v prior
to the unseating of the valve, remain ?rmly
locked ‘during-"the opening and closing of the
valve, and'are unlocked with subsequent removal
.of excess clearance after the valve has been
‘closed;
between said members, and‘means extending in
the path ofthe linkage ‘operation and 1 having
plain surface engagement with one of said mem
bers and being capable of limited ‘longitudinal
'
'
8.'In an internal combustion engine, an au
tomatically, adjustable clearance regulator adapt
‘ed for operation inv thevalve'linkage thereof and
comprising companion members having inclined
movement with respect to the ‘same so as to" pro- v 55 surface interengagement ‘with respect to thedi
, videla'?xed clearan'caa springfor‘ ensuring such
clearance, said meanshaving‘operative connec-1
tion with said one member for convertinglongi
tudinal pressure within, the linkage into“ torque
effective upon-said one member and tending. to
vmove the same in a direction opposite to that of
said resiliently-acting means, said‘parts being so
constructed and arranged that all linkagemem
bers are locked prior to the, unseating *of the
valve,>remain ?rmlylocked during the opening
and closing of the valve, and are unlocked .with
subsequent removal of excess clearance after, the
valve, has been closed.‘
,'
'
,
‘
Y 61 In an internal combustionengine, an au
rection of linkage operation, for relative longi
tudinal adjustment'between said members in
either direction for either taking up Or providing
clearance, spring means effectively arranged be
tween said members, adjustable means for lim
iting the extent of" such relative adjustment be
tween said members, and resiliently-acting means
extending inthe path of the linkage operation
and having plain surface engagementjlwith one
‘ of said'rnembersand being capable of limited '
longitudinal'movement with respect thereto so
as to provide a fixed clearance, said last-named
means having operative connection with said one
member for > converting longitudinal pressure
70 within the linkage into torque effectiveupon said
one member and tending to move the same in a
ed for operation in the valve linkage thereof and
direction opposite to that of said resiliently
comprising companion members having resil
tomatically adjustable clearance regulator adapt
iently-acting inclined surface 'interengagernent
with respect to the direction ofv linkage operation
for relative longitudinal adjustment between'said
acting means, said parts being so constructed and
arranged that'all linkage members are locked
prior touthe'unseating of the valve, remain ?rmly
r11
locked during the opening and closing of the
valve, and are unlocked with subsequent re
within the inner- one of said;companion mem
bers and having rant-enlarged shoulder at‘the end
thereof for-engagement with the adjacent end of
; moval of excess. clearancev after thevalve has
been closed.
- 9. In an internal combustion engine, an auto
said inner companion member so as to limit the
5 l
, matically adjustable clearance regulator adapted
» for operation in the valve linkage thereof and
_ comprising companion members having inclined
, surface interengagement with respect to the di
extent of’ movement thereof therewithin, pin and
slot means of interengagement between said one
- companion'member; and said auxiliary member
7 for converting longitudinal pressure within the
_ linkage into torque effective upon said one com
rection of linkage operation for relative/longi 10 panion member and tending to move the same
tudinal adjustment between said vmembers in
in a direction opposite to that of said auxiliary
either direction for either taking up or providing
memben'spring means normally tending to, force
_ clearance, a torque spring normally _tending to
,said auxiliary member outwardly to ensure the
adjust said members so as to lengthen the regu
formation of clearance, and torque spring means
lator, one of said members having oppositely dis
arranged between said companion members so as
posed ears for limiting the extent of relative
to normally effect relative longitudinal extension
movement therebetween, a transverse pin mount
therebetween, said spring ~means being located
ed in said other member and extending inthe
~Within said hollow members, said parts being so
path of said ears for determining the limit of
vconstructed and arranged that all linkage mem
such relative movement, resiliently-acting means 20 berswarer locked prior to the unseating of the
in the path of the linkage operation and having
valve, remain ?rmly locked during the opening
_ plain surface engagement with one of said mem
and closing of the valve, and are unlocked with
subsequent removal of excess clearance after the
bers , and being capable of limited longitudinal
movement with respect thereto so as to provide a
valvehas been closed.
?xed clearance, said means having an inclined
1 12. In aninternal combustion engine, an au
slot, and a transverse pin mounted in said one
tomatically adjustable clearance regulator adapt
, member and extending through said inclined slot
ed for operation in the valve linkage thereof and
so as to convert longitudinal pressure within the
comprising companion members having resil
linkage into torque effective upon .said onemem
ientlyractingainclined surface interengagement
ber and tending to move the same in a direction 30 with respect to the direction of linkage vopera
opposite to that of said resiliently-acting means,
tion, for relative longitudinal adjustment be
said torque spring being mounted at its ends
tween said membersin either direction for either
,upon said transverse pins-said parts being so
taking up or providing clearance, and resiliently
constructed- and arranged that all linkage mem
acting means extending in the path of the linkage
-bers- are locked prior to the unseating of the
operation. and ~ being capable of longitudinal
valve, remain ?rmly locked during the'opening
‘movement with respect to one of said members,
,and closing of the valve, and are unlocked-with
,saidmeans having operative connection with
subsequent removal of excess clearance after the
said one member for converting longitudinal
valve has been closed.
,pressurevwithin ‘the linkage into torque effective
10. 'In an internal combustion engine, an au 4 _,upon_ said'onemem‘ber and tending to move the
tomatically adjustable clearance regulator adapt
same in a direction opposite to that'of said resil
ed for operation-in the valve linkage thereof and
iently-acting means, said parts being so con
comprising companion members having screw
threaded interengagement with respect to the di
:structedv andarrangedthat all linkage members
are locked priorto the unseating of'the valve,
“remain ?rmly locked. during the opening and
reotionof linkage operation for relative longi
tudinal adjustment between said members in
either direction for either taking up or providing
closing of the valve, and are unlocked with sub
sequent removal of excess-clearance after the
clearance,~an-auxiliary’ member extending in the
valve has ‘been closed._
path of the linkage operation and having'plain
surface engagement with one of said members
and being capable of limited longitudinal move- '
ment with respect thereto so as to provide a ?xed
clearance, saidone-member and said auxiliary
member both being of hollow form, a torque
spring located within said companion members
and adapted'normally to effect relative longitudi
nal extension therebetween, and a spring effec
tively arranged between said one companion
member and said auxiliary member and located
within the same so as to ensure clearance there
between, said parts being so constructed and ar
~13.‘ In an internal combustion engine, an au
tomatically adjustable clearance regulator adapt
ed for operation in the valve linkage thereof and
comprising companion members having inclined
surface interengagement with respect to the di
rection‘ of linkage operation, for relative longi
tudinal adjustment between said members in
either direction for either taking up or provid
ing- clearance, a spring tending normally to effect
relative longitudinal extension between‘ said
members, and means extending in the path of
,60 the linkage operation and being capable of longi
to i the unseating of the valve, remain ?rmly
tudinal movement with respect to one of said
members, said means having operative connec
locked during the opening and closing of the
valve, and are unlocked with subsequent removal
of excess clearance after the valve has been
closed.
effective upon said one member and tending to
move the same in a directionopposite to that of
ranged thatall linkage members are locked prior
ll. in an internalcombustion engine, an au
tion with said one member for converting: longi
tudinal pressure within the'linkage into torque
tomatically adjustable clearance regulator adapt
said means, and a spring effectively arrangedbe
tweengsaid one memberand saidrmeans and
ed for operation in the valve linkage thereof and
comprising an internally screw-threaded hollow
tending normally to effect longitudinal extension
therebetween,- said- parts being “so vconstructed
end portion of- the rocker arm, a hollow compan
ionmember having screw-threaded engagement
within the end of said rocker arm,,a hollow aux
iliary member having plain surface engagement
and arranged that 'all linkage members are
locked prior to the unseating of the valve, vre-~
main ?rmly locked during the-opening and‘ clos
ins oftbe valve, and are unlocked; with subse
2,411,650
14
13
same, and including cam means for effecting ac
quent removal of excess clearance after the
valve has been closed.
14. In an internal combustion engine in which
the valve linkage comprises intake and exhaust
valves each of which is subject to alternating
the cam ?ank itself thereof so as to produce
yield and restitution incident to pressure within
dwells in the operation of each of said intake and
said linkage during actual operation of the same, I
and including cam means for eifecting actuation
tuation' of the valve linkage, there being a sepa
rate cam for veach of said valves, and each of
said cams being provided with dwell portions in
exhaust valves and thereby permit the energy
of the valve linkage, said cam means having the
stored up in the linkage to spend itself and
thereby reduce the danger ofsurge in the link
cam ?ank thereof so formed as to produce a dwell 10
age operation.
in the operation of each of said intake and ex
haust valves so as to permit the energy stored
up in the linkage to spend itself and thereby re
duce the danger of surge in the linkage operation.
15. In an internal combustion engine in which 15
the valve linkage comprises intake and exhaust ~
valves each of which is subject to alternating
yield and restitution incident to pressure within
said valve linkage during actual operation of the
'
I
17. In an internal combustion engine in which
the valve linkage is subject to alternating yield
and restitution incident to pressure within said
linkage during actual operation of the same, the
combination of an automatically adjustable
clearance regulator ‘adapted for operation in the
valve linkage, said regulator comprising interen
gaging companion members capable of relative
longitudinal adjustment in either direction for
same, and including cam means for effecting the 20 either taking up or providing clearance, a cam
for effecting actuation of the valve linkage, said
actuation of the valve linkage, said cam means
being provided with dwell portions in the cam I cam having a dwell portion provided in the cam '
?ank itself thereof so as to permit the energy
?ank itself so as to produce dwells in the opera
tion of each of said intake and exhaust valves
and thereby permit the energy stored up in the
linkage to spend itself and thereby reduce the
'
danger of surge in the linkage operation.
16. In an internal combustion engine in which
the valve linkage comprises intake and exhaust
valves each of which is subject to alternating 30
yield and restitution incident to pressure within
the valve linkage during actual operation of the
stored up in linkage to spend itself and thereby
reduce the danger of surge in the linkage opera
tion, and spring means arranged between said
members and tending normally to effect relative
extension of the same so as to thereby prevent
the occurrence of slackness in the linkage at any
time.
> O'I'I'O M. BURKHARDT.
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