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Патент USA US2411681

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Nov. 21;, 1946.
" H_ EGLI _
Filed Feb. 19,. 1941
Parenteel Nov. 26, 1946
PRòoEss'AND Ari’ARA'rUs Fon
*y ' .PAs'rEUmzrNG MILK
nulareich Egli, ßalt'iniorejMd. "
Í Application February 19, 19111, serial No. 379,731
ioclaims. (Cres-211)
’ ’,)I'he particular apparatus` .for warming the
»milk is somewhat immaterial, steam, electric con
nections, or hot water being suitable agents. My
‘preferencev is largely in favor of hot Water be
_ ’This ,invention relates 4to a method and an ap
paratus for vhandling ,and storing of ' fluids and
has for its principal object the provision of lmeans
to handle and store, with a minimum _amount of
foaming and shrinkage, aliquid composed Vof a
plurality of ingredients, such for example as milk.
YAn important object of the present invention
is the provision of a system for pasteurizing milk
cause of its easy control. The hot water enters
at 24, past a stop valve 25 and a control valve 26,
the latter being `governed by a thermostat 21 set
in the vat or container at a convenient height
preferably nearer the bottom .than the top. Un
in an eflicient manner and under conditions which
minimize the presence of bacteria in .the ñnished 10 der each containerthere is a suitable heatingY de
viceindi'cated generally by the numeral 30 which
product. While for convenience lof illustration
inthe case vof hot Water would be a simple jacket
and description’of the process, «the apparatus will
having yanzentry valve 3 I and an exit valve 32 lead
be described in connection with a system for pas
ing .to 4the return conduit 33 which leads to the
'teurizing milk, it should be obvious that .the inven
tion is not thus limited and that the method may 15 heater, not shown, which delivers the Water to
the pipe 24. By` placing the heater under the
be used in connection with any fluid whether of
tank the rising ofthe warmer particles by change
a single ingredient or a mixture of ingredients,
of -,density with vincreased Itemperature takes the
for example,` the process issuitable for a fluid
place of an otherwise necessary agitating means.>
either gaseous or liquid', i. e., beer, milk, or any
of the various beverages on the market. ,l
consistsof a method of storing fluids, the' lower
vfluid being atene temperature and the upper
fluid being »at a díiferent' temperature. A still
further object lies in the provision of a system
of'holding milk during .thepasteurizing process
in a plurality of containers each cross-connected
to the others so that the pressure on each batch is
“It is desired to'have the temperature ofthe
' 'A Vstill further object of the present invention
fluid a‘bove the liquid »at all times greater than
>that of .the lower fluid, the pressure of the fluid
above the liquid being greater than atmospheric.
To this end the pipe 40 supplies heated and ñl
25 tered ,air to each of _the tanks .through the ver
tical feeder pipes 4I. Jackets 43 surround the
vfpipe 40 as shownand might use electrical re
sistance wires or steam or hot Water, preferably
va liquid’ controlled'by a stop valve 44 and an elec
Still further minor lobjects of 'the invention will
30 trical control valve 45'which admits the heating v
be apparent from the following description and „
‘fluid at such a' rate as to keep the air at the chosen
ftemper’ature, for example, at 150° F. at the tops
was'set forth in the claims,
A .
The/drawing illustrates a system primarily in
tended for the pasteiirizing of milk.
. of the containers, the pressure varying in accord
v'ance with the hydrostatic pressure on> the milk or
The apparatus illustrated in the figurel con OJ CA- other liquid, for example, it might be ñve pounds
'corresponding to la lift of over ten feet. The hot
sists of a plurality of containers' Illa to Iûe each
'wa-ter, if used, might be as highvas 180° F.,'the
"receiving hot milk _from a main line II feeding
famount vbeing controlled bythe valve'45 and by
Vr`to branches' I2 leading’to e-ach of theseveral vats
the valve 48', which latter however need 'onlybe
or tanks which are of Well: known type and may
a stop' valve for emergency use being located in
'ibe jacketed `or insulated as indicated at„I4l in
‘connection with container |01). The advantage of
Va plurality of containers Vlies in the' provision of
continuous flow, one container is'iilled -as another
is emptied. The several branch lines I 2 each lead
Y to Aa valve' I5 electrically controlled to discharge
"the hot milk through a `pipe ` I6 toa point close .
'to .the bottom of the tank I0. Asimilar pipe I1
leadingr from a Well `I8' discharges the milk
through 4branch lines I 9 to thejexit header 20
when permitted by the electrically- controlled exit
valve 2I. It might be noted here that while the
`-valves I5 and 2l maybe mechanically operated
Yor may `be electrically controlled in any manner
it is my preferencethat these valves shall'beop
.erated by timealone;v _, .; .,
>the returnline 49 which discharges back to the
lheater, »not shown, kwhich supplies the pipe 42. y
Theelectric panel 50 controls the various me
chanismsy and its vspeciñc construction forms no
' part ofthe present invent-ion.r
Theïpanel is con
nected by the cable 5I with each inlet valve and
isïconnected by the cable 52 with each of the exit
The thermostat 56 extendinginto the
> valves.
air space above the liquid in the last container
50 Ille actuates mechanically or electrically, prefer
ably `the latter, the heat supply control valve 45
through the Wire 51 which may,'but need not, be
connected to the panel 50.
, Theshrinkage 0f the liquid. which is thought
55 „tolbe inseparablefromthe process of pasteurizing
is practically eliminated in my process by pre
venting air from taking moisture from the milk.
This is accomplished by using the same air over
and over again during an indeñnite number of
cycles of filling, holding, and emptying. As the
air is displaced from one container, as Iûa, the
same air at constant temperature and pressure is
entering another container, as 10e, without need
for appreciable make-up air from outside. vHence
header 40 in the ñrst tank it is entering the ñnal
tank Ille at precisely the same rate and the same
temperature and pressure, The valve 62 on each
container insures that the temperature of the
air or other iluid at the top of the container shall
Y remain constant.
The thermostatically operated
valve opens at a chosen temperature, say 148° F.
and lets out the air which at this temperature is
colderV than desired and'by lowering-the pressure
this air after first being saturated with Water va
causes air' to enter fromA the heated air line 43
'por ís incapable of taking up further moisture
and, corresponding to its pressurey counteracts'
which itself is kept at a constant pressure by the
the vapor pressure of the liquid and consequently Y
ordinary mechanism and its temperature is
maintained by the automatic Valve 45 controlled
avoids shrinkage.
In my process foaming is minimized by increas
by' thermostat 56 in the removable top of con
tainerv Ille. As is quite obvious, the valve 62 will
ing the surface tension so as to prevent the
open. upon a rise of temperature when the sys
tem is used for chilling the liquid as in that case
theY temperature of the upper fluid will be lower
than that of the liquid beneath, and the heater
ules of gas from coalescing. In froth or foam
an enormous area of gas surface is produced as 20 30 will be a refrigerating device.
As milk rises in the tank AIlia it receives heat
the gas phase is dispersed as minute bubbles- in
from the heater in contact> with only a portion of
the liquid phase.. The gas bubbles persist. for
the bottom of the container.A The thermometer
some time. owing to the presence of milk colloids
t5 indicates the temperature and the adjacent
in a solid condition.v Foamingv tends to convey
thermostat operated by the temperature opens or
bacteria, is wasteful, and tends to hinder eñicient
closes the valve 26,' thus insuring precisely the
handling of the milk or the ñuid being treated.
correct temperature in the containers at all
As stated in Department of Agriculture Circular
gathering of the active colloids to spread in ñlms
sufficiently tough and elastic as to keep the glob’
108, March 1930, foaming> in pasteurizersr may
present a public health problem. hence its. avoid
ance is of paramount importance. By having
relatively deep containers with increased pres
sure above the liquid therein, the gap or diiîer
ential between the boiling point of the water at
the bottom of the tank and` that of the water
near the top of the tank is reduced so a greater
surface tension of the liquid is obtained and
with it. a substantialv absence of foaming anda
material reduction of skin formation. A simple
experiment will show that when a foaming liquid
is discharged. into a container held at a positive
or above. atmosphere pressure an appreciable
amount of the foaming at once collapses with
coalescence of the occluded gas bubbles.l
The temperature con-trol is essential. in the
pasteurizing process; also in holding processes of
beverages consisting of mixed ingredients. At
times it is desirable to maintain a slightly higher
temperature. at the exposed. surface to air> pres
sure of the contents than that of the contents
Assuming the chosen' temperature for pasteuriz
ing is 145° and the' cycle is one hour, the ther
mostat 21 will operate to close the valve 26V at
a temperature of 146°, thus insuring the tempera
ture of the milk. The temperature of the' air
is greater and this is' controlled' -by the Valve
62 as` noted. With the arrangement illustrated
it ,would take 12> minutes to empty or tov fill any
one of the tanks, these two operations always
being simultaneous in the'series.. Any one tank
or container which began iìlling at the even hour
starts’to empty 36 minutes after' it has been filled,
i. e., at 48‘minutes after the hour, thus complet
ing the hour when it is' fully empty. While I
ñnd it best to have a separate temperature con‘
trol of the compressed air above the liquid in
the holding containers, there seems to be no need
for an independent control of the temperature in
the various heaters 3'0, nor‘is there need for in
dividual control of the heat- in the several' jackets
43 as the> pressureV in' the pipes 4l) and’ 4l is au
itself. For this: reason the pressure. equalizing
conduit, which is cross connected withV all containers, is independently controlled. as to tem
tomatically maintained by the pressure equaliz
ing features described'. As previously'suggested
the sameequipment', with somewhat differentcon
peratures governed by the. thermostat. inserted
nections, also serves at otherv times to chill the
milk, the mains 431 and 24‘ now carrying a re
into the air space abovev the liquid line. in. the
Further details of the invention can. best. be
understood through a description. of the opera
tion of the> mechanismy when the process com
prises the pasteurizing4 of milk.
In the. drawing
What I claim is:
1‘. The process‘of minimizing frothing inchang
i'ng a liquidvv into -containers which consists' in
providing two containers with the liquid' beneath
the three center containers are each` full and are
a fluid at a pressure above atmospheric„ cross
being held at> chosen ten-rperaturer and pressure
connecting th'e'fluids to equalize. their pressure,
and introducing further liquid under pressure
both for thev milk at the bottom and» for the air
th-roughpipe Il", branch line- i2, past electrically
into one container as liquid at theI same rate is
withdrawn from the other container.
2. The process of claim 1V in which .the tem
perature of the fluid is maintained at a. predeter
controlled entry‘valve t5 and tank pipeA` I6 which
mined degree in each containerrand` the fur
is secured toV the> removable cover 6l)> which' car
ries a. thermometer 6l' and a relief valve B2i as
stant pressure.
above.- The ñnal. containerr Ite is- being emptied
and the ñ-rst container- ma is being filled, the
milk at a- temperature; of say 145.»o F; entering
therv liquid isv introduced ata substantially con
3. The process. of claim, 1 in whichy the fluid
well as the entryV andexit valves
is compressed air, the temperature of which is
This,A milk is under pressure which might be
maintained atthe sameV degree,'in each con
added by a pump but. preferably’ the pressure is
above atmospheric but of. course. isf lower than
‘tai-ner,` and thev further liquid is» introducedy at
a `substantially constantv pressure;
the> pressure< head on the> milk. However, asA air
isf discharged through' pipe` #il to the heated
4. A constant pressure liquidholdingï system
ing the ñow through the entrance pipes and the
comprising a plurality of closed containers, an
exit pipes, an air pipe having an open end near
air conduit, means for holding air in said con
the top of each container and Within the same,
duit at a chosen pressure and temperature, means
an air conduit joining all of said air pipes, means
connecting the conduit with each of the con
tainers, a relief valve on each container dis Ul for heating the air in the conduit controlled by
the temperature adjacent the open end of one of
charging air from vthe container when its tem
the air pipes, means for maintaining a pressure»
perature departs from a chosen value whereby air
above atmospheric in the conduit and the air
at the chosen pressure and temperature will now
pipes, and means for charging liquid through the
into the container from the air conduit.
5. The device of claim 4 with means for charg 10 distributing system and simultaneously forcing air
through the closed path of the conduit and air
ing a liquid under pressure to any one of the
pipes, whereby shrinkage of the liquid is min-V
containers, and means for discharging another
imized and the paths taken by the ñuid and
of said containers at the same rate as the first
container is charged.
6. In combination a jacketed container, means
for maintaining a ñuid under pressure in the con
tainer, a container relief valve, opening to dis
charge the ñuid if the temperature of the fluid
the liquid are widely separated, the air entering
and leaving the containers at the top only Aand
the liquid entering and leaving the containers
at the bottom only.
9. The device of claim 8 in which the heating
means below the containers is controlled by the
falls below a chosen amount, means for charg
ing and discharging a liquid into the container 20 temperature within the container separately of
the heating means for the air conduit, and a
below said fluid, including piping partly within
relief valve on one of the containers discharges
the container and time operated valves in the
air from above the liquid should such air fall be
low a predetermined degree of temperature.
7. The process of claim 1 in which the fluid is
10. In a milk pasteurizing system, a jacketed
compressed air saturated with water vapor, the 25
container, means for admitting heated air under
liquid is milk, and the air driven from one con
pressure to the container above the milk, means
tainerby the incoming milk is discharged into
for releasing air from the container as it falls be
said other container which is simultaneously be
low a predetermined degree of temperature, and
ing emptied, whereby the water vapor saturated
time controlled means for admitting milk to the
air is reused.
container and for discharging milk therefrom,
8. In combination, a series of closed contain
said last means including piping, the open ends of
ers, each having a bottom, heating means below
which are widely spaced from the open ends of
each container and having horizontal dimensions
charging and discharging piping.
the air admitting and releasing means, whereby
less than those of the bottom, a liquid distribut
ing system leading to each container, including 35 to avoid passage of milk through any part of the
air system.
an entry pipe and an exit pipe in each container,
having their bottom open ends near the bottom
of the container, time controlled valves govern
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