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Патент USA US2411690

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NOV. 26, 1946.
A_ MacKAY
2,41 1,690
' NAVIGATION INSTRUMENT
Filed June 24, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
N0v.26,1946.
'
A_MMKAY"
' NAVIGATION INSTRUMENT
Filed June 24, 1944
_
-
2,411,690
»
ö'Sheets-Sheet. 2
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4
disposed with respect to the lower half of the cir
cular degree scale I2 so that either half of the
latter may be employed in angularly positioning
the scales I, 2 and 5 as presently to be described.
Scales I, 2 and 5 are made, respectively, with
apertures 2l, 22 and 23 (Figs. 5, 6 and 10) to re
ceive post C,
tained in their adjusted positions until scale 3
does measure and indicate the proper distance
between said two points of intersection. Thus
the requirement for adjustment of scale 3 as just
described shows that the vessel has been set to
starboard by current or Wind and the extent of
this deflection is shown on scale 4 at the point
Where it is intersected by scale 3. Also, the dis
A scale t is also provided which is formed near
one end withk an aperture 24fso that it can-be
tance between the point of intersection-of scale
2 with scale 3 and the pivot post C, asimeasured
mounted upon bolt D as shown in Figs. 1 and 3
with capacity for angular adjustment thereon,
o_n scale 2, is the distance of the vessel from the
and so that it is bodily adjustable toward and
from post C with scale 3. This scale 6 is also
graduated in units representing nautical miles as
measured from the axis of bolt D.
- landmark.
If, after angularly adjusting or setting scale 2
t in accordance with the second compass bearing,
the distance between the points of intersection of
>scales I and 2 with scale 3, as measured by the
latter, is more than the difference between the
“Lucite,” “Vinylitej’ or the like.
liirst and second log-readings, then the “course”
By means of the above described instrument
.the navigator of a coastwise vessel that is in 20 scale 3 is adjusted in a direction toward pivot C
until scale 3 does indicate the proper distance
sight of a Añxed landmark whose position is
All of the above described scales are preîerably r
made from transparent sheet material such as
shown upon hischart may Iplot a chosen or pre
determined course past said landmark and may
Afrom time to time locate his vessel’s position on
the chart, its position with respect to said pre
determined run or course, and its distance from
said landmark, so long as the latter is visible from
said vessel, said instlument at the same time pro
between said two pointsv of intersection, thus
showing that the vessel has been set to port by
current or wind and the extent of this deñection
is measured on scale 4. Also, after thus adjust
ing the instrument thedistance between the point
of intersection of scale 2 with scale 3 and the
pivot post C, as measured on scale 2, is the dis
tance of the vessel from the landmark.
Due allowance having been made for set and
course made good over the ground after each 30
drift of current and scale lI having been ad
logged run.
justed to occupy theposition of scale 2, the ves
For example: Assuming the pivot post C to rep
viding for determination of the set, drift and
,
resent a selected landmark visible from the vessel
> and also shown upon the navigator’s chart, such
as a lighthouse, and that the tc-p edge of scale
, 3 is to represent the proposedA or chosen course
or run that is to be made past the same, a care
- ful compass bearing is taken of the actual land
sel 'proceeds upon its course for a second conven
ient distance at the end of which the operations
above described including adjustmentiof scales
2 and`3 are repeated. Thus the vessel is piloted
step. by step on the predetermined course until
all of scale 3 has been utilized, whereupon a sec
ond landmark ahead is selected and a second
mark and by means of this bearing and compass
course fiixed upon.
_
scale l2 the radial scale i is set at a corresponding 40
The
scale
4
is
also
adapted
to
be‘used
with
angle, relatively to course scale 3. 'I'hen scale 3
-scales 5 and 6 to compute set, drift and course
is adjusted into a position where it intersects
made good over the ground. This is accom
scale I at a point on the latter corresponding with
plished as'follows:
,
,
the known distance of the vessel from the land
` Assuming that the vessel moves from C toward
mark represented by pivot post C. Scale 3 will
D a distance of say 15> knots as shown by the
then intersect scale 4 at a distance from pivot
patent
log, during a given period of time, say
post C, as measured on scale 4, at which the vessel
one hour, then -at the end of that period of time
will pass abeam of the landmark. At this time
scale 3 is adjusted along scale 4 into a.` position
a note is made of the reading of the patent log.
where bolt D registers with I5 on scale 4. Scale
After the vessel has proceeded a convenient
6 is then set atan angle with respect tol scale 4
distance a second bearing is taken on the actual
where it is parallel with the direction of the
. landmark and a second reading of the patent log
current at the point corresponding with the po
is made and noted, whereupon radial scale-2 is
sitionof D as shown by the navigator’s chart or
angularly adjusted on compass scale l2 to agree
:given on the navigator’s table of currents.` The
with this second bearing and .the point of inter
scale 5 is now4 adjusted angularly on pivot‘post
section o-f scales 2 rand 3 will indicate the posi
C
to intersect scale 6 at a »pointfcorresponding
tion the vessel should occupy if it had remained
with> the extent of the drift of the current in
upon the predetermined course represented by
knots per hour yas determined from thel chart.
scale 3 while traveling from the position indi
cated by scale I to the position indicated by scale 60 That portion of scalef5gbetweenpivot post .C and
scale 6 represents -both in length and angular
2. At .the same time the' distance between scales
position relatively‘to C and D the actual course
I and 2, as measured byscale 3, will show the
of the v`vessel made Vgood overthe ‘ground and `also
distance traveled over the ground provided the
the speed-made good over the ground in knots
vessel had not deviated from the proposed course
per hour, the latter .being shown by the gradua
in which case this distance should be the same
tions of'scale 5. .
„
i
I ,
' Y
as the difference between the ñrst and second
log readings.
.
»
‘.If, after angularly adjusting or setting scale
2 in accordance with the second -compass bear- '
ing, the distance between the points of intersec
tion of scales I and 2 with scale 3, as measured
on the latter, is less than the difference between
`the iìrst and second log-readings, then the
“course” scale 3'is adjusted inr a direction away
from pivot post C While scales I and 2 are re
The relative positicnsof the scales 4, 5_ _and 6
vshown in Fig. 1 ofthe4 drawings, although `exag
gerated, may be used to explain this lfurther.;v vrAs
shown in this figure the pivot D registers with
70 scale 4 at a point indicating a travel of ¿15 miles
during the selected period ¿of time '_.of -one hour;
the angle at lwhich scale 6r is setl with respect
n to scale 4 indicates the langular relationship be
r tween the .direction ¿of ,the „ currentrwith „respect
to the proposed course C-D, while scale 5 is
emigeeo
the distancewnich-’for example, maybe 300 miles
jstïoliffi> :as .intersecting scale 't :at ‘85s ignota-fthe
.latter ‘being tngsneed `er ,the v:nimmt ner‘huuf- .ás
and the -compasscourse may be assumed to’be -14'6
‘degrees east. Scale Eis now set by means of scale
jreund'ón’itne Iena-rtg. -"'rnis'setting , Atinesettles
l2 for Vthe compass course yafter which scale "3 fis
of Figti
by the; intersection ci seal-est adjusted'to `coincide with the r300 -mile indication
_length cf the .ccurse‘made ‘goed :over - . >on scale 5. kWith thissetting of the >scales -3 and
knetsas measured 4cn scale
'5" the >distance <between bolt D and scale f5,- `as
'the latter,."b'eingfjshovvn 1by
n Icrue 'to :compensate ‘fori-.lie
' c
" which `ilìföu‘ld otherwise ‘operate to "1'0
Y
tithe `vessel"from its proper' Vstraight line
>measured’on scale 3, is equal tov the departure,
and at the ksame A:time the'dista'nce between pivot
Vpost‘C andl
the difference in'latitude.
»
n
,
.,
l
,
a Acou'rse?at ‘an
ithe adjusted instrument to' ‘ eerI(Fig.
‘D equal to
’ when, 4during f middle latitude sailing; the
"diiîerence of latitude and the departure are
vlan‘own, ‘the instrument may be used to determine
‘..lîrtthe cnartinsicate vthe *current as parallel
departure may be' assumed to be 203 miles, LWest
e'rly.v Scale 3 is now, registered with 136~miles on
'co rse"'from C 'to‘D 'the :pilot will be'V directed by
,Íd`1
,
„
f
,
the course and distance as follows: The known
.Íangleáandf‘to 'the fleft of sfc’al
tHe-angle '4-5' with
resulttnat the 'vessel will 2 information includes the jdii’ferencebf latitude
t vielja‘napproximately',straight line Y‘course 'from
which, for example, Vmay be ‘136 miles, vand the
‘with >scale '3.,' tnen'lit 'is netînecessary itc utilize y20 scale _4 and .scale .I is registered withpa pointfon
^
’ 6 v'loiltfscale `3V can 'b‘e'úsèd ‘tol'me'a'sure `the
.Scale f3 that >iridiïcalj/es 203 miles to ltl‘ie'ljeft'of pivot
‘rtsi the current by adjustment of scale
post D. "Scale 'I now lregisterswith compass scale
"
` ' '
fg“, oîiî'the speed, of
_
’I'Ll‘to' _show :a ,compass course of '56 degrees west
` A1n' nautical ln’îl'e's’on
's starting frein' pivot D, and placing .scale
25
'
"
tnel‘at’ter
‘”
'
at "that
minary
point.to
' gthe'prcper
'
. l rom pivot C_,the scale
.a'nd the' distance from _pivot 'post 4|C` tojthe
'point Yof ‘intersection between scales '3 and ‘l 'gives
„the vcourse distance as 2744.3 miles.
` ”
` ` rc'rnft'ne two‘ijexamples given in the immedi
e'ding'tWo paragra" -hs it should v'be 'clear
‘the scale t ‘c'rgîf §th‘e current
n orgparallel'with the "scale
y
,
,
I, f witnoutusecf scale .s_g.
_,
,_
`
, ,A The use 6r scales t, 5 and t'ìs-thusindependent
l ¿lowing
„,'Qfithe use'ö’f scales l1, 2,"3 ‘and `li., exceptftl‘ia't from
fthe 'fact ‘s as 'deteri'ríinediby '4,5 Yandjlijtlfle‘proper
_ 1
"setting
y o tVA _wit respect to point C‘isiaceom
pl'ished‘.- ,"S'öal'e‘s r4, "5 and `6 areeinployed'to deter
fthe .euectiye current ‘influence to vwhich the
_ `
‘f "
_ be .subjected’in "traveling 'over a
proposed4 coursel'andï from this information `can
trument >above_describedmay“also be
employed.. 11i lÈ'Xlïeditiou_sly. determining ‘the fol
‘(‘ll‘?l‘hei departure`_andïdistance :when
the v‘compass cbu‘rse ’andîdi‘ffefren'ce of vlatitude are
"
_ y ‘<25 'The Icistance anuuifierence _of vllati.
frienlthe course and departure‘are known.
(Elv The course and dpartur when the `'distance
4vand„einenergie ci latitude are knnwmand (i4 the
`
vcourse'
‘and dinerence of latitude when íthe *dis
jtan'ce and departure `"are known.
'U j
" VTo determine difference of longitude the Jpro
nbe,¿determi-r1edI the proper, steering course on 40 cedu're .is _as follows: `'The departure ’is 'first ‘de
44whic‘njto'proceed`inçîtraveling‘.frompoint‘C.
Y
ne "instrument :as above
, _f "Asistated above, eachscale _1,2 Iand 5 Vis >gradu
>_atedjthe same
„terrriîhed by means 'of .
,ue-scribed, or otherwise, 'and ‘this ‘departure is
ln itslòljp'csite ’sides and 'thebnly
"'
’ betw en the ttvóseries .or 'graduaticns
editieren
...vini
lthosefuponone
hose upon'
opposite sideV thereof, .
value
ïwhieh'tiie iuseridf, the instrumen " ay _elec Ito
„allot Ít'o Aeach Juni't»,` I-Iowevîer,"'inV Fig. 'l yfoi’jtlie
drawings one side'oi eachoïfthe three scale` re
Itol.coincide‘therewith Then scale v2 isla/n
-iíl'arl'y .adjusted Eby rr'iean's> of 'compass scalev ’l2 "so
a
l,scale '4 corresponding with the'fn'iddle'flatitllde
course. i., ¿Tne ,digerente Lof 'longitu ¿is ‘then reajd
ferredtc isffuppermost and its ‘gradual-Lions' may,
as shown, benumbered to ñx the value of each
tion of scales 2 and`3;
unit thereof as one mile, while in Fig. 4 of the
1. An instrument of the character described
comprising a base panel bearing a ñxed circular
drawings the opposite side of
What I claim is:
each of the three i
scales referred to isuppermost and the value of Y
each unit thereof may be regarded as 5 miles.
» series of compass graduations; two straight elon
gate scale members extending diametrically across
said circular series of compass graduations and
The lower value of _ one mile per unit, when fixed
mentally or by numbers, renders the instrument
particularly adapted for coastwise sailing where
pivotally mounted intermediatetheir ends upon
said panel for angular adjustment on anvaxis at y'
the runs are relatively short, while the higher '
the center of said circular series of compass grad
uations and each bearing a longitudinal series of
value oi 5 miles per unit, when ñxed mentally or
by numbering, renders the instrument particu
larly adapted for middle latitude sailing where
mileage graduations disposed so as to be read as
starting at said axis; a third transversely disposed
the courses are relatively much longen
If the value of each unit of scales I, 2 and 5 is
iixed mentally then the numbering may be omit 65
ted and the instrument used for both coastwise
and middle latitude sa’ling with said scales per
manently arranged on pivot post C as shown in
Fig. 1, but when numbered as shown in the draw
ings said scales are reversed uponpost C as shown
in Fig. 4 while middle latitude sailing.
When,~during middle latitude sailing, the com-v
pass course and ldistance are known, the above
described instrument may be employed to deter
mine the vdifference of latitude and _the depar
ture as follows: The known information includes
`
straight scale member bearing a longitudinal se
ries of mileage graduations; a ñxed scale of mile
age graduations on said panel extending radially
away from said axis perpendicularly toward said
transversely disposed scale member and disposed'
so as to be read as starting at said axis, the mile
age graduations of said third transversely dis- '
posed scale member being disposed so as to be
read in either direction from the point of inter
section» of said third' member with said fixed ra
v'dial„scale, and means slidably connecting said
third transversely disposed scale member to said
75 base panel so that it is manually adjustable bodily
2,411,690
on said panel toward and from said axis while held
against, endwise and pivotal displacement and
with its » intermediate portion intersecting said
necting said second transversely disposed scale
member with said panel so that it is slidably ad
justable bodily on saidpanel toward and from said
two first-mentioned scale members and also said
lfixed radial scale; a fourth straight elongate scale
>axis while maintained in position al; right angles
member extending diametrically across said cir
rection indicating scale member co-operatively
associated with said fìrst'scale member, said third
cular series of compass graduations and pivotally
mounted intermediate its ends upon said panel
nfor vangular adjustment on said axis, said fourth
to said ñxed radial scale; and a third current-di
member being pivotally connected with said sec
ond transversely disposed scale member at the
member bearing a longitudinal series of mileage 10
point of intersection of the latter with said radial
graduations disposed so as to be read as starting
at said axis, and a ñfth current-direction indicat
ing scale member co-operatively associated with
said fourth scale member, said ñfth member being
scale and bearing a longitudinal series of mileage
graduations disposed so as to be read as'starting
at said point of intersection.
5. An ' instrument of the character described
.pivotallyi connected with said third transversely y 15
comprising va base panel bearing a iìxed circular
disposed scale member at the point of intersection
of the`latter with said radial scale and bearing
a longitudinal series of mileage graduations dis
posed so as to be read as starting at said point of
intersection.'
`2. An instrument of the character described
constructed in accordance with claim 1 and
vseries of compass graduations; two straight elon
gate scale members extending diametrically across
said circular series of compass graduations piv
otally mounted intermediate their ends upon said
20 panel for angular adjustment'on an axis at the
center` of said circular` series ofr compass gradua
tions and each bearing a longitudinal series of
wherein there is also provided manually operable
mileage graduations disposed so as to be read as
means for releasably clamping4 said ñfth scale
at said axis; a third transversely disposed
member to said third transversely disposed scale 25 starting
straight scale member co-operatively disposed
member.
with respect to said two members and bearing a
3. An instrument of the character described
longitudinal series of mileage graduations; a ñxed
_constructed in accordance with claim 1 and
scale of mileage graduations on said panel extend
wherein there is also provided manually operable
ing
radially away from said axis perpendicularly
means for releasably clamping said third and fifth 30 across
said third transversely disposed scale mem
scale members together and to said panel with
ber and disposed so as to be read as starting at
provision for bodily adjustment' of said members
said axis; means connecting said third trans
lengthwise of said radial scale when released.
versely disposed scale member with said panel so
4. An instrument of theY character described
that it is'slidably adjustable bodily on said panel
lcomprising a base panel bearing a fixed circular toward
and from said axis while maintainedin a
series of compass graduations; an elongate scale
position at right angles to said ñxed radial scale,
ymember extending diametrically across said cir
and a fourth straight elongate distance-indicat
cular series of compass graduations and pivotally
ing scale member co-operatively associated with
Amounted upon said panel for angular adjustment
said third transversely disposed, scale member
on an axis at the center of said circular series of
and said compass graduations, said fourth mem
compass graduations, said member bearing mile
ber Vbeing pivotallyvmounted upon said panel for
age graduations disposed so as to be read as start
angular adjustment on said axis and bearing a
ing at said axis; a second transversely disposed
longitudinal series of mileage graduations dis
straight scale member bearing mileage gradua
posed so as to be read as starting at said axis, and
tions and co-operable with said first scale member
«'- said- third transversely disposed scale member
to determine the course made good over the
ground; a fixed scale of mileage graduations on
bearing mileage graduations to be read in either
direction starting at the point of intersection of
said panel extending radially away from said axis
said fixed radial scale with said third transversely
perpendicularly toward and across said second
disposed scale member.
transversely disposed scale member; means con 50
1
ANGUS MACKAY.
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