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Патент USA US2411707

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Nov. 26, 1946.
A. E. BIERMANNI
2,411,707
COMPRES 50R
Filed Dec.. 24, 1941
26
2 Sheets-Sheet 1‘
27 so
/
FllG.2
I9
'INVENTOR
Nov. 26, 1946.
2,411,707
, A. E. BIERMANN
COMPRESSOR
1 Filéd Dec. 24, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
42
i.l ‘l
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FI6.‘3
mvauron
M 6:,
.
_
_. 2,411,101
v , Patented Nov. 26,
UNITED s'rArEs PATENT OFFICE
2,411,707
COMPRESSOR
_
Arnold E. Biermami, Hampton, Va.
Application December 24, 1941, Serial No. 424,335
19 Claims. (Cl. 230-450)
1
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?cation have many leakage areas which are im
This invention relates to improvements in gas
practical to seal with packing of any description
owing to the friction and wear of such sealing
compressors or power producing engines of the
rotary type. The main object of the invention is
devices, it is necessary that these clearance or
to provide an engine or compressor of compact
and practical constiuction combined with e?icient 5 leakage areas be kept small because the leak-_
operation.
age is a, direct charge against the ei?ciency and
capacity of the machine. For any given machine
this leakage or slip loss is a ?xed amount de
pending on the pressure diilerence across the
'
Although an exceedingly large number of ro
tary engines of the positive displacement type
have been invented, a study of practically all
of them will show a failure to meet one or more 10
leakageslots, but is practically independent of
the speed of the machine. It is therefore obvious
that unless the rotary engine can handle a suf
ciently well balanced combination of features to
?ciently large quantityof gas per unit time, the
compete with present day reciprocating engines.
leakage losses will be‘ a large percentage of the
From a theoretical standpoint, the efficiency of
the rotary engine can be considerably better than 15 total capacity, and the efficiency will be low. The
devices of Peigler, Maxam, and Good all have
that of the turbine. Likewise, the rotary engine
insu?icient volume capacity per unit leakage area.
can be smaller than the reciprocating engine for
to make them at all eillcient in handling gases.
a given capacity. In practice, the rotary engine
From the foregoing it is readily seen that the
has never attained its full possibilities and has not
been able to compete with the turbine and the 20 volume capacity for ‘a given size is extremely
of several basic requirements‘ to presentv a suffi
important'in rotary engines and that any in
creases in the volume capacity of such devices
reciprocating engine except in small sizes where
?rst cost is an important consideration. In the
following, it is desired to present the basic- re
may account for the difference between success
and failure. In my invention the volume capac-_
improvement over existing engines of the same 25 ity per revolution can be several times the cubi-‘
cal contents of the outside dimensions. The
purpose and to show that these requirements are
capacity
is so great that even with large clearance
met by' my invention.
.
areas and at fairly low speeds the leakage volume
In order to have any appreciable'advantage
is only a small percentage of the capacity.
over the steam turbine or the turbo-compressor,
The large volumes which must be handled by
the rotary engine must have an almost similar 30
the successful rotary‘ engine necessitate very
volume capacity for a given size of machine.
large port and passage areas if the charging and '
This capacity can be obtained by achieving a
friction losses are to be kept at reasonable values.
large displacement per revolution or can be ob
tained by high speed operation, ‘or both. It will‘ - The available port area in the ‘device of the
be shown that both of these possibilities are pres- 35 Peigler PatentuNor 13031655 is inherently too
small to keep these losses from being excessive.
ent in my invention.
'
In my present invention the ports and passages
It is the ability of the steam turbine to handle
are inherently larger than in'other devices of
the tremendous volumes of steamv which result
_ .quirements that will make the rotary engine an
_when steam is expandedtohigh vacuum that
this character.
'
,
In reciprocating steam engines a considerable
heat loss is incurred by exhausting the cold steam
back over the hot end of the cylinder, thus caus
ing the cylinder to be chilled. This di?iculty
has been remedied by the invention of the “uni
45 iiow” engine in which the steam never reverses
- makes it more e?‘icient in large sizes than the 40
reciprocating engine. This is because the em
ciency of the steam enginedepends upon the
ratio of the inlet to outlet pressure and this
ratio can be much greater for the turbine than
for the reciprocating engine because of its large\
volume capacity. Rotary engines disclosed in
Peigler, U. S. No. 1,037,655,_and Maxam, U. 8.
Patent No. 1,304,497 and Good U. S. Patent No.
1,989,552, are inherently of such design as to dis
place less than half of the volume of the outside 50
housing dimensions »'per revolution.
In order to .
v
compete with steam turbines, .the volume capac
ity should be as much as three times the volume
capacity of any of the foregoing inventions.
As the rotary engines of the foregoing classi- 55
its path. This feature is important to eiiiciency
and is provided in my invention. This feature
also makes'for more efficient air compressors in '
that if the incoming air enters through the cold
end of the cylinder instead of the hot compres
sion end, as is done normally, less heat is ab
sorbed from the cylinder walls. Furthermore, the
single direction of air moving at high speed
through rotary compressors of this type should
incur but few shock losses as compared with the
2,411,707 *
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reciprocating compressor which must move each
charge in and out of the cylinder during each
cycle. -
The gyroscopic and centrifugal forces incident
upon the rotary abutment shafts of the devices of
Peigler, Maxam, and of my previous invention,
U. 8. Patent No. 2,090,280, are very excessive even
at moderate speeds making these constructions
impractical. This di?iculty has been eliminated
in my present invention.
.
In the afore-mentioned devices, investigation
will showyanv inherent lack of means for absorbing
the'thrust forces incident on the abutment shaft
due to the pressure difference across the abut
ment. In modern practice this thrust must be
taken either by a pressure lubricated thrust bear.‘
ing or an anti-friction thrust bearing. Either of
these are too large to mount in the space avail-'
able in these devices. This difficulty is obviated
in the present invention by projecting the abut 20
ment shafts to the outside of the housing and
- providing a thrust bearing at that point.
This
construction is not possible with the devices of
Peigler and Maxam, or with my previous inven-'
4
so that the side forces of one offset the side forces
of the other.
.
.
My invention is particularly adapted to air
craft engine supercharging where the require
ments as ‘to efficiency, capacity and pressure ra
tio are. very severe. In this field the centrifugal
compressor has been- used predominantly, al
though the axial ?ow and Roots blowers have
been considered for this service. In tests the
Roots blower has reached higher values of overall
adiabatic e?iciency than either the axial flow or
the centrifugal types. This has been true al
though the Rootsztype is a displacement blower
(hydraulic type of indicator card). My invention
has all of the attributes of the Roots blower with
the additionaladvantages of greater capacity and
a polytropic cycle of compression. The basic im
provement in efficiency of my v‘ blower over the
Roots as caused by the difference between a
square indicator card and a polytropic type of
indicator card should provide a substantial in
crease in adiabatic eiiiciency over that of either
of the other supercharger types. The lower slip
losses of my invention should increase this value
tion.
>
25 still further. The efficiency of superchargers is
In rotary engines the elimination of rubbing
particularly important on account of the detri
surfaces moving at high speeds is very important
mental eifect of high intake air temperatures on
unless extremely good lubrication is provided.
engine power.
The provision of the latter is impractical in the
' The lack of a satisfactory method of controL
case of impellers sliding along spiral vanes at 30 ling the capacity and pressure ratio of the cen
high speed as is done in the devices of Peigler
trifugal and axial ?ow blowers at sea level and
and Maxam. The only practical construction in '
at intermediate'altitudes, where the blower ca
any of these devices for driving the rotary abut
pacity is greater than the engine can use, causes
ment is by gearing unless some other means are
a considerable power loss owing to the excessive
provided for preventing sliding contact. A prac
temperature rise of the air as caused by operat
tical means of gearing the aforementioned devices
ing at the pressure ratio corresponding to the
is not seen. In my present invention, gearing
maximum altitude condition of operation for
can be done in a practical manner with only one
which the blower is constructed. This difficulty
pair of gears in the train to prevent back lash.
of centrifugal blowers has necessitated the use
If gearing is resorted to for driving the abut 40 of variable gear ratios in the drive between the
ments, it is obvious that very accurate synchro
supercharger and the engine, and in some cases
nization must be obtained or unwanted rubbing of
it has been found worthwhile to drive the super
parts‘ will result. This requirement stipulates
charger by means of an exhaust turbine in order
that the backlash and ?exibility in the drive must
to obtain a ?exible speed control. The capacity
be a minimum. For a practical drive only'one
back lash (one pair of gears) should be allowed.
In the case of very accurate, ?ne-pitch gears two
of my compressor can be readily controlled to suit
the demand of the engine without loss of power
or without resorting to changes in speed.
back lashes may be allowed. In this respect the _
In supercharging aircraft engines, the altitude
gear train shown in the referred-to Good patent
attainable is dependent upon the ratio of the out
is highly undesirable. In my present invention 50 let pressure to the inlet pressure of the super
the abutment is synchronized with the rotor by
charger. _ To maintain sea level engine power at
means of one pair of large diameter gears. The
diameter of the gears is equally as important as
the amount of back lash. In Peigler’s design it
an altitude of 18,000 feet requires a pressure ratio
of approximately two to one. It has not been pos
sible to obtain a_ much greater ratio than this
with a single stage centrifugal compressor thus
making it necessary to resort to several stages if
high altitudes are to be attained. In my inven
. the shape of the slots in the rotary abutments
tion the pressure ratio in a single stage is only
is such as to practically cut away the thickness
limited by the slip losses which should not be
of the spiral vanes on the inner diameter of the 60 serious at a 40,000 foot altitude. Here it is ob
torus during the generating process. This same
vious that the maximum practical compression
effect is shown in Figure 3 of Peigler. This di?i
ratio‘obtainable ‘with rotary compressors is a
culty has been eliminated in the present inven
function of the volume capacity for a given size
tion by placing the edges of the abutment slots
because the detrimental effects of the slip ‘losses
in a very de?nite‘ relationship with respect to
would be impossible to‘ employ large diameter
gears for synchronizing the rotary abutment.
In the construction of my previous invention,
each other, and with respect to the abutment.
In the devices of Peigler and Maxam. and in
my previousinvention the total thrust force in
at high pressure ratios are a function of the vol
ume capacities of the compressors.
From the foregoing it is obviously true that i
the basic failure of rotary engines in general is
cident on the rotor shaft as caused by the un
balanced gas pressures on either side of the rotor 70 caused by lack of volume capacity for a given size
of machine. If this fault'can be obviated by a
may be excessive and may be suii‘lcient to cause
new combination of old mechanisms or by the
the structural members to de?ect unless very
strongly built. This applies particularly to en
perfection’ in degree of old mechanisms it should
gines of large size. In my invention this diffi
be considered as invention inasmuch as it has
culty is obviated by placing two rotors in parallel 75 not been done and is therefore apparently not ob
2,411,707
..
vious, andif done it may be put to ‘an extremely
useful purpose.
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and the bearing cap 56 for providing axial ad
justment of the position of the rotary ~abut
.
- In the accompanying drawings Figure-1 is a
' ment 25.
transverse'verticai cross section view of a device
Referring to Figure 3, 3| is the rotor shaft upon
‘ as constructed in' accordance with the principles
‘of my invention; Figure 2 is an end view of which
'which is mounted the double rotor 32. In the
construction shown the toroidal rotor surfaces
are supported on the radial spokes 53 to provide
axial extendingpassage-way for the ?ow of.
?uids.v In the construction of the device shown
10 in Figure 3, the ?xed abutments 33 are removable.
. the top half is a longitudinal cross section
' through the center of Figure 1' and the lower
half is a side view in elevation with a portion of
the side housing removed; Figure 3 is a double
unit shown in section; Figure 4 is a schematic
drawing of one form of geared drive; Figure 5 is
a schematic plan view of a portion of a cam for
The gear 34 is fastened to rotor 32 and is ar
ranged for driving the gears 21 as shown in Fig-'
ure 2. The housing comprises parts‘ 35 and 35
opening‘port gates; Figure 6 is aschematic plan
, with the end housings 31 and 33. The inner hous
view showing the intersection of va. spiral vane and
a rotary abutment; ‘Figure 7 is a schematic view
showing a method of generating the spiral'vanes;
Figure 8 is a schematic diagram showing the cy
ing members 139 support the ?xed walls 2I of the
toroidal chambers. . The ports 40, 4|, and 42 serve
for the passage of fluids to and from thehous
- mg.
cle of operation. This ?gure indicates the major . I
elements and their relative movements. Dia
grammatically, it represents the‘ surface of a sec
tion of the toroidal housing laid out ?at. -
'
An alternate gearing arrangement is shown .
in Figure 4. Here the gear 46 is mounted on the
rotor shaft 5 and engages‘ with gears 45 which
'
are mounted with gears 44 on shafts 41. Gears
44 engage with gears 43 which are mounted to
turn rotary abutment shafts 59 and rotary abut- _
Referring to Figure 1, i designates an outside
housing of which 2. is a ?xed abutment con
structed as part of the housing. Rotor 3, on 25 ‘ments 25'.
I
I
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which spiral vanes -4 are mounted, is carried by‘
In Figure '7 is shown one method for gener
shaft 5 in bearings mounted in the side housings
ating the spiral vanes 4 from the movement of‘
'l and B. .In Figures 1, 2, and 3 the shafts .3 carry
the two surfaces of revolution 48. The surfaces.
the slotted rotary abutments 25. .Referring to
"of revolution 48 correspond to the generating
Figure 1, the housing cover 3 forms an oil tight 30' circles,“ of Figure 6. The one spiral vane of Fig
chamber for the gear I4. In this ?gure the gates
l0 serve to vary the size of the port openings.
ure 7 corresponds to the one spiral vane 4 on one
side of the ?xed abutment 2 of Figure 1 and the
other spiral vane 4 of Figure? corresponds to the
spiral vane on the opposite side of fixed abut
‘These gates are pivoted about pins I3. The hoops
ll of'Figures 1, 2, 3, and‘ 8 serve to support. the
free ends of the spiral vanes 4 which start at one 85 ment 2 in Figure 1. The edges of the slot in ro
face of the ?xed abutment 2 and spiral around
the‘ torus to the opposite side of 2. Referring to
Figures 1, 3, and 5, the cam [2 which is.con
tary abutment 25, shown in Figure 6, simulate
portions of the surfaces of revolution 43‘. It can
be seen from the foregoing description that the
spiral vanes 4 can be generated by revolving the
Istructed integrally with the gear I1 is driven by
the pinion l3 for adjustment of’ the opening of 40 surfaces of revolution 48 in the toroidal cham
the gates Ill. The pins IG'engage with the cam
ber in a plane substantially parallel to the axis- of
I2 and theslots 53 as shown in Figures '1 and 5. I the rotor and simultaneously revolving the sur
,The recesses 15 which are formed in the ?xed
faces of revolution 48 around the axis of the rotor
abutment 2 as shown in Figures 1,2, 3, and 8
serve as additional port areas as indicated in Fig
I 3. In this manner the tools for constructing the
spiral vanes can be milling cutters'and the sur
' ure 8. In Figure 8 the same ?xed abutment 2 is
faces can be finished by rotary grinding wheels of
the same shape. An inclination ofthe axes of the
“the position of the ports relative to the recesses.
generating surfaces is provided in order to prevent
In Figure 1 the ports l9 and 23 are for ‘inlet ‘or
too great a change in vane‘ thickness in passing
discharge of the ?uid. The ?xed portion of the 50 from theouter diameter of the torus to the inner
toroidal housing 2! is carried by the side member
diameter. In addition a tilting of the axes of 43
8. The flanged surfaces 22 are provided for
provides spiral vanes of wedge section even when
mounting purposes. The slots 23 and 24 serve as
using a cylindrical ‘milling cutter. The provision
labyrinths for diminishing leakage losses.
of the tilted axes is very'important in the prac
shown on both sides of the diagramto indicate
Referring to Figure 2, 25 is a slotted rotary
.abutment which is mounted on shaft 3 to rotate
in bearings'28I and 31!._ The gear 21 is mounted
on shaft 6 to engage gear l4 of Figure 1 so that;
tical construction of the spiral vanes.
I
Figure 6 shows how rotation of the rotary abut
ments 25 can bee?ected from the forces of the
' ?uid pressures alone. Circles 49 are the generat
rotation of shaft 5 will rotate the rotary abut-'
ing circles ‘for the spiral vanes and also form
ments 25 at a predetermined speed ratio. The 60 the edges of the slots. of the rotary abutments 25.
cover plate 26 is provided for making the‘gear
Labyrinth ‘slots 50 are provided for reducing the
compartment 011 tight. A slot 51 is provided in
the ?xed abutment 2 for receiving the rotary
~ gas leakage through these areas. The region 5|
is at a high ?uidpressure relative to the region
52 which is the downstream side. The distance
_ abutments 25. ‘Although not indicated on the
drawings this slot 51 ‘has provided on the surfaces 65 between the'closest points of contact on each side
of the slot in the abutment is represented by 50
adjacent to the rotary abutments, labyrinth slots
extending parallel to the abutment for reducing
which is the width of the area affected by the
difference in pressure. The force that is created
by the difference in pressure can be su?lcient? to
leakage through this clearance area. The slots
. 29 are placed in the periphery of the rotary abut
ment 25 for the same purpose. _ Likewise, slots
64 are placed in the periphery of spiral vanes
4 as shown in Figure 1 for reducing leakage be
tween the spiral vane and the fixed portion of
- the toroidal chamber.
A spacer 55', of the re
7:0
turn the rotary abutment against the bearing
friction. Additional forces are available for mov
ing the rotary abutments 25 relative to the ‘spiral
vanes 4 without rubbing contact. This is ap
parent from a study of the diagram of Figured
quired thickness, is inserted between housing I_ 76 'as follows: The leakage flow from 5| to 52 cre
ammo?
8
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_
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form compartments adapted to vary in volume
as the rotor is rotated, intake and discharge
ports for communication with said toroidal cham
) ates a low pressure area at the narrow Venturl '
passage. This pressure forces the rotary abut
ment 25 closer to the spiral vane l and at the
same time opens a leakage area on the opposite
side of the vane with the creation of'a similar
ber.
forcewhich tends to balance the original force.
bination of a housing having a torus-like recess,
The forces thus created are stable and tend to
a rotor mounted for rotation in said housing in
close association with respect to said recess to
prevent rubbing contact between the rotary abut-'
ments and spiral vanes.
‘
’
2. In a device of the class described, the com
~ ,form a toroidal chamber, a?xed abutment sup
The diagram of Figure 5 shows how the port l0 ported by said housing to extend into said toroidal chamber, rotary abutments carried by shafts ro
gates it of Figure l to which are'fastened the
tatably'supported in bearings mounted outside
arms {is are opened or closed consecutively by
the largest circumference of said toroidal cham
movement of the cam 52.
' ' _
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ber, spiral vanes supported by'said rotor to move .
The operation of my device and the functions
of the various ports is best understood by the
diagram of Figure 8. The toroidal chamber is
represented as bounded by the moving rotor sur
face 8 which is shown by the stippled band in
the center of the. diagram. to which the spiral
in close association with respect to said torus-like
recess, said ?xed abutment and said rotary abut
ments to form compartments adapted to vary in
vanes It are attached. The ports on either side 20
al chamber.
volume as the rotor is rotated, intake and dis- '
charge ports for communication with said toroid
of the rotor surface are stationary, the open por
tion being shown as a clear area and the cross
,
-3. The combination of a housing having a
torus-like recess, a rotor mounted for rotation in
hatched portions representing port areas which
are covered by movable gates. The ?xed abut;
said housing in close association with respect to
ment 2 is shown on both sides with the recesses
it. The restraining hoops I i move with the rotor
and spiral vanes. A study of Figure 1 will show
'
that these hoops ll do not block the passage be
tween the toroidal chambers GI and the recesses
I5 as indicated in Figure 8. In Figure 8 the in 30
abutment supported by said housing and extend
ing into said toroidal chamber, rotary abutments
carried by shafts mounted in said ?xed abut
said recess to form a toroidal chamber, a ?xed
take ports 62 and the discharge ports ‘53 are
shown partly covered by gates Ill.
In operation as a compressor the parts move
in the direction of the arrows, fluid is inducted
through the ports 82 into each compartment
formed by the walls of the toroidal chamber, the
chamber.
4. The combination of a. housing having a
torus-like recess, a rotor mounted for rotation in
said housing in close association with respect to
said recess to form a toroidal ‘chamber, a ?xed
?xed abutment, the spiral vanes and the rotary
- abutment.v
After the compartment is ?lled to
the desired capacity, the ports close and com
pression of the charge is effected until the de
sired pressure is reached at which time the dis
ment, spiral vanes carried by said rotorto move
in close association with respect to said torus-like
recess, and said ?xed abutment and said rotary
abutments to form compartments adapted to
vary in volume as the rotor is rotated, intake and
discharge ports on opposite sides of said ?xed
abutment for communication with said toroidal
40 abutment supported by said housing and extend
ing into said toroidal chamber, rotary abutments
carried by shafts extending through said ?xed
charge ports open... It is apparent that control
of the capacity is effected as the opening length
abutment to outside the largest diameter of said
' toroidal chamber, spiral vanes carried by said 1'0
a?ects the time of cut-o?. With this method
of control little poweris lost. Control of the 45 tor as to move in close association with respect to
pressure ratio is likewise obtained by the length
said torus-like recess and said ?xed abutment
and said'rotary abutments to form compartments;
oi the discharge ports as-is evident from Fig
ure 8.
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adapted to vary in volume as the rotor is rotated,
said housing having intake and discharge ports
A study of a diagram similar to that of Figure 6
but which shows the rotary abutment 25 passing 50 communicating with said toroidal chamber.
‘ through the ?xed abutment will reveal that in
5. A device as claimed in claim 4_ wherein
means are provided for adiustably varying the
length of that part of the cycle in which the in
take ports are in communication with the
projected width of the rotary'abutment slots in 55 toroidal chamber.
a plane parallel to the plane of ‘rotary motion
6. A device as claimed in claim 4 wherein
of the rotary abutments must be equal to or less
means are provided for adiustably varying the‘
than the thickness of the ?xed abutment.
length of that part of the cycle in which the dis
charge ports are in communication with the
Although the construction of my invention
'
as set forth has ‘certain advantages, it is to'be m toroidal chamber.
7.‘ A device as claimed in claim 4 wherein
understood that I-do not wish to con?ne my in
means are provided for rotating said rotary abut
vention to any speci?c combination as shown;
mentsby the pressures and forces exerted by the
What I claim is:
‘
order to prevent leakage through the ?xed abut
ment slots when the slots of- the rotary abut-"
ments pass through, that the maximum overall
i. In a device of the class described, the com
bination ofv a housing having a torus-like recess,
a rotor mounted for rotation in said housingin
close association with respect to said recess to
form a toroidal chamber, a ?xed abutment sup
fluid in saidtoroldal chamber.
95
8. A device as claimed in claim 4 wherein
meansare provided for inducting and discharg
ing a volume of ?uid substantially equal to the
volume of said toroidal chamber for each said
rotary abutment employed and for each revolu
ported by saidhousing and extending into said
toroidal chamber, spiral vanes supported by said 70 tion of said rotor.
rotor to move in close association with respect to
_ 9. A device as claimed in claim 4 wherein
said torus-like recess and said ?xed abutment,
rotatable abutments adapted to move in close
association with respect to'said toroidal‘ cham_
i-rr 1' said spiral vanes and said ?xed abutment to
means are provided for rotating said rotary abut‘
, ments at a ?xed ratio of speeds with respect to
said rotor and independently of contact with said
75 spiral vanes.
.
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2,411,707
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10. The combination of a housing having a
torus-like recess, a rotor mounted for rotation in ' I
said housing in close association with respect to
said recess to form a toroidal chamber, a ?xed
abutment supported by said housing and extend
ing into said toroidal chamber, rotary abutments
carried by shafts extending through said ?xed
abutment to outside the largest diameter of said
toroidal chamber, spiral vanes so carried by said
rotor as to move in close association with respect
to said torus-like recess and said ?xed abutment
and said rotary abutments to form compartments
adapted to vary in volume as the rotor is rotated,
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spiralvanes carried by said rotor in engagement
with said ?xed abutment and said slotted rotary
abutments to‘ form compartments adapted to
vary iri volume as said- rotor is rotated, intake
and discharge ports in said ?xed abutment for
communication with said compartments, said
spiral vanes, being of such shape as would be gene
erated between twosurfaces of revolution when I
said surfaces of. revolution revolve in a plane
substantially parallel to the axis of said rotor and'
simultaneously revolve about the axis of said
rotor.v
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16. The combination of a housing, a rotor
mounted for rotation in said housing, a ?xed
said housing having intake and discharge ports
communicating with said toroidal chamber, ad 15 abutment supported by said housing, slotted ro
tary abutments mounted for rotation on said
justable gates covering said ports for varying the
?xed abutment, spiral vanes’carried by said rotor
length of that part of the cycle in which the ports
in engagement‘ with said ?xed abutment and slot
are in communication with said toroidal chamber.
ted rotary abutments to form compartments
11. A device as claimed in claim 10 wherein
means are provided for adjustably opening or 20 adapted to vary in volume as said rotor is rotated,
intake and discharge ports in said ?xed abut
closing said gates in sequence.
ment for communication with said compart
12. The combination of a housing having a
ments, said spiral vanes being of such shape as
torus-like recess, a rotor mounted for rotation‘ in
would be generated between two surfaces of rev—
said housing in close association with said recess
to form ,a toroidal chamber, a ?xed abutment 25 olution when said surfaces of revolution revolve.
in a plane substantially parallel to the axis or
supported by said housing as to extend into said
said rotor and simultaneously revolve about the
toroidal chamber, rotary abutments carried by
axis of said rotor, the axes of said surfaces ofrev
shafts extending through said ?xed abutmentto
olution being angularly displaced, one from the
outside the largest diameter of said toroidal
chamber, spiral vanes carried by said rotor to 30
1'7. The combination of'a housing, a rotor
move in close association with respect to said
mounted for rotation in said housing, a ?xed
; torus-like recess and said ?xed abutment and
other.
said rotary abutments to form compartments
adapted to vary in volume as the rotor is rotated,
said housing having ports on both sides of said
?xed abutment communicating with said toroidal
chamber, one said port being on one side and an
other said port being on the opposite side of each
rotary abutment.
,
'
-
abutment supported by said housing, ‘rotary
abutments mounted for rotation on said ?xed
abutment, slots in said rotary abutments, spiral
vanes carried by said rotor in engagement with
said ?xed abutment and said slots of said rotary
abutments to form compartments adapted to vary
in volume as said rotor is rotated, intake and
13. In a device of the class described a housing 40 discharge ports in said ?xed abutment for com
having two parallel torus-like recesses, a rotor \ munication with said compartments, said spiral
vanes being of such shape as to bear obtuse an
mounted for rotation in said housing in close
gles with respect to the plane of rotation 01' said
association therewith to form toroidal chambers,
rotary
abutments, two opposed edges of the slots
?xed abutments supported by said housing to ex
tend into said toroidal chambers, rotary abut 45 of said rotary abutments being relatively dis
ments carried by shafts extending through said - placed normally to said plane of rotation to
form vertices of ‘obtuse angles, respectively, at the/ '
?xed abutments to outside the largest diameter
entrances and exits of said abutment slots and
of said toroidal chambers, spiral vanes carried by
being closer to said spiral vanes than the abut
said rotor to move in close association with re
spect to said torus-like recesses and, said ?xed to ment slot edges forming the vertices of the acute
angles supplementary to said obtuse angles for
abutments and said rotary abutments to form
forming areas which when subjected to differ
compartments adapted to vary in volume as the
ences in ?uid pressure cause rotation of saidiro
rotor is rotated, similar ports, either inlet or dis
tary abutments.‘
.
charge, on adjacent sides of said ?xed abutments,
18. The combination of a housing, a rotor
ports for similar purposes on the non-adjacent 55
mounted in said housing, a ?xed abutment sup
sides of said ?xed abutments, gears mounted on
ported by said housing, slotted rotary abutments '
said rotor‘ between said ?xed abutments, pinionv
mounted for rotation on said ?xed abutment,
gears mounted to turn said rotary abutments by
spiral vanes carried by said’ rotor in engagement
association with said. rotor gears.
‘
14. The combination of a housing, a ‘rotor 60 with said ?xed abutment and said rotary abut
ments to form compartments adapted to vary in
mounted in said housing, a ?xed abutment sup
volume as said rotor is rotated, intake and dis
ported by said housing, slotted rotary abutments
charge ports‘ in said ?xed abutment for commu
mounted for rotation on said ?xed abutment,
spiral vanes carried by said rotor in engagement ,- 'nication'with said compartments, a gear on said
with said ?xed abutment and said slotted rotary 65 rotor, gears rigidly connected to said rotary
abutments engaging with said rotor gear, the axis
abutments to form compartments adapted to
of rotation of said rotor gear being o?‘set from
vary in volume as said rotor is rotated, intake and
the axes of rotation of said abutment gears, the
discharge ports in said ?xed abutment ‘for com
planes of rotation of said abutment gears being
munication with said compartments, the edges of
the slots of said slotted rotary abutments being 70 substantially parallel and offset to the axis of
rotation of said rotor shaft.
portions of cylinders of revolution.
19. The combination of a. housing, a rotor
15. The combination of a housing, a, rotor
mounted for rotation in said housing, a ?xed
mounted in said housing,‘ a ?xed abutment sup
ported by said housing, slotted rotary abutments
mounted for rotation on said ?xed abutment,
abutment supported by said housing, rotary
abutments mounted for rotation on said ?xed
2,411,707 .
abutment. slots in said rotary abutments, spiral
vanes carried by said rotor in engagement with
saidv ?xed abutment and said slots of said rotary
abutments to form compartments adapted to
vary in volume as said rotor is rotated, intake
and discharge ports in said ?xed abutment for
communication with said compartments, two op
posed edges of said slots of said rotary abutments
being portions of cylinders ,ot revolution, said
Tspiralvanes being of such shape as to bear obtuse 10
angles with respect to the plane of rotation of
.'
.12
said slotted rotary abutments, the axes of said
cylinders of revolution on either side of said slots
being relatively displaced in opposite directions
normally to the plane of. rotation of said rotary
abutments so as to make the side surfaces of said
cylinders the vertices of the two obtuse angles
formed by said spiral vanes, respectively, at the
entranoe to and exit from said slots of the rotary
abutments.
-
_
ARNOLD E.
.
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