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Nov. 26, 1946.
2,41 1 ,660
F. w. MANNING
METHOD OF MAKING FILTER CARTRIDGES, ABRASIVE
SHEETS, SCOURING PADS, AND THE LIKE
Filed May 22, 1943 -
ler ’'?
3
.37
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Nov. 26, 1946.
F. w. MANNING
METHOD OF MAKING FILTER CARTRIDGES, ABRASIVE
SHEETS, SCOURING PADS, AND THE LIKE
Filed May 22, 1943
.I
2,411,660
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented av. 26, 1946
UNiTE
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Email <
2,411,680
METHOD OF MAKING ‘FKLTER CARTRIDGES,
ABRASIVE SHEETS, SCOURING PADS, AND
THELIKE
Fred W. Manning, Palo Alto, Calif.
Application May 22, 1943, Serial No. 488,317
12 Claims. ‘ (Cl. 154-401)
My invention relates to the manufacture of
non-woven fabrics from'pla'stics for abrading,
scouring, ?ltering ‘and similar purposes, and more
particularly to non-woven fabrics built up into
integral laminated pads for use in air cleaners
and oil ?lters. This application is a continua
tion-in-part of my copending applications: “Spun
fabrics,” Serial No. 423,733, ?led December 20,
1941; and “Laminated non-woven fabrics," Serial
No. 439,026, ?led April 15, 1942.
‘ ‘
Hithertofore it‘ has been the practice to use
to the sides of the containers of those ?lters that
may not be recharged.
An additional object is to standardize ?bre
conditions so that the efliciency of any air cleaner
or oil ?lter of a given size for a given purpose
is exactly the same as the efficiency of another
cleaner or ?lter of the same size for the same
purpose.
_
A still further object is to provide a cartridge
10 type of pad in which‘ is incorporated treating
solids, such as may be used for ?ltering, decolor
izing, catalyzing, abrading, and other purposes.
wire, hair, etc., in liquid-bath type air cleaners
In accordance with my invention, I propose to
for internal combustion engines. Various means
use spinning materials, which are usually thermo
were used to incorporate‘ kinks and curls in such
plastic but may be thermosetting. A great variety
articles forthe purpose of making tortuous paths 15 of plastics may be used for the purposes men
therein and thereby increasing the interstices
tioned above, such as vinylidene chloride, poly
and the wetting surfaces for passage of the air
to be cleaned. Unfortunately, no method had
styrene, polysulphide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl
acetate, methyl methacrylate, polymeric amide,
ever been developed, as far as I am aware, for
copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate,
standardizing the size, spacing, etc. of the ?bres. 20 latex compositions, cellulosic and petroleum de
They were simply rolled up, usually by hand,
rivatives, protein-base materials, glass, and al
compressed, and introduced into a receiver with
most all organic and inorganic materials that are
the result that the lack of uniformity in the size
now spun or extruded or cast into ?laments, ?lms,
and number of the voids and the variance in the
and foils; and such materials may be modi?ed
wetting surfaces resulted in inefficiencies and
by other materials, such as, plasticizers, coloring
inequalities that necessitated over large contain
agents, volatile solvents, etc.; but which are most
ers for the ?ltering pads. Furthermore, this lack
suitable for any particular purpose will depend
of uniformity in conjunction with, insu?icient
upon the temperatures involved, corroding effects
resiliency of the ?bres often resulted in channel 30 of the ?uids to be ?ltered, cost of the plastics,
ing of the air- through the ?bres, especially at
and many other factors.
the perimeter of the container. And, of course,
Plastics may be spun from a fluid state, which
it is impossible to regulate the size of most animal
be a molten, solution, or other condition, _
may
and vegetable ?bres.
I
into either continuous or discontinuous ?laments,
,An object of my invention therefore is to pro
and the filaments, deposited in wavy or other
vide a method for standardizing the crimping 35 irregular
patterns in which there is absolute
and spacing and compacting of the ?bres in a
uniformity in the spacing of the ?laments and
container so that the resultant increase in the
the number and size of the voids throughout
eiiiciency and capacity of the ?bres will make
successive layers of the ?bres. The ?laments
possiblea substantial reduction in the size of the 40 may be extruded from a spinneret by a pressure
container and the amount of ?bres required.
di?erential on the plastic within .the spinneret,
' Another object is to make a further reduction
and pull on the ?laments being extruded; they
in the; size of the container possible by utilizing
may be conveyed and stretched by meansof the
?ner {diameter ?bres to build up smaller pads
pull‘of an elastic or a liquid ?uid, or by positive
having the same wetting areas and size and per
45 pull of a wind-up bobbin or a depositing surface
centage of voids as formerly provided by the
greater diameter ?bres in the larger size pads.
_ speed of the ?laments; and elastic ?uids, such as
moving at a greater speed than the extrusion
air, nitrogen, helium, argon etc., or liquid ?uids,
‘ A further object is to provide a readily adjusta
such as water, oil etc., may be used for heatin8,
ble means for varying the size and spacing of the
?bres, and size and number of the interstices, 60 quenching, conveying, stretching, shrinking, sol
vent recovery, and depositing the ?laments.
etc., to suit different atmospheric conditions, vis
An electrostatic ?eld may be used to shatter a
cosities of the oil bath, sizes of air cleaner, etc.
molten, solution, or other ?uid stream of plastic
Another object is to provide a cartridge type
material into disrupted ?laments and build them
of pad for recharging types of air cleaners and
66 into a pad of successive webs of uniformly or
oil ?lters, and to make the ?bres ?rmly adhere
3
a,411,eco
-
promiscuously intersecting ?laments. This may
be accomplished by using a transformer and a
half-wave or a full wave recti?er to step up and
rectify the usual alternating current to give a '
pulsating unidirectional voltage of 50,000 to"
for conveying treating solids, stretching and
quenching the ?laments, and solvent recovery
purposes.
100,000 volts, or more, that may be required. The
dispersing electrode may be the spinning nozzle,
4
the internal annular column of heated elastic
?uid, but the ?uid from pipe 22 may also be used
A cover 22 having an inlet 24 for a
quenching ?uid, is rigidly attached to the gun
nozzle but has a sliding ?t over the ?bre receiv
or it may be placed near the nozzle, and the col
ing portion of the ?lter. The latter consists of
lecting electrode may be a retaining wall, or it
container 2!, central tube 22, and a foraminous
may be placed below the wall, and either or both 10 retaining wall 21, which usually travels at a
electrodes may move intermittently, or relatively
much greater speed than the extrusion speed of
to the other, or may be charged with varying
the ?laments.
potentials, to vary the size, crimping, compact
A rotating mechanism for charging the con
tainer comprises: receiver cup 28 connected to
wall or in a container. The electrostatic ?eld 16 an upper friction plate 29 by annular shaft 30;
may also be used to supplement the action oi
hollow shaft~3l having a keyway 32; lower fric
elastic or/and liquid ?uids used for the various
tion plate 33 equipped with a key 24 to slide in
spinning operations, such as, extruding, dispers
the keyway and permit the lower friction plate
ing, disrupting, stretching, quenching, solvent
to move freely up and down the hollow shaft; a
recovery, and depositing. the ?bres.
20 worm gear I! keyed to the hollow shaft and
‘The invention is exempli?ed in the following
driven by worm 26 from a source of power not
description, and a preferred arrangement is il
shown; and the bracket 31 equipped with the
lustrated by way of example in the accompany
upper and lower'bearings 28 and 32, respectively,
ing drawings, in which:
the latter having an annulargroove 40 that con
Fig. 1 is a vertical section of one form of ap 25 nects with ports 4| of the hollow shaft for
paratus for building up ?lter cartridges; Fig. 2,
escape through the outlet pipe 42 of the spin
ning, quenching, and other treating fluids.
a part vertical section and part ‘elevation of a
modi?ed form of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1;
A retraction apparatus for maintaining the
Fig. 3, a fragmentary sectional view of another
charging'space constant between the gun nozzle
type of apparatus for constructing the ?lter pads; 30 and retaining wall is placed at the side of the ro
tating mechanism, and consists of : fulcrum lever
Fig. 4, an enlarged view of a cross-section of the
43 pivoted centrally by Pin 44 to the bearing
discharge nozzle taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 3;
bracket; hand lever 45 for pulling the ?bre con
Fig. 5, a vertical section of a ?lter recharge;
tainer into its top charging position; ball bear
and Fig. 6, a plan view of Fig. 5.
Referring to the drawings, more speci?cally by 35 ing 48 on which the drive friction plate rotates;
spring 41 to retract the container as the lat
reference characters:
ness, etc., of the ?bres being deposited on the
ter becomes charged; air compression cylinder 42
Fig. 1 shows an arrangement in which a spin
pivoted by means of cover plate 49 and pin II
ning gun is placed in a ?xed position for re
to the ?oor bracket 5i; piston 52 attached by
ducing a plastic rod I to a molten state and dis
rupting it into ?laments. The gun consists of: 40 piston rod 53 and pin 54 to the fulcrum lever;
check valve 55 in the piston to allow the latter
guide block 2 for the plastic rod; heating ele
to be moved readily On the downward stroke but
ment 3 with which the plastic rod is held in
pressural contact; spinneret opening 4 in the
heating element for the molten plastic; cap 5
for enclosing the guide block and heating ele
ment; upper Venturi tube 6 which is adjustable
in the end of the enclosure cap; lower Venturi
tube 1 which is adjustable in the end of the up
per Venturi tube; feed drive roller 8 ?xed to a
shaft 9 that is driven by a motor l0 connected
to the electric circuit wires II and I 2; bracket
l3 attached to the cap enclosure and which sup
ports the drive roller; cam i4 whose rotation gives
an up and down movement to the gun by virtue of
the latter’s weight, and results in an undulating
vcurve to the ?bres as they are deposited; cam
4.
which closes on the upward stroke; and an air
vent 5B controlled by screw 51 to regulate the
speed of the upper stroke and consequently the
retraction speed of the ?bre container. When
the‘ container has been fully charged and its
cover is clear of the former, the shoulder of the
rotating cup will contact the upper bearing of
the rotating mechanism and thereafter any fur
ther upward movement of the piston will disen
gage the friction plates of the driving clutch and
the container will cease to rotate, and simultane
ously therewith stud 58 will touch the contact
point 59 thereby breaking the electric circuit to
‘the driving motor for the plastic feed. The gun
drive shaft i5 supported by a bearing 16 and
driven from a source of power, not shown; brack
et I‘! that is pivoted by pin l8 to the enclosure
and the container cover can then be swung out
of an annular concentric column about the molten
dicated by’ the minus sign, and grounded. The
stream for heating, stretching, conveying and
dispersing and collecting electrodes are con
of position and the charged container removed.
Fig. 2 is a modi?cation of the arrangement
cap and supports feed roller IS, the spring 20 60 shown in Fig. 1, in which a plastic material in
causing the plastic rod to be held in frictional
molten, solution, or other ?uid condition is ex
truded as a stream into a high potential electro
contact between the feed rollers so that the ro
static ?eld formed between the spinning gun as
tative movement of either will result in- pressurai
the dispersing electrode, which is charged posi
contact of the rod against the heating element
tively, as indicated by the plus sign, and the ro
and cause a continuous ?lament to be extruded
from the spinneret opening; pipe connection 2i
tating mechanism and container as the collect
for supplying aprimary elastic ?uid in the form
ing electrode, which is charged negatively, as in
solvent recovery, and when necessary, disrupting
the ?lament into a plurality of broken ?laments;
pipe connection 22 for supplying a higher velocity
secondary elastic ?uid also in the form of an
, annular concentric column for enclosing, con
trolling, and directing the ?laments conveyed by
nected by conductors I0 and H, respectively, with
a source of high potential 82 with the result that
the former will shatter the plastic stream into
disrupted ?laments that will be constantly re
pelled by a pulsating unidirectionalv current and
attracted to the collecting electrode of opposite
8,411,600
5
polarity. and the deposition of the ?bres within
the container may be supplemented and acceler
ated by passage of an enveloping elastic convey
in! and stretching ?uid through the foraminous
retaining wall or. the container and out through
the hollow shaft 03 of the receiver cup and outlet
ll inthe i'oot-stepbearing OI. Both electrodes
move during the charging operation; the con
6
moving in the direction of the extrusion travel
of the ?lament but at a greater speed than the
said travel, or by deposition of a portion of the
?lament on a retaining wall to ,which it adheres
moving at a speed in excess of the undeposited
portion; deposition of the stretched ?lament on
a retaining wall preferably by passage there
through of an envelopingv elastic ?uid used for
conveying, stretching, solvent recovery, and other.
and the quenching of the extruded ?la
axis while the gun is retracted upwardly by the 10 purposes;
ment
during
the stretching or'after deposition
hand lever I. actuated by a spring I‘! operating
by
means
of
a
cooling ?uid, preferably passing
against the air compression cylinder position on
through the retaining wall. A continuous ?la
the stand 80.
ment can thus be extruded and its continuity
Figs. 8 and 4 show an arrangement whereby
maintained,
providing the pressure and volume
15
continuous or discontinuous ?laments may be
of the ?uid enveloping it for stretching and con
spun from a continuous extruding machine, and
veying purposes is constant and the ?uid properly
deposited in a container rotated and retracted in
tainer in a rotative direction around a vertical
similar manner to that described in Fig. 1. The
streamlined in the direction of the ?lament
arrangement shown includes: torpedo end of , travel, but the ?lament may be readily disrupted
screw ll, extrusion cylinder 10, extrusion elbow 20 into a multiplicity of broken ?laments by altering
these conditions, and the broken ?laments may
Tl, jacket 12 for a heating or cooling medium, die
be standardized in length by making such changes
block or spinneret ‘ll, die block cap ‘I4, and spin
‘periodic.
An electrostatic ?eld of high potential
‘ ning nozzle ‘ll to which the container cover is
may also be used independently, or to supple
attached. A ?uid inlet ‘ll connects with an an
the action of elastic ?uids, for such opera
nular distributor channel 11 in the die block for 26 ment
tions
as the shattering of a ?uid stream, or a
openings 18 to provide a plurality of streams of
plastic ?lament, into a multiplicity of broken
elastic ?uid for enveloping, conveying, and
?laments, and the conveying and depositing of
stretching, the ?laments extruded through the
the disrupted ?laments, and the removal of a
openings 19. If the streams of elastic ?uid are
solvent therefrom.
constant in- pressure and direction, the plastic
It will also be evident: a number of continuous
may be extruded, stretched, and deposited in con
?laments may be continuously extruded,
tinuous ?laments; if the streams are intermit
stretched, etc. from a plurality of spinning ori?ces
tent, as would result from constantly rotating a
or guns connected with a common body of plastic,
valve Ill in the elastic ?uid inlet, the ?laments
may be stretched and deposited in a disrupted 35 or source of supply; a ?lm or sheet of parallel
condition, the length of the ?laments depending
upon the length or time in the cycle that the
individual ?laments may be extruded from a slot
or series of ori?ces connected with a common
ditions will be equally applicable to ?laments
source of supply, and enclosed within streams of
elastic or other treating ?uid directed from both
spun from a molten or solution condition with
ing, quenching, solvent recovery, and other pur
elastic ?uid pressure is constant, and such con
other types of apparatus, such as shown in Figs.
1 and 2. A quenching ?uid such as water, may
be introduced into the nozzle ‘I! through the
es ‘I0, ‘I1 and 18 instead of an elastic ?uid,
or the quenching ?uid may be introduced through 45
inlet in the container cover and escape through
the retaining wall of the container, or by over
?owing the central tube of the container.
Figs. 5 and 6 indicate a recharge arrangement
in~which the annular space between tubes 8| and 50
02, which may be made of paper or other suitable
foraminous or impervious material, is ?lled with
?bres ll. This may be accomplished by slipping
the larger tube inside the container wall 25 and
the smaller tube over the container outlet 28,
and ?lling the annular space in the usual way,
after which the recharge may be removed from
the container. Or, a cylindrical cartridge may
be built up without the aid of the inner tube 02
and the container outlet 28. The recharge, with 60
or without enclosing tubes, may then be inserted
in a suitable receptacle for axial or radial ?ltra
tion purposes such as are described in my Patent
Nos. 2,055,870; 2,093,090; 2,128,589, and 2,218,339.
It will be evident from the foregoing description
I ' that a plastic in a solution, or other ?uid condi
tion, may be substituted for the molten plastic in
Fig. l, and that several of the essential operations
involved in the production of a ?lament are: dis
ruption of the ?uid plastic into a ?lament by a
differential pressure on the plastic within a con
tainer that has a ?lament ori?ce, and by direct
pull‘ on the ?lament after it has been started
sides of the plastic sheet for stretching, disrupt- .
poses; the ?laments may be crimped in a wavy
manner with the waves undulating in a vertical
direction caused by a rapid relative withdrawal
and advanceof the spinning gun and receiver, or
with waves undulating in a horizontal direction
caused by a rapid relative lateral movement of
the gun and receiver; the ?laments may be de
posited in superposed layers on a retaining wall
having a vertical rotating axis to form an integral
?lter bed of helically wound fabrics, or they may
be deposited in superposed layers on a retaining
wall having a horizontal rotating axis to form an
integral ?lter bed of spirally wound fabrics; and
simultaneously with the building up of such ?lter
beds there may be incorporated therein clay or
carbon for decolorizing purposes, pumice stone
and water soluble soap for scouring pads, fused
alumina, corundum, etc., for abrasive sheets,
catalyzing agents for catalyzing purposes, or other
treating solids for other purposes. After com
pletion of the ?lter bed forming operations the
bed may be removed and cut into pads of various
shapes and sizes suitable for the purposes for
which the pads are to be used.
It will furthermore be evident: the ?laments
may be deposited in a condition in'which they
will be sufficiently adhesive to adhere to the sides
of the container, or the walls of a recharge, or a
layer of ?laments previously deposited; a top
layer of ?laments, or all the layers previously
deposited, may remain in an adhesively plastic
condition until a subsequent layer has been de
posited; and that a plurality of intersecting ?la
through the ori?ce; stretching the extruded ?la
ments bonded together in a layer by their own
ment by a liquid or an elastic conveying ?uid 76
a
o
_
'
2,411,000
adhesiveness will form an integral fabric, and a
plurality of integral fabrics bonded together by
their own adhesiveness will form an integral pad
or bed. However, the ?laments may, when de
sirable, be sufficiently quenched or indurated to
be deposited in a discrete condition, in which case,
they may be bonded together and to the walls of
their container or cartridge by an adhesive in
acter described comprising: reducing a spinning
material to a ?uid condition; disrupting the said
?uid material into a plurality of ?laments; sub- '
Jecting the said ?laments to a positive pull to
stretch the ?laments; depositing the extended
?laments in an adhesive and intersecting con
dition upon a retaining wall moving in an end
less path to build up a succession of integral
troduced in powder, atomized, or liquid form, into
fabric windings in which each successive winding
the container through any suitable opening, such '10 is
deposited in} a sufficiently adhesive condition
as 24, during the charging operation; or a bed of
to adhere to its adjacent winding.
discrete ?laments may be bonded together by
4. A method of making articles of the char
passing through the bed a solvent of the ?bres
acter described comprising: reducing a spinning
in vapor or liquid form; or the ?laments may be
material to a ?uid condition; disrupting the said
deposited in an adhesively plastic state to one
?uid material into a plurality of ?laments; sub
another but without adherence to the walls of
jecting the said ?laments to a positive pull to
their container, providing the latter has ?rst been
stretch the ?laments; depositing the extended
lubricated with oil, wax, gelatine, etc. After the
?laments in an adhesive and intersecting condi
‘charging operation is complete ?uids, such as,
tion upon a retaining wall moving in an endless
hot water, hot air, etc., may be introduced 20 path to build up a succession of integral fabric
through opening 24 into the container to render
windings in which each successive winding is
the adhesive effective, remove a solvent, shrink
deposited in a su?lciently adhesive condition to
the ?bres, indurate the ?laments, etc., and may
adhere to its adjacent winding; and incorporat
escape through outlet 42. Distillation of a solvent
ing and bonding treating solids in each succes
of the ?bres should however be accomplished 25 sive winding as the winding is deposited.
su?iciently rapidly to limit the action of the
5. A method of making articles of the char
former and to retain the interstices amongst the
acter described comprising: reducing a spinning
?bres, and may be accompanied by a certain
material to a ?uid condition; disrupting the said
amount of pressure from the heated air to make
?uid material into a plurality of ?laments; de
the adhesive action of the solvent more effective. 30 positing the said ?laments in an intersecting con
It will thus be seen: the diameter of the ?la
dition upon a retaining wall moving in an endless .
ments may be varied by varying the size of the
path to build up-a succession of fabric windings;
extrusion ori?ces and the stretching given to the
and incorporating and bonding treating solids in
?laments, and by such means the diameters of
each successive winding as the winding is de
the ?laments can be uniformly reduced to give 35 posited.
greater surface areas and percentages of voids
6. A method of making articles of the char
than formerly obtained for the same volumes or
acter described comprising: reducing ‘a spinning
weights of ?bres; the ?laments may be deposited
material to a ?uid condition; disrupting the said
in uniformly spaced wavy or undulating lines that
?uid
material into a plurality of ?laments; sub
parallel or intersect by regulating the relative 40 iecting
the said ?laments to a positive pull to
movements of the extrusion device, or plurality
stretch the ?laments; depositing the extended
of extrusion devices, and a receiver; the ?laments
?laments in an intersecting condition upon a re
may be deposited in continuous lengths, or they
taining wall moving in an endless path to build up
may be deposited in standardized broken lengths
a succession of fabric windings; and incorporat
by regulating the continuity, direction, force,
ing and bonding treating solids in each successive
temperature, etc.,v of the spinning ?uids; and the
winding as the winding is deposited.
compactness of the deposited layers may be kept
'7. A method of making articles of the char
uniform by standardizing the temperature and
acter described comprising: disrupting a, ?uid
pressure of the spinning ?uids, particularly those
plastic material into a plurality of ?laments; de
that pass through the ?lter bed.
positing the said ?laments in an adhesive and
I claim as my invention:
4
1. A method of making articles of the charac
ter described comprising: reducing a spinning
material to a ?uid condition; disrupting the said
?uid material into a ‘plurality of ?laments; and A
depositing the said ?laments in an adhesive and
intersecting condition upon a retaining wall mov
ing in an endless path to build up a succession
of integral fabric windings in which each suc
cessive winding is deposited in a sufficiently ad
hesive condition to adhere to its adjacent wind
ing.
intersecting condition upon a retaining wall mov
ing in an endless path to build up a succession of
integral webs in which each successive web is de
posited in a su?iciently adhesive condition to ad
here to its adjacent web; and waving the said ?la
ments during the said depositing to incorporate
crimps in the said webs.
8. The method of making articles of the char
acter described comprising: disrupting a ?uid
60 plastic into a plurality of ?laments; depositing the
said ?laments upon a foraminous retaining wall
' moving in an endless path to build up a succession
2. A method of making articles of the char
of webs of intersecting ?laments having interstices
acter described comprising: reducing a spinning
thereamong; bonding the said filaments of each
material to a ?uid condition; disrupting the said 65 of the said webs at the said intersections; and
?uid material into a plurality of filaments;
passing a ?uid stream through the said interstices
depositing the said ?laments in an adhesive and
and retaining wall during the said bonding.
intersecting condition upon a retaining wall mov
9. The method of making articles of the char~
ing in an endless path to build up a succession of
acter described comprising: disrupting a ?uid
integral fabric windings in which each successive 70 plastic into a plurality of ?laments; conveying
winding is deposited in a sufficiently adhesive
the said ?laments by force of a ?uid stream; and
condition to adhere to its adjacent winding; and
passing the said stream through a foraminous re
incorporating and bonding treating solids in each
taining wall moving in an endless path to deposit
successive winding as the winding is deposited.
the said ?laments and build up a succession of
3. A method of making'articles of the char 75 integral webs in which each web is deposited in a
2,411,000
l0
'
-
sui?cientiy adhesive condition to adhere to its ad
raminous retaining wall moving in an endless pa
to deposit the said ?laments and solids and build
jaeent web.
up a succession o1 webs in which the ?laments or >
'
10. The method of making articles 01 the char
acter described comprising: disrupting a
plastic into a plurality of ?laments; conveying the
each web are deposited in a su?lciently adhesive
condition to bond the solids within the web,
said ?laments by force of a ?uid stream; passing
theisaid stream through a, ioraminous retaining
acter described comprising: disrupting a ?uid
plastic into a plurality of ?laments; subjecting the
12. The method of making articles of the char- '
>
wall moving in an endless path to deposit the
said ?laments and build up a succession of integral
webs in which each web is deposited in a su?l
ciently adhesive condition to adhere to its ad
said ?laments to a positive pull to stretch the ills.
ments; depositing the extended filaments in an
- adhesive and intersecting condition upon a to
raminous retaining wall moving in an endless path
iacent web; and incorporating and bonding treat
ing solids in each successive web as the web is
deposited.
‘ -
11._ The method of making articles of the char
:acter. described comprising: disrupting a ?uid plas
to build up a succession of integral webs of inter
secting ?laments having interstices thereamong;
15 incorporating and bonding treating solids in each
tic into a plurality of ‘?laments; conveying the said , I
?laments‘ by- force of a ?uid stream} and simulv
successive web as the web is deposited; and pass
ing a ?uid stream through the said interstices and
retaining-wall during the building up of the said
taneously introducing treating solids into the said ' succession of webs.
FRED W. MANNING.
stream; passing the said stream vthrough a to 20
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