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Патент USA US2411706

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Nov. 26, 1946.
s. BERKOF'F
~
2,411,706
PHASE INVERTER CIRCUIT
Filed June 3, 1942
I
-
2 sheets-sheet 2
UUTPl/T l
0UTPUT 2
.
I?vemto‘r:
Segmour Ber-kof?,
`
-His AttoT-neg.
Patented Nov. 26, 1946 Y
STATE-s
roFFici;_.- ~
2,411,706... .I
?HXsÉ’iNvimrERîcntciiii‘?
Seymour' Berkoff, Bridgeportfßonni; »assignorf to
General Electric= Company;-y a,»-corporation-fo£-
ì
New' York
1o Claims.
(01.4 iis-171!) l» e
In f'theï circ‘uitfy of “Figi 1'? a'i‘rîelectron‘` discharge'
device*- I I e, '.Whichii'nay‘fbe an1 audio-frequency’ a'mz
pliñ'e'rfof: ai iràdio" receiver; furnishes a signal ito' f'aì
second? electron discharge" device*y l 2l acting: asi a>
Myè inventioncrelates-»tc lpha'sefinverte'r circuits
andlias for its‘objec‘t to' improve the character
isticsiof'such circùits`s~
Af-'fur-ther object> is yto provide ~ affphas'e ‘inverterY
circuit in» which the‘magnitlldes‘ofï the; output 5 ' singlerl’tubec phase@ inverter." The electron> dise“
signals are-proportionalï'to the 'rrîagriitude'f off the-~
input Signal, an'diinfwhich th'e output signals/are
ofî the# san`1'e'=t'iri1e`1~ occurrence a's’* thefisignalsì in
the input circuit.
`
.
s Y f
In ra‘dio apparatu'sused ibi" signal purposes; .for 10'
example; in'v which fthere ïisi providedfaf single’sig-vr
naif-comprising a' 'seriesr of -' veryf short - pulses i at -
somewhai?-irregular- intervals',ì the 'phaseiiniierïter
use@ to‘convert this single'signalvinto'two' sig-v
nais `lforÍ feeding, foit example; ltWo -pu’sh pull- a’rií-`
pli?i'ersî should f provide l'outpllt- signals > which are'y
equal;andfoppositeinphase: Itis desirable both
that there beno/ti-medelay' between» the input-
pulse and eitherlof the output pulses and that
there be no amplitude'distörtîoiï i?fthe phase in
verter circuit. iiziyjiiivein'i'ioiiH proposes io elimi
nate both iimeîdeigiyîa'ric iciiiiiitiiae'disiortion in ,_
such a pulse ain‘plifie'r’byeiiiployirig'la balanced
impedance bridgè'ât'o'f reduëe'tlíëïeffect of feedf
back onv the control gridi A
to vary the; relative magnitude' of tli‘èltwo output4
30
single-:ended: source* is’ connected ac?ossf‘pòint’sï"
r'er?otef` from theî t‘v‘vo output points." 'Another'
feature is the proportionin‘g of` the'values' ofKL theimpedances comprisingr thisf bridge f' so “that” the
magnitudes of= the output signals will be exactly"
proportionaltothe-magnitudeo?the input signal.
A Theifeatures'of- my_inventiomwhich Iv` believe
to,-- be» novelr a-re set forthî with particularityl in
the- appendedei-aimsf» My invention itself ; how-w
ever, togetherr Withr furtherfobjectshand» advanlf`
tages thereof;A may best be understood` b‘yA refer- L
ence tothe' following-‘description taken‘in» connec
tion'fwith--the- accompanyingdrawin‘g's; l in 'f which'
Fig;Ayv 1-»r is 'a‘diagram-'off a phase=inverter circuit
embodyingmy- invention; Figi 2'; is-y af' scl'i'ematic'y
diagrammi/the'phaseinverter- circuitßof Fig;> 1f- ‘f
in- whiclfrl the* impedance - bridge is“ illustrated ;v
Figs. Scand «if» areephase inverter“ circuits showing”
m'odiñcatioils IAOffthe invention; andi 'Figi'- 5 '~ is“s a?
s‘f'zhem'aticF diagram- of; the' circuit' of'ï Fig;-' 4'A iiirv‘vl-iiclrtlieimpefdancelorldge'isiillustrèitedir
’
Since? trie'ï anode resistance' »2'4-- not' a liñeaf
rësî's‘taifice; b’utïvarie's‘; fo'ifa fixedH grid pot'eñtiz'il;A
witiif'aiio’deff potentiel,A introduction of distortion
iiítöftlíëf‘g?id ‘circuit of' device ' I'Zf'is‘ prevented' by”
iise* oi"-’iesisifciT 22 ‘to establish' theVT bridge re:
lationship illustrated in Fig. 2. If resistorsZD andi
21‘ are eîi'uà-l‘-,
i"e'z‘si`stol1’s"22‘V andl 231ar`èl eqïial,_
tiiefïeii‘ect'i's> triat- cifa’ completely balanceo Bridge
scf trici discoiiioircaiinoif arise'
erection dis:
ape
the oiiipiitfcirciiitsof inefoiiäseiriveiieii
me@ 2f fe?, tiieife‘wiiivceîffo‘ieeciriefseek o‘ff'po'@
teniieíis- erisi?g‘f'iii » the output circuit' of ytime liz-ï
institue
-oriiiibefl l; 'mieiëfoiaihe volt;
2,411,706
3
2l are automatically equal and opposite and of
the same time occurrence as the input signal sup
plied tothe control electrode I6.
~
By the above-outlined circuit my invention
provides a single tube phase inverter circuit (Il
which may be used in pulse circuits. When a sig
nal is supplied to the preceding ampliñer Il and
after amplification is supplied to the control elec
trode of tube I2, by means of the balancedbridge
circuit, two pulses, one positive-going and the
other negative-going, and of exactly the same
time occurrence, are provided at the two output
points. In this circuit, because of the balanced
bridge relation, the phase inverter will have equal
impedance with respect to both output I and out
put 2. Such a relationship between output im
pedances is desired, for example, where each of
the two output signals is transmitted through an
.4
of resistor 22 with the anode’ circuit. Likewise
output 2 is taken directly from the cathode I8.
The schematic diagram Vof Fig. 5 illustrates the
bridge arrangement of this circuit and the func
tion of the variable resistor 2l. Variation of this
resistor varies the relative magnitudes of the out
put voltages, that of output I increasing linearly
with the value of resistor 2‘I, while that of output
2 is but slightly affected by such variation. Since
resistor 20 equals resistor 2|, the feed-back volt
ages supplied tothe control electrode from the
anode and cathode circuits are always equal, re
gardless of the setting of resistance 2'I. Conse
quently, the balance of the bridge circuit is un
disturbed by Variations of resistance 27 to adjust
the relative magnitudes of the output voltages.
By means of the circuits described in the fore
going, two output signals which are opposite in
phase and of precisely the same time occurrence
appreciable length of cable having a definite im
pedance characteristic before arriving at its des 20 as the input signal, are obtained from a single
tination and is attenuated during such transmis
input signal. The relative magnitudes of the
sion. If the eiïect of such a capacitive load across
output signals may be made equal or may be ad
resistor 2I alone is considered, it will be seen that,
justed to meet the requirements of following cir
because of attenuation, less degeneration occurs
cuits.
in the cathode circuit for higher frequencies. As 25 ' By way of illustration only, and not in any
a result the tube gain becomes larger lfor higher
sense by way of limitation, the following repre
frequencies than for lower, that is, a greater
sentative values are those which have been found
higher frequency voltage appears across resistor
suitable in a particular phase inverter circuit em
. 20 than appears across resistor 2l. On the other
bodying my invention. In this receiver a type
hand, if the same capacitive load is shunted GVG triocle tube was employed as the phase in
across resistor 20 alone, the higher frequency
verter tube in accordance with the modification
voltages across resistor 20 are less than those
shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings. The values of
across resistor 2 I. Hence if equal capacitive loads
the circuit constants were as follows:
are shunted across these two resistors, the upper
frequencies across resistor 20 will be reduced in
magnitude to practically the same value as those
’ existing across resistor 2 I. The net effect of equal
Resistor 1522,000 ohms
Resistor 20=1,000 ohms
Resistor 21:1,000 ohms
Resistor 22:.5 megohm
Resistor 23:.5 megohm
capacities across the anode and cathode circuits
is therefore to keep the frequency response in
the two circuits approximately the same, and the 40
Resistor 19:500 ohms
pulse shapes remain equal. Thus, with the equal
output impedances of the phase inverter circuit
provided by my balanced bridge arrangement,
Resistor 27:1000 ohms potentiometer
Capacitor 26=.1 microfarad
Capacitor 28:.1 microfarad
equal wave forms of the signal voltages at their
destinations will be obtained.
In the phase inverter circuit of Fig~ 1 resistor
Thus it will be noted that the resistance in
the cathode circuit of Fig. 5 between output 2
and ground is 1500 ohms, while the resistance be
tween anode and ground may be varied from
1000 to 2000 ohms without disturbing the balance
of the bridge.
While I have described a particular embodi
ment of my invention, it will be obvious to those
skilled in the art that various changes and modi
fications may be made without actually depart
ing from the invention. I therefore desire by
.
22 is shown connected directly between the an
ode and control electrode of electron discharge
device I2, a negative bias for the control elec
trode being maintained by the resistor I9. In
certain applications it may be desired to block
the control electrode from the anode potential.
In Fig. 3 is shown a modification of my inven
tion wherein the capacitor 2B is connected in the
circuit between the control electrode and anode f. the appended claims to cover al1 such changes
in series with the resistor 22. In order that the
and modifications as fall within the true spirit
operation of my balanced bridge remain appre
and scope of the foregoing disclosure.
ciably unaffected by the added impedances of ca
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
pacitor 26, this capacitor should have a negligi
Letters
Patent of the United States is:
ble impedance, at the lowest frequency to be am GO
1. In a system for isolating a single-ended
plified, as compared with the impedance of‘re
source of signals which Vary with respect to a
sistor 22. Since the value of resistor 22 is quite
point of ñxed potential from the output of a sin
large and since the frequency of signals being
gle tube phase inverter comprising an electron
amplified is usually very high, the requirement of
discharge device having an anode, a cathode, and
negligible impedance for capacitor 26 is easily
a control electrode, means for impressing signals
met.
from
said source between said control electrode
In Fig. 4 is shown a modification of my phase
and said cathode, first and second output termi
inverter circuit which is applicable where it is
nals connected to said anode and said cathode
desired to vary the relative magnitudes of the
respectively, a series circuit connected between
two output voltages. Such flexibility may be de
said terminals, said series circuit comprising a
sired, for example, to compensate for inequalities
pair of resistances, means connecting said elec
in two push pull amplifiers following the phase
trode to a point between said resistances in said
inverter. In this arrangement the variable re
series circuit, said last-named point being vari
sistor 2'I is connected in the anode circuit between
able in potential with respect to said point of
the point of output I and the point of connection 75 iixed potential, and resistance means connected
2,411,706
5
6
between each of said output terminals and said
point of fixed potential.
able resistance and said fixed resistor respective
ly, and equal resistances connected between said
point of fixed potential and said variable resist
2. In combination with a source of signals, a
ance and said iixed resistor respectively.
phase inverter for producing opposed signals at
'7. In combination, a first electron discharge
two points comprising an electron discharge de 5
device having input means and output means for
vice having an anode connected to one of said
providing a signal which varies with respect to
points, a cathode connected to the other of said
a point of ñxed potential, a second electron dis
points, and a control electrode coupled to said
charge device having an anode, a cathode, and
source of signals, impedances connected between
said control electrode and each of said points, and 10 a control electrode, means for connecting said
`control electrode with said output means, output
impedances connected between each of said
terminals connected respectively to said anode
points and said source of signals, said impedances
and said cathode, a fixed resistor connected to
being of such magnitude as to form a balanced
said cathode, a variable resistor connected to said
bridge circuit of which said points form two op
anode, and means for isolating said iirst elec
posite corners and said source of signals is con
tron discharge device from said terminals to pre
nected across the remaining corners, whereby
vent feedback of distortions thereto, said means
said source is isolated from said two points to
comprising a pair of equal resistances connected
prevent feedback of distortion thereto.
respectively between said control electrode and
3. In combination in an amplifier, a source of
said fixed and variable resistors, and a pair of
signals which vary with respect to a point of ñxed
equal resistances connected respectively between
potential, an electron discharge device having
ksaid point of fixed potential and said fixed and
an anode, a cathode, and a control electrode,
variable resistors.
output means connected between said anode and
8. In combination with an electron discharge
said point of fixed potential, output means con
nected between said cathode and saidpoint of 25 device having an anode, a cathode, and a con
trol electrode, a bridge circuit comprising a pair
fixed potential, means for impressing signals from
of impedances connected between a point of i-lxed
said source on said electrode, and means for iso
potential and said anode and said cathode re
lating said source of signals from said output
spectively, and a second pair of impedances con
means, said means comprising equal resistances
connected between ' said control electrode and
nected rbetween said control electrode and said
each of said output means, and equal resistances
connected between each of said output means
and said point of fixed potential.
4. In combination. a first electron discharge
device having input means and output means for
providing a signal which varies with respect to a
point of ñxed potential, a second electron dis
charge device having an anode, a cathode, and a
respect to each other and to the impedances of
said first pair of impedances to prevent varia
tions of the potential of said anode from being
supplied to said electrode.
control electrode; means for connecting said con
anode and said cathode respectively, and a source
of signals connected between said control elec
trode and said point of iixed potential, said sec
ond pair of impedances being proportioned with
9. In an amplifier having a single ended source
trol electrode with said output means of said first 40 of signals which vary with respect to a point of
fixed potential, the combination of, an electron
electron discharge device, an output terminal
discharge device having an anode, a cathode, and
connected to said anode, an output terminal con
a control electrode, means for impressing signals
nected to said cathode, and meansfor isolating
from said source between said control electrode
said ñrst electron discharge device from said ter
minals to prevent feedback of distortions thereto, 45 and said cathode, a first outputcircuit connected
between said anode and said point, a second out
said means comprising a pair of equal resistances
put circuit connected between said cathode and
y connected between said terminals and said con
said point, one, of said output circuits comprising
trol electrode, and a second pair of equal resist
a pair of serially connected resistances and the
ances connected between said terminals and said
other of said output circuits comprising a fixed
point of fixed potential.
resistance and a variable resistance in series
5. In combination with an electron discharge
therewith, and means for isolating said single
device having an anode, a cathode, and a con
ended source of signals from said output circuits,
trol electrode, a bridge circuit comprising a pair
said means comprising equal resistances con..
of equal impedances connected between a point
nected respectively between said electrode and the
of fixed potential and said anode and said cath
, common point of` said pair of serially connected
ode respectively, and a second pair of equal im
resistances and between said electrode and the
pedances connected between said control elec
common point of said iixed and variable resist
trode and said anode and saidcathode respec
ances.
'
tively. and a source of signals connected between
10. In combination, a source of signals, an
said control electrode and said point of fixed po
electron discharge device having a control elec
trode coupled tosaid source, an anode, and ra
6. In an amplifierhaving a single-ended source
cathode, a first resistance connected between said
of signals which vary with respect to a point of
anode and a point of fixed potential, a second re-f
iixed potential, the combination of an electron
dischargedevice having an anode, a cathode, and ” sistance connected between said cathode and said
point„and means fory isolating said source from
a control electrode, means for impressing signals
`said output circuit comprising a third resistance
from said source between said control electrode
connected between said electrode and said anode,
1 and said cathode, first and second output termi
-.a fourth resistance connected between said elec
nals connected to said anode and said cathode
respectively, a variable resistance connected to 70 trode and said cathode, the ratio of said ñrst
tential.
`
I
„
said anode, a fixed »resistor connectedvto said
- resistance to said third resistance being equal to
cathode, and means for isolating said single-end
ed source of signals from said output terminals,
said'means comprising equal resistances connect- ,
the ratio of said second resistance to said fourth
ed between saidr contres encarece, and. said vari-`
resistance.
»
SEYMOUR BERKOFF.
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