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Патент USA US2411651

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Nov. 26, 1946.-’y
Filed Jan. 24, 1942
‘ `1
2 Sheets-Sheet l
` *6
.,Nov. 26, 1946.
2,411,651 f
Filed Jan. 24. 1942
2 sheets-sheet 2
WML/,qm O. @Heey
Patented Nov. 26, 1946
i' '4
. METHOD or Four/[ING rr>
William D. Darby, West Allis, wis.
.' >applicati-wn January 24, 1942, serial No. 428,046
(c1. 10s-_1)
9 Claims.
",My -invention relates to improvements in cate
nary roof-,like constructions and methods of
>forming them.
struction elements from portions of which cables
in a catenary array may extend for the purposes
of my invention. Iterm them all suspensors
since the -cables are in` catenary suspension be
tween them. Furthermore, in the following de
scription I use the term “array” to refer to an
My construction andmethod may be> used for
4other building elements, but are principally useful ’
inbuilding roofs, and the description below will ,
‘be'directed particularly to roofs.
arrangement of cables in „catenary suspension be
'I'he object of my invention is to provide a
tween suspensors, the cables being in such rela
tion that a “sheet” of concrete or other construc
.roof which may be supported entirely fromv side
walls, and without requirement for central sup
ports; to yprovide a roof .which will absorb shock
>and will~ not collapse. :under bomb attack; to pro
vide a roof-like structure in catenary suspension
_between spaced suspensors; „and to yprovide a
tion material laid :as a roof or floor will include
the cables Within ,the thickness of the sheet.
Applying the above Lterms to the drawings, it
willr be seen that 'I have provided spaced sus
pensors I0 in Fig.> 1 comprising walls I I and foot
ings I2 in L-shape to sustain the stresses of
.cables I3 of my catenary roof I4. The permanent
structural elements of the roofincluding the :ar
ray of cables I3, any suitable reenforcing means
such as rods I6, and cementitious material I1
„method‘of- construction to meet .these vrequire
'ments which will simplify, cheapen and make
more satisfactory a- roof-like area.
Y - In the drawings:
Fig. 1 Lis a verticalsection through my new>
catenary roof and showing it suspended between
side Wallsr supported upon footings in .accord with Y
my invention.
ing or various spaced supports in many other con
form the continuous slab-like roof or fl-oor ele
ment of my invention.
The many catenary cables I3 extending be
tween suspensors I0 are secured by any suitable
Fig. 2 is a detailed vertical section of la portion
of my roof in :course of construction with my spe
means, butvI have provided continuous-apertured
cial forms in place'and .showing catenary cableY 25' plates vI 8 bearing upon the outside face of the top
suspension of my roof from the top portion of the ` of each sus-pen-sor and each ,cable I3 has an eye I9
.spliced in the end «thereof for insertion through
wall. `
Fig. 3 vis la, perspective 4of.aninclividual form used
in the laying of concrete for my catenary roof. .n _’
Fig. 4 is a‘vertical ‘section'through contiguous
portions of two forms Ilocked in position and sus
Y pended below V«one of
one` of the apertures in the plate I3 to receive an
anchor pin 20. The pin bearing upon the mar
gins of V»the aperture prevents the release of the
cable, and Various cables in the array are of iden
my Vcatenary cables.
¿tical length and tensile strength.
‘ Fig..5 isa plan .view of >an alternative »form
The -array of catenary cables I3 having `»been
Aof my> catenary roof as required for a .circular
suspended between the suspensors I0, all of the
construction work'to complete my roof is carried
‘ building or other structure 4or curved end for a
»building or other structure. '
out with the array of cables as the working sup
Fig. 6 is a section on line 6--6of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is a section on line 'I-T of Fig. 5.'
port] During the laying of concrete or other
cementitious or moldable ,material to .complete
l .Like parts are designated by the same refer- „u
ence characters throughout the several views.
My .invention is `ofprimary importance v'in struc
roof »areal light planking maybe Ilaid on 'the
40 the
array for runways for workmen.
tures where central-or- interm-ed-iately-spacedcol
I provide surfaces for they support of the c'on-v crete inthe form of platforms 25 made up of a
fumns or supporting'pillars or arches are detri
suitable framework 26 overlaid by a sheet of ply
mental to the uses to which the structure is to be ¿
wood Z'I or other suitable concrete form mate
put, and where even the use of supporting struc 45 rial. Along the> margins of each platform 25 I `
tures during the .construction periodis undesir
provide holes 28;l andas adjacent platforms 25
are brought into position beneath the catenary
to my construction method in Whicheven during
cables I3, I wire the platforms together and wire
`»the period of construction there is no need for the 50 them in position below the catenary cables as
building »of soaffolds -or temporary columns,4 pil
shown most clearly in Fig. 4 where it will be seen n
lars, arches, or trusses.
that the wireA 2‘9Y inserted through the holes 28
. Inv the following description I »have chosen the
extends Yabout the adjacent frame members oí
'word “suspensorïto designate the supporting
the adjacent platforms v toV bind them, together
structure for my -catenaryroof Suchza support
and the ‘same length 'of Wire is of sufûcient'length'
able or expensive.- My catenary-roof is subject
ing structure may'be'the sidewalls ofthe build
to extend about one of the cables I3 to position
the platforms approximately an inch and one
half below the cable. Successive platforms 25
are secured together and hung from the cables
catenary curved slab in building construction,
said process including the placement of catenary
supports, suspension of an array of flexible cat
enary members between said supports, placing
I3 so that the forms for the entire catenary
area are supported from the cables in readiness
beneath said array a plurality of forms in con
tiguity and connecting said forms suspensarily
to said catenary members whereby to preserve
for the pouring of the roof sheet 30 of concrete.
Any form of reenforcement may be laid upon
the catenary curve, and depositing cementitious
substance on the forms in suliicient quantity to
the catenary cablesv I3 or beneath them, and the
concrete is thenfpoured to any suitable depth,
embed said catenary members, and permitting
but I have found that about a three inch thick«
ness of concrete of good quality makes a most
the cementitious substance to harden thereabout
in a curved form, wherein said catenary members
acceptable catenary roof.
When the concrete has set `and is sufficiently
are maintained in catenary curvature and ten
cured, the wires 2B may be clipped to release the 15
4. In a building structure, the combination
platforms 25, and it will be found that »my
with supporting walls, of a roof entirely free of
catenary roof thus constituted has superior
support between said walls and comprising a
qualities of stability and permanency.
series of tension elements connected at their re
Waterproof characteristics are hard-lf;7 to be
spective ends to said walls and in catenary sus
expected of any known terms of concrete or other
pension therebetween, the several elements being
cementitious or moldable material, and I, there~
surhciently flexible to assume a, catenary curve
fore, 'provide the usual' flashings '31 and vrooiing
under their weight and the weight of any uni.
feit 32' 'to cover .the concrete or molded' vslab of
formly applied load imposed thereon, and hav
my catenary roof.
Where buildings' or other structures have 25 ing an embedding sheet in which a number of
>such elements are embedded, said sheet compris
curved or circular en'dsie'il or'where buildings or i
ing a cementitious substance molded upon said
other structures are circular in their general
elements while soft, said sheet being rigidifìed
in setting, whereby to fix said elements in their
ccn'ñguration as indicated 4in Figs. 5, 6,l and '7,
„ne walls thereof provide suspensors lil, and ï
provide central catenary plate, 42 which is lami
nated .as `shown in Fig. '7 'to provide upper lami
normal catenary curves.
nation 43 andv lower lamination t@ between
which~ an anchor 'bolt 4'5 is extended 'so as yto pass
through 'an eye of catenary vcable i3 thus com
pleting a. 4cat'enary-“dished” roof "55 .following
the practices of ,my invention. Obviously, lthe 35
5. The structure of claim 4, in whichsaid walls
have integral noor sections extending toward
each other beneath said tension elements sufñ
ciently to hold said walls upright, said ii'o'or sec
tions being spaced from each other.
6, A building construction comprising heavy
door sections spaced at opposite .sides of the
platformfforms such as those shown at 25 in Fig.
building, supporting walls integrally connected
'3' must `be 'shaped to conform to the ‘reduire
with said iioor sections at points remote from .the
`ments of the curves. of> the -,catenaryl `array of
cables, butin all other respects the ,principles of 40 inner margins of said floor sections whereby said
walls are braced against tilting movement to
my invention as shown in Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive,
ward each other, a plurality of initially flexible
are followed in the construction of the roof for a
tension elements connected with said walls. and
circular building. Centrally ‘of the lbuilding a
suspended in catenary curves substantially un
conductor pipe 'i6 for rainwater maybe included.
Thus, it lwill "be seen that I' have -provided `a 45 supported between said walls, and a cementitious
sheet in which the several elements are embedded
floor or'roof construction in slab form without
and whereby they are rigidiñed in their natural
the -use of `staging or supporting elements other
catenary curve assumed while flexible and prior
than the suspensors which may form the perrna»
to their ñxation by said sheet.
nent> walls of the building yand that the entire
7. The process of` building a roo-f which lcom
construction operation is ‘carried on `through the 50
prises supporting flexible reenforcing elements
>use of catenary cables.
at their ends while allowing such elements freely
to assume natural catenary curves between the
l. Acatenary area construction including pe
points of support, embedding rthe flexible reen
ripheral catenary supports, a `central catenary
plate, flexible catenaryv‘members extending be« 55 >forcing elements in a cementitious- roofing sub
stance while said substance is soft and'support
tween. the plate and' _said peripheral support
ing the weight of the cem-entitious substance on
whereby to constitute an array' 'of catenary mem~
the reenforcing elements prior to the setting of
fbers, yand cementitious material formed upon and
such substance, wherebyA the reenf'orcing elements
about saidA catenary members whereby to form a
automaticallyachieve their respective cat
continuous rigid surface„ said' surface, plate, land
I claim:
members being substantially wholly suspended; at
the endsI or" said membersv from said' supports.
2. The process of forming a roof-like con
enary curves accordi-ng to the disposition ,ofjsuch
weight thereon, and allowing the cementitious
substance to set, about the reenforcing elements
and~ substantially' >continuouslyV therebetween,
struction in building operations, said process in
whereby to Yconstitute a roof wherein said ele
cluding the erection of spaced catenary supports,
suspension of a plurality of iiexible >catenary 65 ments are fixed in a natural catenary coniigura
tion y¿freely assumed by the respective >elements
tension members throughout the area and pre
serving the catenary curve of each flexible mem~
.8. In a building, structure, the combination with
ber adjacent one another in roof-like conñgura
4 tion, supporting forms from said .tension mem
bers; and pouring thereon .cernentitious sub 7,0
'stance whereby to encase 'the catenary members
and form a rigid roof-like structure in true
catenary curve.
>3. The processlof forming a. continuous, rigid, v_, _
exterior vertical supporting walls apertured near
their upper margins and provided with metal
plates -bearing against the outer` surfaces of Vsaid
walls , and provided with aperturesV registering
with those in the walls,.cable-like 'tension mem
bers spanning `the space between said vwalls and
extendingV through said. ap'ertured plates,` an
choring devices engaged with said tensioning
members and bearing against said plates, and a
rigid cementitious roof in which the tension
members are embedded and having marginal con
tact with said vertical walls, said tension mem
bers being ñxed by the embedding cementitious ì
roof in their natural catenary curves under the
load of said roof.
9. In a circular building structure having Ver-_
tical walls and cable-like tension members an
chored to said Walls and converging in catenary
curves to the central portion of said structure, a
metal plate connecting the convergent inner ends
of said tension members across the central Ver
tical axis of the building structure, and a rigid
cementitious roof in which said tension members
are embedded in mutually reenforcing relation,
the outer margins of said rigid roof being sup
ported by said vertical Walls and the extended
ends of the tension members anchored thereto.
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