Патент USA US2411690код для вставки
NOV. 26, 1946. A_ MacKAY 2,41 1,690 ' NAVIGATION INSTRUMENT Filed June 24, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 N0v.26,1946. ' A_MMKAY" ' NAVIGATION INSTRUMENT Filed June 24, 1944 _ - 2,411,690 » ö'Sheets-Sheet. 2 /0 H00/ 2 LAUHTIFD'E. /8 lllllllll IHIIHII HH _- DEFA TUR llll llll llllIllllE‘lllllllll llll‘llll TUR ' « DEFA - ',0 „ ¿411,656 à 4 disposed with respect to the lower half of the cir cular degree scale I2 so that either half of the latter may be employed in angularly positioning the scales I, 2 and 5 as presently to be described. Scales I, 2 and 5 are made, respectively, with apertures 2l, 22 and 23 (Figs. 5, 6 and 10) to re ceive post C, tained in their adjusted positions until scale 3 does measure and indicate the proper distance between said two points of intersection. Thus the requirement for adjustment of scale 3 as just described shows that the vessel has been set to starboard by current or Wind and the extent of this deflection is shown on scale 4 at the point Where it is intersected by scale 3. Also, the dis A scale t is also provided which is formed near one end withk an aperture 24fso that it can-be tance between the point of intersection-of scale 2 with scale 3 and the pivot post C, asimeasured mounted upon bolt D as shown in Figs. 1 and 3 with capacity for angular adjustment thereon, o_n scale 2, is the distance of the vessel from the and so that it is bodily adjustable toward and from post C with scale 3. This scale 6 is also graduated in units representing nautical miles as measured from the axis of bolt D. - landmark. If, after angularly adjusting or setting scale 2 t in accordance with the second compass bearing, the distance between the points of intersection of >scales I and 2 with scale 3, as measured by the latter, is more than the difference between the “Lucite,” “Vinylitej’ or the like. liirst and second log-readings, then the “course” By means of the above described instrument .the navigator of a coastwise vessel that is in 20 scale 3 is adjusted in a direction toward pivot C until scale 3 does indicate the proper distance sight of a Añxed landmark whose position is All of the above described scales are preîerably r made from transparent sheet material such as shown upon hischart may Iplot a chosen or pre determined course past said landmark and may Afrom time to time locate his vessel’s position on the chart, its position with respect to said pre determined run or course, and its distance from said landmark, so long as the latter is visible from said vessel, said instlument at the same time pro between said two pointsv of intersection, thus showing that the vessel has been set to port by current or wind and the extent of this deñection is measured on scale 4. Also, after thus adjust ing the instrument thedistance between the point of intersection of scale 2 with scale 3 and the pivot post C, as measured on scale 2, is the dis tance of the vessel from the landmark. Due allowance having been made for set and course made good over the ground after each 30 drift of current and scale lI having been ad logged run. justed to occupy theposition of scale 2, the ves For example: Assuming the pivot post C to rep viding for determination of the set, drift and , resent a selected landmark visible from the vessel > and also shown upon the navigator’s chart, such as a lighthouse, and that the tc-p edge of scale , 3 is to represent the proposedA or chosen course or run that is to be made past the same, a care - ful compass bearing is taken of the actual land sel 'proceeds upon its course for a second conven ient distance at the end of which the operations above described including adjustmentiof scales 2 and`3 are repeated. Thus the vessel is piloted step. by step on the predetermined course until all of scale 3 has been utilized, whereupon a sec ond landmark ahead is selected and a second mark and by means of this bearing and compass course fiixed upon. _ scale l2 the radial scale i is set at a corresponding 40 The scale 4 is also adapted to be‘used with angle, relatively to course scale 3. 'I'hen scale 3 -scales 5 and 6 to compute set, drift and course is adjusted into a position where it intersects made good over the ground. This is accom scale I at a point on the latter corresponding with plished as'follows: , , the known distance of the vessel from the land ` Assuming that the vessel moves from C toward mark represented by pivot post C. Scale 3 will D a distance of say 15> knots as shown by the then intersect scale 4 at a distance from pivot patent log, during a given period of time, say post C, as measured on scale 4, at which the vessel one hour, then -at the end of that period of time will pass abeam of the landmark. At this time scale 3 is adjusted along scale 4 into a.` position a note is made of the reading of the patent log. where bolt D registers with I5 on scale 4. Scale After the vessel has proceeded a convenient 6 is then set atan angle with respect tol scale 4 distance a second bearing is taken on the actual where it is parallel with the direction of the . landmark and a second reading of the patent log current at the point corresponding with the po is made and noted, whereupon radial scale-2 is sitionof D as shown by the navigator’s chart or angularly adjusted on compass scale l2 to agree :given on the navigator’s table of currents.` The with this second bearing and .the point of inter scale 5 is now4 adjusted angularly on pivot‘post section o-f scales 2 rand 3 will indicate the posi C to intersect scale 6 at a »pointfcorresponding tion the vessel should occupy if it had remained with> the extent of the drift of the current in upon the predetermined course represented by knots per hour yas determined from thel chart. scale 3 while traveling from the position indi cated by scale I to the position indicated by scale 60 That portion of scalef5gbetweenpivot post .C and scale 6 represents -both in length and angular 2. At .the same time the' distance between scales position relatively‘to C and D the actual course I and 2, as measured byscale 3, will show the of the v`vessel made Vgood overthe ‘ground and `also distance traveled over the ground provided the the speed-made good over the ground in knots vessel had not deviated from the proposed course per hour, the latter .being shown by the gradua in which case this distance should be the same tions of'scale 5. . „ i I , ' Y as the difference between the ñrst and second log readings. . » ‘.If, after angularly adjusting or setting scale 2 in accordance with the second -compass bear- ' ing, the distance between the points of intersec tion of scales I and 2 with scale 3, as measured on the latter, is less than the difference between `the iìrst and second log-readings, then the “course” scale 3'is adjusted inr a direction away from pivot post C While scales I and 2 are re The relative positicnsof the scales 4, 5_ _and 6 vshown in Fig. 1 ofthe4 drawings, although `exag gerated, may be used to explain this lfurther.;v vrAs shown in this figure the pivot D registers with 70 scale 4 at a point indicating a travel of ¿15 miles during the selected period ¿of time '_.of -one hour; the angle at lwhich scale 6r is setl with respect n to scale 4 indicates the langular relationship be r tween the .direction ¿of ,the „ currentrwith „respect to the proposed course C-D, while scale 5 is emigeeo the distancewnich-’for example, maybe 300 miles jstïoliffi> :as .intersecting scale 't :at ‘85s ignota-fthe .latter ‘being tngsneed `er ,the v:nimmt ner‘huuf- .ás and the -compasscourse may be assumed to’be -14'6 ‘degrees east. Scale Eis now set by means of scale jreund'ón’itne Iena-rtg. -"'rnis'setting , Atinesettles l2 for Vthe compass course yafter which scale "3 fis of Figti by the; intersection ci seal-est adjusted'to `coincide with the r300 -mile indication _length cf the .ccurse‘made ‘goed :over - . >on scale 5. kWith thissetting of the >scales -3 and knetsas measured 4cn scale '5" the >distance <between bolt D and scale f5,- `as 'the latter,."b'eingfjshovvn 1by n Icrue 'to :compensate ‘fori-.lie ' c " which `ilìföu‘ld otherwise ‘operate to "1'0 Y tithe `vessel"from its proper' Vstraight line >measured’on scale 3, is equal tov the departure, and at the ksame A:time the'dista'nce between pivot Vpost‘C andl the difference in'latitude. » n , ., l , a Acou'rse?at ‘an ithe adjusted instrument to' ‘ eerI(Fig. ‘D equal to ’ when, 4during f middle latitude sailing; the "diiîerence of latitude and the departure are vlan‘own, ‘the instrument may be used to determine ‘..lîrtthe cnartinsicate vthe *current as parallel departure may be' assumed to be 203 miles, LWest e'rly.v Scale 3 is now, registered with 136~miles on 'co rse"'from C 'to‘D 'the :pilot will be'V directed by ,Íd`1 , „ f , the course and distance as follows: The known .Íangleáandf‘to 'the fleft of sfc’al tHe-angle '4-5' with resulttnat the 'vessel will 2 information includes the jdii’ferencebf latitude t vielja‘napproximately',straight line Y‘course 'from which, for example, Vmay be ‘136 miles, vand the ‘with >scale '3.,' tnen'lit 'is netînecessary itc utilize y20 scale _4 and .scale .I is registered withpa pointfon ^ ’ 6 v'loiltfscale `3V can 'b‘e'úsèd ‘tol'me'a'sure `the .Scale f3 that >iridiïcalj/es 203 miles to ltl‘ie'ljeft'of pivot ‘rtsi the current by adjustment of scale post D. "Scale 'I now lregisterswith compass scale " ` ' ' fg“, oîiî'the speed, of _ ’I'Ll‘to' _show :a ,compass course of '56 degrees west ` A1n' nautical ln’îl'e's’on 's starting frein' pivot D, and placing .scale 25 ' " tnel‘at’ter ‘” ' at "that minary point.to ' gthe'prcper ' . l rom pivot C_,the scale .a'nd the' distance from _pivot 'post 4|C` tojthe 'point Yof ‘intersection between scales '3 and ‘l 'gives „the vcourse distance as 2744.3 miles. ` ” ` ` rc'rnft'ne two‘ijexamples given in the immedi e'ding'tWo paragra" -hs it should v'be 'clear ‘the scale t ‘c'rgîf §th‘e current n orgparallel'with the "scale y , , I, f witnoutusecf scale .s_g. _, ,_ ` , ,A The use 6r scales t, 5 and t'ìs-thusindependent l ¿lowing „,'Qfithe use'ö’f scales l1, 2,"3 ‘and `li., exceptftl‘ia't from fthe 'fact ‘s as 'deteri'ríinediby '4,5 Yandjlijtlfle‘proper _ 1 "setting y o tVA _wit respect to point C‘isiaceom pl'ished‘.- ,"S'öal'e‘s r4, "5 and `6 areeinployed'to deter fthe .euectiye current ‘influence to vwhich the _ ` ‘f " _ be .subjected’in "traveling 'over a proposed4 coursel'andï from this information `can trument >above_describedmay“also be employed.. 11i lÈ'Xlïeditiou_sly. determining ‘the fol ‘(‘ll‘?l‘hei departure`_andïdistance :when the v‘compass cbu‘rse ’andîdi‘ffefren'ce of vlatitude are " _ y ‘<25 'The Icistance anuuifierence _of vllati. frienlthe course and departure‘are known. (Elv The course and dpartur when the `'distance 4vand„einenergie ci latitude are knnwmand (i4 the ` vcourse' ‘and dinerence of latitude when íthe *dis jtan'ce and departure `"are known. 'U j " VTo determine difference of longitude the Jpro nbe,¿determi-r1edI the proper, steering course on 40 cedu're .is _as follows: `'The departure ’is 'first ‘de 44whic‘njto'proceed`inçîtraveling‘.frompoint‘C. Y ne "instrument :as above , _f "Asistated above, eachscale _1,2 Iand 5 Vis >gradu >_atedjthe same „terrriîhed by means 'of . ,ue-scribed, or otherwise, 'and ‘this ‘departure is ln itslòljp'csite ’sides and 'thebnly "' ’ betw en the ttvóseries .or 'graduaticns editieren ...vini lthosefuponone hose upon' opposite sideV thereof, . value ïwhieh'tiie iuseridf, the instrumen " ay _elec Ito „allot Ít'o Aeach Juni't»,` I-Iowevîer,"'inV Fig. 'l yfoi’jtlie drawings one side'oi eachoïfthe three scale` re Itol.coincide‘therewith Then scale v2 isla/n -iíl'arl'y .adjusted Eby rr'iean's> of 'compass scalev ’l2 "so a l,scale '4 corresponding with the'fn'iddle'flatitllde course. i., ¿Tne ,digerente Lof 'longitu ¿is ‘then reajd ferredtc isffuppermost and its ‘gradual-Lions' may, as shown, benumbered to ñx the value of each tion of scales 2 and`3; unit thereof as one mile, while in Fig. 4 of the 1. An instrument of the character described comprising a base panel bearing a ñxed circular drawings the opposite side of What I claim is: each of the three i scales referred to isuppermost and the value of Y each unit thereof may be regarded as 5 miles. » series of compass graduations; two straight elon gate scale members extending diametrically across said circular series of compass graduations and The lower value of _ one mile per unit, when fixed mentally or by numbers, renders the instrument particularly adapted for coastwise sailing where pivotally mounted intermediatetheir ends upon said panel for angular adjustment on anvaxis at y' the runs are relatively short, while the higher ' the center of said circular series of compass grad uations and each bearing a longitudinal series of value oi 5 miles per unit, when ñxed mentally or by numbering, renders the instrument particu larly adapted for middle latitude sailing where mileage graduations disposed so as to be read as starting at said axis; a third transversely disposed the courses are relatively much longen If the value of each unit of scales I, 2 and 5 is iixed mentally then the numbering may be omit 65 ted and the instrument used for both coastwise and middle latitude sa’ling with said scales per manently arranged on pivot post C as shown in Fig. 1, but when numbered as shown in the draw ings said scales are reversed uponpost C as shown in Fig. 4 while middle latitude sailing. When,~during middle latitude sailing, the com-v pass course and ldistance are known, the above described instrument may be employed to deter mine the vdifference of latitude and _the depar ture as follows: The known information includes ` straight scale member bearing a longitudinal se ries of mileage graduations; a ñxed scale of mile age graduations on said panel extending radially away from said axis perpendicularly toward said transversely disposed scale member and disposed' so as to be read as starting at said axis, the mile age graduations of said third transversely dis- ' posed scale member being disposed so as to be read in either direction from the point of inter section» of said third' member with said fixed ra v'dial„scale, and means slidably connecting said third transversely disposed scale member to said 75 base panel so that it is manually adjustable bodily 2,411,690 on said panel toward and from said axis while held against, endwise and pivotal displacement and with its » intermediate portion intersecting said necting said second transversely disposed scale member with said panel so that it is slidably ad justable bodily on saidpanel toward and from said two first-mentioned scale members and also said lfixed radial scale; a fourth straight elongate scale >axis while maintained in position al; right angles member extending diametrically across said cir rection indicating scale member co-operatively associated with said fìrst'scale member, said third cular series of compass graduations and pivotally mounted intermediate its ends upon said panel nfor vangular adjustment on said axis, said fourth to said ñxed radial scale; and a third current-di member being pivotally connected with said sec ond transversely disposed scale member at the member bearing a longitudinal series of mileage 10 point of intersection of the latter with said radial graduations disposed so as to be read as starting at said axis, and a ñfth current-direction indicat ing scale member co-operatively associated with said fourth scale member, said ñfth member being scale and bearing a longitudinal series of mileage graduations disposed so as to be read as'starting at said point of intersection. 5. An ' instrument of the character described .pivotallyi connected with said third transversely y 15 comprising va base panel bearing a iìxed circular disposed scale member at the point of intersection of the`latter with said radial scale and bearing a longitudinal series of mileage graduations dis posed so as to be read as starting at said point of intersection.' `2. An instrument of the character described constructed in accordance with claim 1 and vseries of compass graduations; two straight elon gate scale members extending diametrically across said circular series of compass graduations piv otally mounted intermediate their ends upon said 20 panel for angular adjustment'on an axis at the center` of said circular` series ofr compass gradua tions and each bearing a longitudinal series of wherein there is also provided manually operable mileage graduations disposed so as to be read as means for releasably clamping4 said ñfth scale at said axis; a third transversely disposed member to said third transversely disposed scale 25 starting straight scale member co-operatively disposed member. with respect to said two members and bearing a 3. An instrument of the character described longitudinal series of mileage graduations; a ñxed _constructed in accordance with claim 1 and scale of mileage graduations on said panel extend wherein there is also provided manually operable ing radially away from said axis perpendicularly means for releasably clamping said third and fifth 30 across said third transversely disposed scale mem scale members together and to said panel with ber and disposed so as to be read as starting at provision for bodily adjustment' of said members said axis; means connecting said third trans lengthwise of said radial scale when released. versely disposed scale member with said panel so 4. An instrument of theY character described that it is'slidably adjustable bodily on said panel lcomprising a base panel bearing a fixed circular toward and from said axis while maintainedin a series of compass graduations; an elongate scale position at right angles to said ñxed radial scale, ymember extending diametrically across said cir and a fourth straight elongate distance-indicat cular series of compass graduations and pivotally ing scale member co-operatively associated with Amounted upon said panel for angular adjustment said third transversely disposed, scale member on an axis at the center of said circular series of and said compass graduations, said fourth mem compass graduations, said member bearing mile ber Vbeing pivotallyvmounted upon said panel for age graduations disposed so as to be read as start angular adjustment on said axis and bearing a ing at said axis; a second transversely disposed longitudinal series of mileage graduations dis straight scale member bearing mileage gradua posed so as to be read as starting at said axis, and tions and co-operable with said first scale member «'- said- third transversely disposed scale member to determine the course made good over the ground; a fixed scale of mileage graduations on bearing mileage graduations to be read in either direction starting at the point of intersection of said panel extending radially away from said axis said fixed radial scale with said third transversely perpendicularly toward and across said second disposed scale member. transversely disposed scale member; means con 50 1 ANGUS MACKAY.