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Патент USA US2411708

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Nov. 26, 1946.
M. E. BIVEINS
2,411,703
ELECTRIC CONTROL CIRCUIT
Filed April 8, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
F5 .ia.
inventor‘ 3
Maurice E. Bivens,
by ?anyffjwjm
Hi5 Attorney .
Nov. 26, 1946. 4
M E. BIVENS
2,411,708
ELECTRIC CONTROL CIRCUIT
Filed April 8, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Fig. Eb.
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@nventor :
Maurice E. Bivens,
gHis Attorney .
Nov._26, 1946.
~ M. E. BIVENS
2,411,708
ELECTRIC CONTROL CIRCUIT
Filed April 8, 1944
5.Sheets-Sheet 3
Fig. lc.
Invent or- I
Maurice E. Bivens,
His Attorney .
NW, 226, 1946.,
2,41 1,79%
MI E. BIVENS
ELECTRIC CONTROL CIRCUIT
Filed April 8, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
PRESS URE PA 7' TERM
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Maurice? E3. Bivens;
MALL“
H565 At?orne 9 .,
Nov. 259 1945.,
M, E BWENs
2,411,79
ELECTRIC CONTROL C IRCUIT
Filed April 8, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
Emvam‘bnri
Mauwiae E, Bivens,
ttor‘neg. _
Patented Nov. 26, 1946
2,411,708
UNITED ~STATES PATENT OFFICE.‘
2,411,708
ELECTRIC CONTROL CIRCUIT
Maurice E. Bivens, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor
to General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application April 8, 1944, Serial N0. 530,136
1
19 Claims.
My invention relates to electric control cir
cuits and more particularly to improved electric
control circuits for effecting a plurality of cir
cuit controlling operations in timed sequence.
While not limited thereto, my invention is
particularly adapted for eiiecting the transmis
sion of a predetermined current pattern to a re
(Cl. 171-97)
2
a pressure pattern for resistance welding sys
tems, which are readily coordinated but which
afford a maximum of ?exibility with respect to
independent adjustment.
.
In accordance with one of the illustrated em
bodiments of my invention, current is supplied
to a resistance welding load by means of a pair
sistance Welding load in which a plurality of
of reversely connected electric valves preferably
timed applications of current of di?erent magni
of the gaseous discharge type employing a liquid
tudes are supplied to the load and are separated 10 cathode. The ' periods of energization of the
by periods of deenergization during which the
welding transformer are controlled by control
work is allowed to cool. The current pattern
ling the periods during which the electric valve
may also be coordinated with a pattern of pres
means are conducting, and the level of current
sure according to which the work is subjected to
supplied to the load circuit is controlled by de
diiierent pressure levels during diiferent timed 15 termining the instant in the anode-cathode volt’
intervals which may be adjusted in length inde
age waves of the electric valve means that con
pendently of the intervals during which different
duction is initiated. In accordance with this em
levels of load current occur. Control circuits of
bodiment of my invention, the periods of ener
this general type have been provided for effect
gization of the load circuit are controlled by a
ing the transmission of a predetermined current 20 group of control relays which selectively com
pattern to a welding load circuit in which the
plete and interrupt the supply of a turn-on volt»
periods of energization may be separated by an
age component in the excitation circuit of the
“oil” or cool period, and one of these systems is
reversely connected electric valve means. _This
described and claimed in my copending applica
group of control relays also includes contacts for
tion Serial No, 460,240, ?led September 30, 1942,
controlling the magnitude of the resistance in
and now Patent 2,390,982 granted December 18,
one arm of a bridge-type phase shifting network
1945, and assigned to the assignee of the present
which controls the instant of initiation of com
invention. These prior systems have worked sat
duction of the electric valve means. The opera
isfactorily but as the number of di?erent periods
tion of these relays is controlled by a novel timing
of the pattern have increased, the amount of
circuit including a timer oi the single-tube in
equipment required has rendered the extension
verter type in which the magnitude of the re
of these systems somewhat impracticable. In
sistance in circuit with a capacitor, which to
accordance with the teachings of my present in
gether determine the interval between succes»
vention, I provide an improved control circuit
sive operations of the electric valve of the in
which is readily extended to provide any desired
verter, is altered by operation of the same group
number ‘of independently adjustable intervals
of relays which controls the periods of conduc
with a minimum amount of equipment, and in
tion and instants of initiation of conduction of
which the ?exibility of adjustment of the timed
the reversely connected 1 electric valve means.
intervals and current levels is increased.
The successive operations of the single-tube in
It is an object of my invention to provide a
verter circuit effect the successive operation of
new and improved electric control circuit.
these various control relays by means of a con- I
It is another object of my invention to provide
trol circuit which is essentially a parallel-type
a new and improved electric control system for
inverter, the valves of which are normally biased
effecting a predetermined pattern of circuit con
negatively and which conduct alternately at in
trolling operations at accurately timed intervals. 45 stants determined by the conduction of the valve
It is still another, object of my invention to
of the single-tube inverter. The alternate con
provide an improved control circuit for e?ecting
duction of the valves of the parallel-type inverter
a plurality of timed operations of independently
eiiects alternate operation of a pair of control re
adjustable duration which is characterized by
lays which control the energizing circuit of the '
the ?exibility of control and the small amount of 50 group of relays which control the periods of ener
equipment required.
gization and instants of initiation of conduction
It is a still further object of my invention to
of the main electric valve means so that these lat
provide a new and improved control system for
ter relays are energized in succession, one for
providing a plurality of independently adjustable
each conduction of the valve of the single-tube
patterns of control, such as a ‘current pattern and 55 inverter timer. The pressure pattern is con
2,411,708
trolled by a pair of 'solenoid'valves which are in i
turn controlled by a‘pair of independent elec
tronic timers and which may, if desired, be in
terlocked with the relays controlling the current
pattern to be supplied to the'load ‘circuit.
My invention will b'e-better understood by ref
erence to the following description taken in con
nection with the accompanying drawings, and its I
4
conductor 30, the anode-cathode circuit of valve
26. conductor 3 l , unilaterally conducting device 32
to the cathode l2 of electric valve ill. The cir
cuit of ?ring electric valve 21 may be traced in ‘
a similar manner and found to be connected be
' tween the anode and cathode of valve l0’, through
a circuit including unilaterally conducting de
vices 33 and 34. With this circuit it is apparent
that the electric valves I0 and ill’ will be ren
scope will be pointed out in the appended claims.
dered conducting during cycles of the supply cir
10
In the drawings, Figs. la, lb and 10, considered
cuit voltage and at instants during the cycles of
together, are a schematic representation of one
the supply circuit voltage which coincide With the
‘ embodiment of my invention. Figs. 2a and 2b
initiation of conduction of electric valves 26 and
represent, respectively, pressure and current pat»
21, respectively. Since the excitation circuits for
' terns that may be provided by the embodiment of
my invention illustrated in Figs. 10-10 and 3, and 15 electric valves 26 and 21 are identical, only one
will be described and the same reference numerals
Figs. 2c and 2d indicate the operative condition
will be applied to corresponding elements in the
of various elements of the circuit illustrated in
excitation‘ circuit of the other valve. Consider.
Figs. la-lc and Fig. 3 during diiferent portions’
ing valve 26, the cathode thereof is connected to
of the current and pressure patterns illustrated
the control member or grid through a circuit
20
in Figs. 2a and‘2b. Fig. 3 is a schematic repre
including four components of voltage. The ?rst
sentation of a modi?cation of a portion of they
is an alternating current hold-off voltage supplied
I system illustrated in Figs. la-lc.
Referring vnow to Fig. 10; I have shown my in
vention incorporated in a control system for con
trolling the conduction ,of a pair of electric valve
means i0 and 10' which are preferably of the type
employing a gaseous discharge and each includes
by the secondary winding 35 of a transformer 36
having a primary winding 31 energized from an
alternating current supply which is synchronous
with respect to the supply circuit l4 and prefer
ably is energized from the supply circuit l4
through connections not shown. This compo
nent of ‘voltage is impressed in the cathode to
ing electrode l3; The electric valve means it! and
I0’ are reversely connected in parallel between an 30 control member circuit of valve 26 across a ca
pacitor 38. The second component of voltage is
alternating current supply circuit l4 and the pri
an alternating current turn-on voltage impressed
mary winding of a resistance welding transformer
. an anode II, a pool-type cathode i2 and a start
. I5 having the secondary winding thereof con
nected to the electrodes l6 of a resistance weld
ing machine. A transient voltage limiting im
pedance I1 is connected across the primary wind
ing of the welding transformer and may to ad
on the grid circuit of valve 26 across the termi
nals of a parallel resistor 39 and capacitor 40 by
the secondary winding 4i of' a transformer 42
having the primary winding 43 thereof energized
from the primary side of transformer 36 through
vantage be a resistance having a- nonlinear cur
a resistor 44, and through one or more of a plu
an operating coil 22 and to the lower side of the
piston by a second solenoid valve 23 having an
static phase shifting circuit through a ?lter in
rality of relay contacts connected with conductors
rent resistance characteristic. As illustrated
45 and 46. The third component of voltage is
40
schematically, the pressure exerted on the work
impressed on the control member of valve 26
l8 by the electrodes is may be controlled by con
across the terminals of a resistor 47 by the sec
trolling the pressure exerted on a piston I9 work
ondary' winding 48 of a saturable peaking trans
ing in a cylinder 20. As illustrated, the applica
former 49 having the primary winding 50 there
tion of ?uid pressure to the upper side of the
of energized from the terminals 5i and 52 of a
piston is controlled by a solenoid valve 2| having
cluding a reactor 53 and a capacitor 54.
A re
sistor 55 is also connected in series with the pri
mary winding 50 of peaking transformer 49 to
levels of pressure may be exerted on the work by
control the instant at which the transformer 49
50
selective energization of the coils 22 and 24. With
saturates and the width of the secondary'volt
coil 22 energized alone, pressure is transmitted
age peak vproduced by the transformer. A fourth
‘only to the upper side of piston I9‘and a high
component of voltage is impressed on the control
level of pressure is exerted on the work. -When
member of valve 26 by a self-biasing circuit in
coils 22 and 24 are energized simultaneously, the
cluding a parallel resistor 56 and capacitor 5i.
net pressure on piston i9 is reduced and a, lower Additional ?lter or transient suppressing ca
level of pressure on the work is established.
pacitors 58 and 59 are also connected with the
Control of the energization of coils 22 and 24 from
control member circuit of valve 26. The compo
a suitable source of alternating current 25 will
nents
of voltage impressed on the control mem
be considered in detail at a later point in the
60 bers of valves 26 and 2? have such relative mag
speci?cation.
nitudes that both the alternating current turn-on
The control circuit for supplying discharge
voltage supplied by transformer secondary wind
initiating impulses to the control electrodes is
ings 4i and the peaked voltage wave supplied by
of electric valves to and I0’ will now be de
the transformer winding 48 are required to ini
scribed. These impulses are transmitted to the
tiate conduction of the ?ring valves and as a result
control members i3 of valves i8. and ill’ by a
to initiate conduction of main electric valves i6
pair of excitation or ?ring valves 26 and 27, re
and it’. Thus the periods during which the load
spectively. These valves are preferably of the hot
circuit is energized are determined by controlling
cathode gaseous discharge type and are reversely
the intervals during which the transformer sec
connected in parallel in a manner similar .to the .
ondary windings 41 are energized and the instant
main electric valves Ill and I0’ and are energized _
during the cycles of supply circuit voltage at
respectively in accordance with the anode-cath
which valve means it) and 10' are rendered con
ode voltages of valves Ill and I0’. For example,
ductive are determined by controlling the phase
the anode-cathode circuit of electric valve 26
position of the peaked voltages of secondary
may be traced from the anode of valve it through
windings
48. As indicated previously, the inter
75
conductor28, a unilaterally conducting device 29,
operating coil 24. With this arrangement, two
2,411,708
5
..
6
vals during which transformer 42 is energized are
determined by controlling the connection of con
doctor 45 with conductor 46. The phase position
01' the peaked voltages provided by transformer
secondary windings 48 is determined by control Cl
ling the phase position of the‘ voltage impressed
on the terminals 5| and 52' by the phase shifting
network including the arms of the midta-pped
transformer winding 31 of transformer“, a ca
‘ pacitor 60, an adjustable resistor 6|, and the mag
nitude of resistance included between conductors
82 and 83 which completes the fourth arm of the
phase shifting network.
controlling the sequential connection of the tim
ing rheostats 83-I02, inclusive, in circuit with a
capacitance I03 01 a single-tube type inverter or
timing circuit designated generally by the nu
meral I04. Across the operating coil of each of
the relays ‘II-80, inclusive, is connected an indi
cating lamp I05'and a series resistor I06 to pro
vide a visual indication as the relays ‘II-430, in
elusive, become energized to indicate the interval
10 of the current pattern which is being supplied
-tb_y the equipment at any time during its opera
ion.
The manner in which the relays ‘II-80, inclu
In accordance with important features of the
sive, are energized in sequence at the beginning
present invention, improved control circuits are 15 of the time intervals from T2 to ‘II I, inclusive,
provided for controlling the connection of con
will now be described. Referring now to the up
ductor 45 with conductor 46 to determine the pe
per portion of Fig. 1a, a source of direct current
riods of energization of the load circuit and for
control voltage is impressed across a pair of con
controlling the selective insertioncf heat control
ductors I01 and I08 by the output of a biphase
rheostats 64-10, inclusive, between conductors 62 20 recti?er. including a supply transformer I09 and
and 63 to complete the fourth arm of the static
an electric discharge device IIO having a pair of
phase shifting circuit through diiierent magni
discharge paths. The direct current output of
tudes of resistance. v A group of electromagnetic
the recti?er is ?ltered by a series smoothing re
relays ‘I I-80, inclusive, are provided for selectively
actor III and a shunt ?lter capacitor I I2. Volt
controlling the heat control rheostat which is ef
age dividing resistors II3_I I'I, inclusive, are con
iectively connected ‘between conductors 62 and 63
nected in series across the conductors I01 and I08
and for controlling the connection of conductors
to impress different levels of direct current volt
45 and 46 to determine the periods of energiza
age on conductors H8, H9, I20 and I2I. Con
tion of the load circuit to establish the current
ductors I20 and I2I are connected by adjustable
pattern indicated in Fig. 2b and including in 30 taps with the voltage dividing resistor I I5 to pro
tervals designated T2-TI I, inclusive. These re
vide adjustable levels of voltage.
lays are provided with operating coils 8I-90, re~
The single tube inverter I 04 includes an elec
spectively, each having one terminal connected
tric discharge valve I22, preferably of the gaseous
with an alternating current supply line 9| and
discharge type, having a control member or grid
,another terminal arranged to be connected to a 35 I23 connected to conductor I2I through a current
second alternating current supply line 92 through
limiting resistor I 24. The anode of the dis
a sealing-in contact. These sealing-in contacts
charge device I22 is connected with the direct
have been designated ‘Ila to 80a, inclusive. Re
current supply conductor through a normally
lays ‘I2, 13, ‘I5, ‘I6, 11 and ‘I9 are each provided
closed contact E25 of a resetting relay I26, a
with a pair of contacts designated 12b and 120, 40 normally open contact I27 oi- an initiating relay
etc., for controlling the heat control rheostats
I28 and a commutating reactor I129. The ca
64-'I0,-inclusive. The “1)” contacts of these lat—
pacitor Hit of the single tube inverter circuit is
ter relays are normally open and the “c” con
connected between the direct current supply con
tacts are normally closed and are connected to
ductor Ill'i and conductor 836i which is connected
control circuits in shunt with the respective heat
with the cathode of the single tube inverter‘ valve
control rheostats so that all but one of the rheo
‘I22. Conductor 530 is arranged to be connected
stats is shunted from the circuit between con
to the direct current supply conductor H08 by
ductors 62 and 63 at any one time. For example,
means of ‘a normally open contact 13d of the
before relay 12 picks up heat control rheostat 64
initiatingrelay lit through a circuit including a
is connected between conductors 62 and 63. ‘When 50 timing rheostat I32 and the normally closed con
relay 12 picks up, contact 72b closes and estab
tact ‘I Ie of relay ‘ll. Rheostat i32 determines the
lishes a short circuit around heat control rheo
timing of the interval TI of the current pattern
stat 64 and contact 120 opens to effectively con
illustrated in Fig. 2b. Timing rheostats 93-402,
nect rheostat 65 between conductors 62 and 63.
inclusive, are arranged to be sequentially inserted
As relays ‘I3, ‘I5, ‘I6, ‘I1 and ‘I9 pick up in sequence, 55 in a'circuit between the conductor I30 and the
heat control rheostats 66, 61, 68, 69 and 10 are
direct current conductors E08 as the relays ‘II-80,
eiTectively connected in succession between con
inclusive, are picked up in sequence. The circuit
ductors 82 and 63. Relays ‘II, ‘I3, 14, 11, ‘I8 and ‘ ofthe timing rheostats 93-! 02 also includes a ?xed
80 are each provided with a “d” contact which is
resistor I34.
connected to control the circuit between con 60
In order to provide for the energization of only
ductors 45 and 46 to establish the periods of en
one additional relay of the group of relays ‘I I—80,
ergization and deenergization of the load circuit
inclusive, for each conduction of the valve I 22 of
as indicated in Fig. 22) for the periods from T2
the timer circuit I04 I provide a control circuit
to TI I, inclusive. For example, closure of con
I35 which is in general a parallel-type electric
tacts 'IId connects conductors 45 and 46 together 65 valve inverter whichoperates to energize alter
to establishv a period or energization. Contact
nately the operating coils I36 and I 31 of relays
13d opens the circuit between conductors 45 and
I38 and ‘I39 having contacts I40-I45 and
'46 when the relay ‘I3 is energized. Similarly, con
inclusive.
These contacts are con
tacts 14d and 18d are effective when relays ‘I4
rected to control the energization of the oper
and ‘I8 operate to connect conductors 45 and 48, 70 ating coil-s 8I-60 of the relays ‘II-80 from the
and contacts 11d and 80d are e?'ective to dis
alternating current supply conductors SI and 92 connect conductors 45 and 46 when relays TI and
to effect the energization of only one additional
80, respectively, are energized. Each of the re
relay for each conduction of the valve I22 of
lays ‘II-80 is also provided with a‘ normally closed
the timer I04. Referring now to the circuit I35,
“e" contact and a normally open “l’i'contact for
it comprises a pair of electric discharge devices
' 2,411,708
control relay I1I having one pair of normally
open contacts I12 connected to energize the oper
I53 and I54, each preferably of the type employ
ing an ionizable medium such as a gas or a vapor,
ating coil 22 of the high pressure solenoid 2I ‘
and including a control member or grid I55. The
cathodes of electric valves I53 and I54 are con
through conductors I13 and I14. Since theoper
‘ating coil of initiating relay I28 is connected
between conductors 9I and 92, it is energized
immediately upon closure of the initiating switch
nected together and to the direct current supply
conductor I I9 and the anodes of these valves are
connected to the direct current supply conductor
II8 through the operating ‘coils of relays I36 and
I31, respectively, so that relay I38 is energized
when valve I53 conducts and relay I39 is ener
I61 and closes its contact I65 to seal itself in
and closes an additional normally open contact
10 I15 to maintain-the pressure control relay I1I
energized. As pointed out earlier in the speci?
gized when valve I54 conducts. A commutating
capacitor I56 is connected between the anodes
cation, the higher pressure is maintained on the
welding electrodes at all times that the high pres
sure solenoid 2I alone is energized. When it
of electric valves I53 and I54 to effect commu
tation of current between the valves as the vcon
trol member of a nonconducting one of the valves 15 is desired to reduce the pressure supplied to the ‘
electrodes, the operating coil 24 of solenoid valve
is rendered positive. The control members I55
of electric valves I53 and I54 are normally main
tained at a negative voltage with respect to the
cathodes thereof by an amount equal to the volt
23 is energized to introduce a back pressure on
the lower side of the operating piston I9.
A
second pressure control relay I16 having an oper
age drop across voltage dividing resistor II‘! by 20 ating coilv I11 is provided with a normally open
contact I18 which is connected to control the
virtue of the connection of the control members
energization of the operating coil 24 from the
with conductor I08 through a resistor I51 and the
alternating current source 25 through conduc-'
respective current limiting resistors I58 and I59.
tor I13, contact I12 of relay HI and a conduc
The vcontrol members I55 of electric valves I53
and I54 are rendered positive with respect to the 25 tor I19. For controlling the operation of the
relay I16 to e?ect the application of lower pres
cathodes thereof momentarily each time electric
sure to the electrodes I6 during predetermined
valve I22 is rendered conductive as a result of
timed intervals, ‘a pair of electronic timers illus
the connection between the cathode of electric
trated generally by the numerals I80 and I8I are
valve I22 and the control members I55 through
provided. These timers are of the general type
30
a circuit including a capacitor I60. Since the
capacitor I60 cannot charge immediately when
valve I22 conducts, the voltage of the control
members I55 is rapidly raised to the voltage of
conductor I01 when valve I22 conducts. The time
constant of the circuit including capacitor I60 35
described and claimed in Schneider Patent No.
2,171,347 dated August 29, 1939, and assigned to
the assignee of the present invention. Referring
particularly to the timer I80, it comprises an
electric discharge valve I82 preferably of the gas
?lled type and having the anode thereof con
and resistor I51 is very small so that the voltage
nected with the alternating current supply con
of capacitor I60 rapidly returns to the voltage of
ductor 92 through a resistor I83 and the operating
the conductor I08 and the positive impulse sup
coil I84 of a'relay I85. The cathode of the elec
plied to control members I55 is, therefore, of very
tric
valve I82 is connected to the same alter
40
brief duration. In order to establish an initial
nating current supply conductor as the anode
charge. on the timing capacitor I03 of the single '
through a resistor I88. The cathode is also con
tube inverter a connection with the direct cur- .
nected to the alternating current supply conduc
tor I64 through an initiating circuit including
rent supply conductor I20 is provided by a nor—
mally closed contact I6I of initiating relay I28.
A normally closed contact I62 of the initiating
relay I28 is provided to complete a connection.
between the control member I55 of electric valve
I53 and the direct current conductor I I9 to insure
that electric valve I53 will be rendered conduc
tive upon energization of the conductors I01
and I08 prior to operation of the initiating re
lay I28.
As previously mentioned, the control relays
1 I-80 are energized from alternating current sup;
ply conductors 9| and 92. Conductor 92 is ener
gized directly from one terminal of the second
ary winding of an alternating control voltage
supply transformer I63, while the conductor 9|
is energized from the other terminal of the sec
ondary winding of transformer I53 through con
ductor I64, a normally open contact I65 on the
initiating relay I28 and a normaly closed con
tact I68 on the resetting relay I26. The appli
cation of control power to conductor 9I is e?ected
by closure of an initiating switch I61 which may
be the foot switch of the welder and which, as
, a normally open contact 1 I g of relay 1 I, conductor
I81, a normally closed contact 14g of relay 14,
conductor I88 and contact I15 of the initiating
relay I28. The control member of valve I82 is
connected to a point of adjustable alternating
current voltage on a resistor I89 which is con
nected in series with voltage dividing resistors
I90, I9I'and I92 which are connected across the
alternating current supply conductors 92 and
I64. Resistor I9I is a range resistor for the
control and is provided with a shunting switch
I 93. The circuit between control member of
valve I82 and resistor I89 includes a current lim
iting resistor I99 and a timing resistor I95 which
is shunted by timing capacitor I96 through a
60 normally closed contact I91 of the relay I85.
The timer I8I is in general the same as timer
I80 and includes an electric discharge valve I98
and a relay I99 having the operating coil 200
connected in the anode-cathode circuit of the
5 valve I98. The remainder of the elements of
the control 58I correspond exactly to the ele
ments of control I80 and have been designated _
illustrated, has two sets of normally open con
.by the same reference numerals. The initiating
tacts I68 and I69. Contacts I68 close ?rst and
circuit for timer 181 connects the cathode of
are used for applying pressure only and contacts
I68 and I69 are both closed to- place the system 70 valve I98 with conductor I64 and includes a
normally open contact 20I on relay I85, con;
in operation for supplying both pressure and cur
ductor I81, normally closed contact 14g of relay
rent to the electrodes. Contact I69 of initiating '
14, conductor I88 and contact I15 ‘of initiating
switch I61, when closed, connects conductor I69
with conductor 9I, and contact‘ I68 completes a ~
relay I28.
The relay I85 of timer I80 is pro- '
circuit for the operating coil I10 of a- pressure 75 vided with a second normally open contact 202
2,411,708
which establishes an energizing circuit for the
operating coil I11 of relay I16 by completing a
circuit‘from the lower terminal of the operat
ing coil through a normally closed contact 203
on the relay I99 of timer I8I, conductor 204 and
‘ a contact I15 of initiating relay I28. Thus relay
' I85 of timer I80 picks up to establish a circuit
10
chart of Fig. 20 indicating the operative condi
tion of the various relays, valves, timing resistors
and heat control resistors of the system during
the various time intervals of the current and
pressure patterns. Let it be assumed that all of
the supply circuits indicated on the drawing are
for pressure relay I16 and establish the ?rst
period of low pressure indicated in the pressure
energized and that the electric valves are in
tact 14h, conductor I88 and contact I15/of ini
ciently so to prevent conduction of valve I22 al
most immediately upon completion of its anode
proper operating condition. Under these condi
pattern of Fig. 2a. When relay I99 of timer |8I 10 tions, electric valve I53 is conducting and relay
I38 is energized. The capacitor I03 of the time "
picks up, this circuit is interrupted by contact
ing circuit I04 is charged with the lower plate
203 to re-establish the period of high pressure.
When relay 14 picks up, it closes its normally " thereof at the voltage of the conductor I20. The
control member of electric valve I 22 is slightly
open contact 14h to establish an-energizing cir
cuit for relay I16 through a conductor 205, con 15 negative with respect to the cathode but not su?i
tiating relay I28 to establish a second period of
low pressure indicated in the pressure pattern of
Fig. 2a. Indicating lamps 206 may be connected
cathode circuit by the initiating relay I28.
Under these initial conditions, the conductors 45
and 45 are open circuited by virtue of the open
across the operating coils of relays HI and I16
to indicate the level of pressure being applied to 20 contact 1| d of relay 1| to prevent conduction of
current by the main electric valves I0 and I0’.
the work.
When it is desired to initiate a welding operation, ,
In order to provide an indication of the begin
the switch I61 is closed. Closure of contacts I68
ning of the timing interval of application of
pressure to the electrodes, a relay 201 having an 25 of switch I61 completes an energizing circuit for
the operating coil I10 of relay I1I which through
operating coil 208 is provided. The operating
its contact I 12 e?ects energization of the sole
coil 208 has one terminal connected to the alter
noid
valve 2| from the alternating current sup
nating current supply conductor 9| and the other
ply 25 to establish pressure PI on the electrodes
terminal connected to the supply conductor 92
through a normally closed contact I40 of relay 30 as indicated in Fig. 2a. Also, upon operation of
initiating switch I61, contact IE9 is closed to
I38 so that relay 201 is energized as a result
complete an energizing circuit for the operating
of deenergization of relay I38 upon the ?rst con
coil of initiating relay, I28. Contacts I65 and
duction of timing valve I22. The relay 201 is
I15 of relay I28 shunt the contacts of initiating
provided with a sealing-in contact 201a. An
indicating lamp 209 connected in series with re 35 switch I 81 so that the foot switch may be re
leased without interrupting the welding opera
sistor 2I0 across the operating coil indicates that
tion.
Closure of initiating relay I28 also estab
the ?rst interval of the pattern or TI is in
lishes the anode-cathode circuit of timing valve
progress.
I 22 through contact I21, disconnects the timing
As indicated previously, the successive ener
capacitor
I03 from the direct current conductor
gization of relays 1| to 80 is accomplished !by 40
I20, and connects the lower terminal of capac
the alternate energization of relays | 38 and I39
itor I03 with direct current conductor I08
to produce the current pattern illustrated in Fig.
through
timing resistor I32. Contact I62 of relay
2b. In many applications it may be desirable
I28 is opened to remove the bias voltage from
to eliminate one or more of the intervals of the
the control member of valve I53 which rendered
complete pattern and for this reason single pole, 45 it
initially conducting. Almost immediately upon
double throw switches 2| I, 2| 2 and 2 I 3 and double
operation
of relay I28, tube I22 conducts to dis
pole, double throw switch 2|4 are provided. With
charge the capacitor I03 to a voltage which is
all of these switches in the right-hand position
somewhat positive with respect to the direct cur
as indicated, the complete pattern of Figs. 2a
rent
line I01 due to the oscillatory char
and 2b will be provided. By moving two or more 50 actersupply
of the circuit including capacitor I03 and
of the switches to the left-hand position, one
reactor I29. As the voltage across the anode
or more of the intervals may be eliminated as
cathode circuit of tube I22 reverses, conduction
will be described in more detail in connection
by tube I22 is terminated and the lower plate
with the operation of the system.
of capacitor I03 starts to charge to the voltage
‘In the interest of simpli?cation, the supply of 55 of the direct current supply lines I01 and I08
heating current for the ?laments of the various
through the timing resistor I32 to establish the
electric discharge devices as well as the time
duration of the interval TI of the current pro
delay relay circuit for preventing the applica
gram.
tion of anode-cathode voltage to these discharge
devices before the cathode has reached proper
operating temperature have been omitted from
the drawings. It will be understood that these
so
At the instant that electric valve I22 became
conductive the control members I55 of valves
I53 and I54 were momentarily raised to a pos
itive voltage by the coupling capacitor I60 con
means would be provided in a physical embodi
nected between the cathodes of valve I22 and
ment of the circuit illustrated, and that the vari
ous alternating current supplies as indicated on 65 control members I55. The application of positive
voltage to the control member of valve I54 in
the drawings would preferably be derived from
cooperation with the voltage of commutating ca
the main alternating current supply circuit I4.
Although the operation of thesystem has been
:onsidered with'the various components of equip
pacitor I56, ‘which has previously charged
through the anode~cathode circuit of valve I53,
ment as they were described, it is believed desir 70 e?’ects the commutation of current from valve
I53 to valve I54 to deenergize relay I38 and en
able to consider brie?y the operation of the
ergize
relay I39. The duration of the commuta
iystem as a whole when functioning to supply
tion and the operating characteristics of the re
2he current and pressure patterns indicated in
lays I38 and. I39 are such that both relays are
F'igs. 2a and 2b. In following this description
>f the operation it will be helpful to follow the 75 maintained in the energized position for a short
interval during commutation so that at no time
2,411,708
11,
are the contacts of both of these relays closed.
This is~indicated in Fig. 2c and is essential to in
sure that only one additional relay will be ener
gized for each conduction of tube E22. As a result
12
out and pick up relay 985 is greater than the
timed interval of the single tube inverter timer
we so that a new current period T3 is initiated
by the next conduction of valve 922 prior to the
oi‘ the deenergization of relay 138, the operating 5 decrease in pressure to the level P2. > The level
of current It for the interval T3 is established by
coil are of relay 201 is energized through contactv
the. magnitude of the'vheat control rheostat 85
on and relay 2M is maintained closed by a hold»
which
is e?ectiv'ely connected between conduc=
ing circuit including the sealing-in contact 267a
tors $2 and 63 upon energization of relay 712, it
oi the relay 2W. This sealing-in contact also
conditions the energizing circuit for the next 10 being noted that operation of the relay ‘it’ to
closed position shorts out rheostat do and opens
relay to be operated, namely, relay ‘ll, upon the
the short circuit around rheostat 65. Contacts
next conduction of the timing valve W2. Thus
‘52a and ‘Hi also adjust the timing rheostat cir
the ?rst conduction of valve H22 will take place
cuit of timer M6 by removing the control rheoe
substantially immediately upon closure of initiat
stat 93 and inserting the timing rheostat $35
ing relay lit and eifects energization of relay
which determines the duration of the interval T3.
it‘?! which by indicating lamp 209 indicates that
The operation of the single tube inverter circuit
the squeeze period or interval Ti is in progress.
to‘cause alternate conduction'by valves 553 and
Returning now to a consideration of the opera
its continues at intervals determined by the tim
tion oi the timing circuit 504, the lower plate
of the capacitor m3, as previously indicated, 20 ing rheostats 96-502, inclusive, and to e?ect the
transmission of current to the load as indicated
charges through timing resistor E32 toward the
in Fig. 2b in accordance with which one of the
voltage of conductor m8 and at a predetermined‘
mint in this charging operation, dependent upon 7 rheostats eo-‘ld is connected between conductors
52 and $3. The “off” periods ‘I'd, T83 and TM are
the voltage of conductor iZ? connected with con
trol member 823, tube I22 is again rendered con 25 introduced by the contacts ltd, lid and 80d of
relays l3, Ti and 313 since these contacts open the
ductive with the interval between these ?rst two
circuit between conductors t5 and $6 in response
conductions of valve 822 corresponding to Ti and
to
energization of the respective relays.
being determined by the rheostat W2. ‘When
Returning now to a consideration of the pres
valve £22 conducts, the control members of valves tied and 515% are again rendered momentarily pos 30 sure timers 58d and itl, it will be noted that
itive and they current is commutated- from tube
let to tube i553 with the aid of commutating ca-'
pacitor 55d, and as a result relay I39 is deener
gized and relay i38 is energized. Deenergiza
when relay 985 of timer 88B is energized it closes
a contact 2M which establishes an initiating cir
cuit of timer Eel. This circuit may be traced
from cathode of valve .598 or timer it! through
tion of relay" itit'establishes an energizing cir 35 contact 2M, conductor 53?, contact idg of'relay
‘it, conductor 868, and contact 6'65 of relay E28 to
cuit for operating coil iii of relay ‘El through
conductor i613. This initiation of operation of
its contact M5 and the sealing-in contact 20M‘
timer
i8! is indicated by the dotted line forrelay
of relay toll. Energization of relay B38 opens
use in Fig. 20. When relay- W9 is energized,
its contacts lat-E85 to prevent the energization
opening of itscontact 2% is e?ective to deenere
of more than one relay of the group ‘ii-8d for
gize pressure control relay Hi6 and as a result to
this conduction of valve l22. Operation of relay
ll initiates a period of energization of the load ‘ deenergize solenoid valve 23 and restore the high
pressure. level‘ Pi to the electrodes. When relay
circuit by closing contact 1 id to connect conduc
‘it operates, opening of the normally closed con- '
tors at‘) and £36. The level of current 12 of Fig.
2b for this interval T2 of the pattern‘ is deter- 45 tact 'idg thereof resets both of the timers E80 and
, it! and establishes the low value of pressure P2
mined by the magnitude of the resistance of the
by completing the energizing circuit for the pres
heat control rheostat 64 which is at this point in
sure 'controlrelay 576 through contact “it. As
the program e?ectively connected between con
the current and pressure pattern proceeds from
doctors 62 and 53. Operation of relay“ also.
‘opens contact lie and closes contact ii} to re 50 T2 to Ti i, relays ‘ii to there picked up in se
nuance and remain energized. At the expiration
move timing rheostat Hi’ from the‘circuit with
of the next timing interval after energization of
‘timing capacitor 563 and to insert in place there
relay 8E9, as determined by the timing circuit 804
of timing resistor 93 which determines the rate
at which capacitor Hi3 charges toward the volt-= I and timing resistance M2, the resetting relay 6%
age of'conductor W8 and, therefore, determines 55 is energized to open its contacts 625 and M56 and
thereby open the anode-cathode circuit of con
the duration of interval T2 by determining the
trol valve H2 and to deenergize the operating
interval before the next conduction of valve l22. ‘
coils. of relays E28, 26? and‘ ll-til; inclusive.
Operation of relay ll to’the closed position also
Dropping out of relay I28 deenergizes the relay
closes a contact ‘llg which initiates operation of
the timei° circuit 53$ by COImec?ng the cathode 60 52b and restores the system to its initial condi
tion in which valve 553 is conducting and relay
of valve 882 to the alternating current supply
- H8 is energized.
conductor ltd. Relay N5 of timer 980 is ener
In order to render it possible to omit certain
gized an interval of time after this completion of
of the ‘timing intervals from the complete pat
the initiating circuit determined by the voltage
to which capacitor m6 has previously been 65 tern, I provide manual switches 2i i, 292,2!3 of
the single pole type and double pole switch 2".
charged and the magnitude of discharge resistor
‘With these switches all in the right-hand posi
6%. The capacitor i96 charges by grid recti?
cation through a circuit including the slider on
tion as indicated in the drawing, complete cur
rent and‘ pressure patterns are supplied to the
resistor E89, the grid-cathodecircuit of valve 682
and resistor 886. As indicated in Fig. 2c, energi- 7 0 work. If any one of the switches 21 i-2l3 is
moved to the left, the hold period is initiated
nation of the relay I85 of timer I80 e?ects ener
immediately upon completion of the interval of
gization of the pressure control relay I16 to ener
the pattern controlled by the relay immediately
gize the solenoid valve 23 and‘ reduce the pressure
to the left of the manual switch; For example,
applied to the work. For the particular pattern
indicated, the time required for relay I80 to time 75 ii switch 2!! is moved to the leftI the hold period
13
2,411,708
14
follows immediately after the interval T3. If the
double pole switch 2I4 is moved to the left, the
hold period is omitted. It will be apparent that
of synchronizing transformer 228 to a conductor
235. This conductor is connected to the anode
of electric valve 2I8 through a capacitor 236 and
switches connected in accordance with the teach
through a parallel circuit to an adjustable point
ings of this disclosure may be arranged to omit in on resistor 22I determined by the position of the
any desired intervals from the complete pattern.
slider 237/. This parallel circuit includes one of
In Fig. 3 I have shown a modi?cation of the
the resistors 93’, 95’, 91’, 99’ or IOI’, dependent
upon the operative position of the sequencing re
lays l2’-'I8’. Suitable transient suppressing ca
those parts of the system which (infer from Fig. 1 10 pacitors '238 are preferably connected between
timing and sequencing arrangement of Figs.
la-lc. In order to simplify the drawings, only
have been illustrated and it will be understood
the control members and cathodes of the respec
that the remainder of the system of Fig. 1 would
tive discharge devices H6 and 2". Before de
be employed in a complete embodiment. In the
scribing the operation of the timing circuit 2I5
arrangement shown in Fig. 3, the functions of
to effect alternate energization of the operating
the timing circuit I04 and the control circuit I35 15 coils I36’ and I31’ of relays I38’ and I39’, the
of Figs. la-lc have been incorporated in a single
control circuits of the sequencing relays will be
control circuit 2I5 which is ‘energized from the
described. Relays ‘IV-80’, inclusive, I26’, I28’
direct current control voltage supply conductors
and 20'I_’ correspond generally to the relays desig
I01 and I08. While this circuit 2I5 may be em
nated by the same unprimed numbers in the ar
ployed to control the same sequencing relay sys 20 rangement described in Figs. la-lc and control
tem shown in Figs. la-lc, I have illustrated a
the same periods of the pattern in the same man
modi?cation of this sequencing arrangement in
ner. The energizing circuits for these relays are
Fig. 3 which requires less contacts on the relays
slightly different in the arrangement shown in
which are alternately operated but which requires
Fig. 3. In Fig. 3, one terminal of the operating
additional contacts on the relays which are en 25 coil of each of these relays is energized from the
ergized in sequence. Referring now to Fig. 3, the
alternating current supply conductor I64, through
circuit 2I5 includes a pair of electric discharge
a normally closed contact I66’ of relay I26’ and
valves 2I6 and 2I‘I having their anode-cathode
conductor 9i. The other terminal of each of the
circuits connected in parallel circuit relation for
operating coils is maintained energized through
energization from the supply of direct current 30 its sealing-in contact or‘ “a” contact which com
voltage provided by conductors I07 and I08. Re
pletes a circuit from the other terminal of the
ferring to discharge device 2 I 6, the cathode there
operating coil to'the conductor 92. The relays are
of is connected to a conductor 2 I8 which is main
picked up in sequence through a circuit including
tained at a voltage intermediate the conductors
one of a pair of conductors 239 and 240 which
I01 and I08 by voltage dividing resistors 2I9 and 35 are arranged to be energized alternately from the
220. The anode of valve 2I6 is connected with the
supply conductor 92 through the contacts of re
conductor I01 through a circuit including the
lays I38’ and I39’. As indicated, conductor 239
operating coil I36’ of relay I38’ and a resistor
is connected with conductor 92 through normally
22I. In a similar manner, the cathode of dis
open contact “I of relay I39’ and a normally
charge device 2!? is connected with conductor 2I8 40 closed contact 242 of relay I38’, and conductor.
and the anode is connected with conductor I III
'240 is connected with supply conductor 92 through
through a circuit including a normally open con
a normally closed contact 243 on relay I39’ and
tact 222 of relay I28’, the operating coil I31’ of
a normally open contact 244 on relay I38’. With
relay I39’ and a resistor 223. A commutating'ca
this arrangement only one of the conductors 239
pacitor 224 is connected. between the anodes of »' or 240 is energized at one time dependent upon
the discharge devices 2I6 and 2Il' and cooperates
which of the relays vI38’ or. I39’ is deenergized.
with the control members thereof to eifect com
Each of the sequencing relays ‘I I '—80’ includes in
mutation of current from one of the discharge
devices to the other, and thereby to effect alter
addition to its seal-in or “a” contact a normally
open 2' contact and relays 'I2’-80’, inclusive, a
nate energization of the operating coils I36’ and 50 normally closed 7' contact. The 2‘ contact condi
‘I31’ of the relays I38’ and I39’. In order to
tions the initiating circuit for the next relay in
control the interval between successive transfers
the sequence and the 11' contact interrupts the cir
of current from one of the discharge devices to
cuits of the energizing coils with conductors 239
the other, the control members of devices 2I6
and 240 to prevent these latter conductors from
and 2 I 'I are provided with energizing circuits hav 55 being connected directly with the supply conduc
ing timing functions.
The control member of
tor 92 through the seal-in contacts of the relay,
valve 2I6 is connected ‘with a conductor 225
through a current limiting resistor 226 and a
Secondary Winding 227 of a transformer 228 which
which have been picked up, since such a connec
age through a resistor 230.
which conditions the initiating circuit of relay
tion between supply conductor 92 and either of
conductors 239 and 240 would-render relays I38’
is preferably of the saturable inductive type for 60 and I39’ ineffective. Relay I38’ is provided with
producing voltages of peaked wave form. The
an additional normally closed contact 245 for in
primary “winding 229 of transformer 228 is ener
itiating energization of relay 201’, and relay 201’
gized from a source of alternating current volt
is provided with a normally open contact 20'I’z'
The conductor 225 _
is connected with the circuit controlled by the 65 ‘II’ in the same manner that the 1' contacts of the
anode-cathode of electric discharge device 2I'I
remainder of the sequencing relays condition the
by a capacitor 23I and through a parallel circuit
energizing circuit for the next succeeding relay to
to an adjustable‘ point on the resistor 223 deter
be operated. Relay 20'!’ is also provided with a
mined by the movable tap 232. This parallel
normally closed contact 246 which initially im
circuit includes one of the resistors I32’, 94’, 96’, 70 presses a negative bias of voltage dividing resistor
98’, I00’ or I02’ dependent upon the operative po- '
220 on the control'member of electric valve 2I'I.
sition of the sequencing relays ‘II’ to ‘I9’, inclu
, This bias maintains electric valve 2I‘I noncon
sive. In a similar manner, the control member of
ductive until the ?rst synchronizing voltage peak
electric valve 2I'I is connected through a current
-of winding 234 occurring after closure of con
limiting resistor 233, a secondary winding 234
75 tact 222.
~
2,411,708
15
.
The manner in which the arrangement of Fig. 3
functions and the features which distinguish it
16
has been made to the control of the heat control
rheostats or the timing circuit including con
ductors 45 and 46. It will be understood that
from the arrangement of Figs. la-lc will be bet
the relays are provided with b, c and d contacts
ter understood by a brief consideration of the
sequence of operationswhich take place in sup 5 for controlling these circuits in the same manner
as described in connection with Figs. 10-10. It
plying a pattern of weld current to the load cir
will also be apparent that the pressure program
cuit. With conductors I01 and I08 energized and
may be coordinated by the g and 71. contacts on
before closure of initiating switch I61, electric
relays ‘Ii’ and 14’ in the same manner as it is'in.v
discharge valve 2I6 is conducting thus maintain
ing relay I38’ energized. During conduction of 10 the system of Figs. la-lc.
From the description of the operation of the
electric valve 2I6 capacitor 23I charges through
illustrated embodiments of my invention, it will
the grid-cathode circuit thereof until the voltage
be apparent that a large number of intervals are
of the right-hand plate of the capacitor is essen
established during which currents and pressures
tially at the voltage of conductor 2I8. When it is
desired to initiate a period of energization of the is of diiferent levels areapplied to the work circuit,
and that the duration of the intervals as well as
load circuit, manual switch “51' is closed and.
the levels of current may be‘ adjusted with the
closure of contact I68 initiates a supply of pres
sure to the electrodes in the manner described in
greatest ?exibility and at the‘ same time the
equipment required is very simple considering
I69 operates initiating relay I28’ which closes 20 the variety of current and pressurepatterns made
available by the control.
_
‘
contacts I65 and I15 to establish sealing-in cir
While I have shown and described particular
cuits around contacts I68 and I69. Closing of
connection with Figs. la-lc. Closure of contact
embodiments of my invention, it will be obvious
relay I28’ also closes contact 222 to establish the
to those skilled in the art that changes and modi
anode-cathode circuit of electric valve 2 I ‘I. Elec
tric valve 2|‘! conducts upon the occurrence of 25 ?cations may be made without departing from
my. invention in its broader aspects, and I, there
the next positive peaklof voltage supplied by
fore, aim in the appended claims to ‘cover all such
synchronizing transformer winding 234;.which is
changes and modi?cations as fall within the true
synchronous with the alternating current supply
spirit and scope of my invention.
voltage of the welding system. Conduction by
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
discharge device 2I'I energizes the operating coil 30
Letters Patent of the United States is:
of relay I39’ and e?ects the transfer of current
1. In combination, a pair of, electric discharge
to discharge device 2 I ‘I with the aid of commutat
" devices each including an anode, a cathode and a
ing capacitor ‘224, interrupting the ?ow of cur
control member, a pair of electromagnetic circuit
rent in discharge device 2I6 to deenergize relay
I 38’. Dropping out of relay I38’ closes contact 35 controlling devices each including an operating
245 to energize relay. 201’ which seals itself in
' through its contacts ‘20‘I'a and conditions an
coil, a supply of direct current voltage, said oper
ating coils and said discharge devices being con
nected to provide‘ two circuits energized in parallel
from said direct current supply with each circuit
H" by closure of its contacts 201%. At the end
of a timing period determined by the interval 40 including one of said operating coils and the
anode-cathode circuit of one of said discharge
‘ required for the capacitor .23I to charge through
devices in series, timing means connected with
resistor I32’ to such a voltage that the next posi
the control members of said discharge devices for
tive peak of the synchronizing transformer wind
modifying the voltage thereof to effect transfer of
ing 22'! renders electric valve 2 I6 conductive, cur
rent is transferred from valve 2H to valve 2IS 45 current from one of said discharge devices to
the other at intervals and thereby effect alter
to energize relay I38’ and deenergize relay I39’,
nate energization of said operating coils, said
thereby closing contacts 243 and 244, respectively,
timing means including capacitance and resist
- to energize conductor 24!] from supply conductor
ance, and means responsive to the alternate oper
92. This completes an energizing circuit for the
operating coil 8| ' of relay ‘H’ from conductor 50 ation of said circuit controlling devices for
changing the effective magnitude of the resistance
240'through the a‘ contact of relay 72’, the 2' con
of said timing means to establish the duration of
tact of relay 201' to the conductor 9I. During
said intervals at di?erent values in accordance
conduction-by valve 2I'I capacitor 236 charges
with a predetermined time pattern.
through the grid-cathode circuit thereof so that
the right-hand plate thereof is substantially 55 2. In combination, a pair of electric discharge
devices each including an anode, a cathode and
at the voltage of conductor 2I8. The duration
acontrol member, a pair of electromagnetic cir
of the second interval T2 is determined by the
cuit controlling devices each including an oper
time required for capacitor 236 to charge through
ating coil, a supply of direct current voltage, said
‘resistor 93' and conductor 23'! to such a voltage
that the next positive peaked voltage of winding 60 operating coils and said discharge devices being
connected to provide two circuits energized in
234 ‘renders electric discharge device 2I'I con
parallel from said direct current supply with each
ductive. The successive energization of‘ relays
circuit including one of said operating coils and
‘EV-80’ proceeds at intervals determined by the
the anode-cathode circuit of one of said discharge
charging time of capacitors 23I and 235 as con
trolled by resistors I32’ and 93'-Ill2’ until reset 65 devices in series, timing means connected with
the control members of said discharge devices for
ting relay I26’ is energized to reset the relays and
modifying the voltage thereof at intervals to ef
restore the system to its initial condition with
fect transfer of current from one of said dis
valve 216 and relay I38’ energized. The opera
charge devices to the other at the end of each
tive conditions of valves 2I6 and 2I'i and relays
I38’ and I39’ as well as the effective timing re 70 of said intervals and thereby-effect alternate‘ en
ergization of said operating coils, said timing
sistor and timing capacitor are indicated in Fig. 2d
means including a capacitance and a plurality of
for each interval of the current pattern of Fig. 2b.
resistances of different pre-established magni
The remaining relay operations are indicated in
tudes, and means responsive to the alternate op
Fig. 20 for the corresponding relays in Figs.
10-10. In this description of Fig. 3 no reference 75 eration of. said circuit controlling devices for
energizinglcircuit for the operating coil of relay
2,411,708
18
connecting different ones of said resistances in
circuit with said capacitance to establish the dura
6. In combination, a pair of electric discharge
devices each including an anode, a cathode and
a control member, a supply of voltage, the anode
cathode circuits of said discharge devices being
connected in parallel circuit for energization from
said‘ supply of voltage, timing means connected
, tion of said intervals at different values.
_ 3. In combination, a pair of electric discharge
devices each including an anode, a cathode and ,
a control member, a supply of direct current volt
age, the anode~cathode circuits of said discharge
with the control members of said electric dis
devices being connected in parallel circuits for
charge devices for modifying the voltage thereof
energization from said supply of direct current
voltage, timing means connected with the control 10 at intervals to effect transfer of current from
.one of said discharge devices to the other at the
members of said discharge devices for modify
end of each of said intervals, said timing means
ing the voltage thereof at intervals to effect trans
including capacitance and resistance, a pair of
fer of current from one of said discharge devices
electromagnetic circuit controlling devices each
to the other at the end of each of said inter
,including
an operating coil, means for effecting
vals, said timing means including capacitance and 15
alternate energization of said operating coils in
resistance, a pair of electromagnetic circuit con
response to the alternate conduction of current
in said parallel paths, a plurality of relays each
trolling devices each including an operating coil,
, means for effecting alternate energization of said
including an operating coil, means for energizing
operating coils in response to the alternate con
an
one of said relays for each trans
duction of current in said parallel paths, and 20 fer additional
of
current
between said discharge devices
means controlled by the alternate operation of
including contacts of said circuit controlling de
said circuit controlling devices for establishing
different preset values of resistance in said tim
ing means to establish the duration of the suc
cessive intervals in accordance with a pre-estab 25
lished pattern.
4. In combination, a pair of electric discharge
devices each including an anode, a cathode and
a control member, a supply of voltage, the anode
vices and contacts on said relays, and means re
sponsive to the successive operation of said re
lays for establishing different preset values of
resistance in said timing means and thereby es
tablish the duration of the successive intervals
in accordance with a pre-established time pat
tern,
~
7. In combination, a supply circuit, a load cir
cathode circuits of said discharge devices being 30 cuit,
electric translating apparatus interconnect
connected in parallel circuit relation for energi
ing said circuits and a control means for con
zation from said supply of voltage, timing means
trolling said translating apparatus to effect the
connected with the control members of said dis
transmission of a pattern of current to said load
charge devices for modifying the voltage thereof
circuit having a plurality of intervals of differ
at intervals to effect transfer of current from 35 ent durations during which currents of different
one of said discharge devices to the other at the -
end of each of said intervals, said timing means
including a capacitor and a plurality of resistors
each having a pie-established value and circuit
controlling, means controlled in response to, the
transfer of current from one of said discharge
devices to the other for effecting the sequential
connection of said resistors in circuit with said
levels are supplied to said load circuit, said con
trol means including a first control circuit for
determining the intervals during which said load
is energized, a second control circuit including a
plurality of impedances of different predetermined
magnitudes for establishing different levels of
current to be supplied to said load circuit during
different ones oi.‘ said intervals, a timing circuit
for establishing the duration of said intervals in~
for said capacitance to charge from one predeter
' eluding a plurality of resistances of different premined value of voltage to another and thereby 4 determined magnitudes, and a plurality of cire
determine the duration of the intervals between
cuit controlling means connected to be controlled
successive transfers of current from one of said
in response to the operation of said timing-means
discharge devices to the other.
and to operate in succession one for each suce
5. In combination, a pair of electric discharge 50 cessive operation of said timing means to con
devices each including an anode, a cathode and
nect different ones of said resistances in said tim
a control member, a supply of direct current volt
ing circuit in succession to determine the dura~=
age, the anode-cathode circuits of said discharge
tion of the successive intervals of the pattern,
devices being connected in parallel circuit rela
said circuit controlling means being provided with
tion for energization from said supply of direct 55 circuit controlling elements connected in either
current voltage, timing means connected with the
said ?rst or second control circuits to establish
control members of said discharge'devices for
which ones of said intervals that said load is ener==
modifying the voltage thereof at intervals to ef
gized and to establish the level of current sup~
fect transfer of current from one of said discharge
plied to the load during each interval of ener
devices to the other at the end of each of said 60 gization by controlling the effective impedances
intervals, said timing means including a capacitor
in said second control circuit.
and a plurality of resistors each having a pre
8. In combination. a supply circuit, a load cir—
established value, a plurality of circuit control
cuit, electric translating apparatus interconnect
ling means controlled in response to the trans
ing said circuits and a control means for con
fer of current from one of said discharge devices 65 trolling said translating apparatus to effect the
to the other and operated in sequence, one for
transmission of a pattern of current to said load
each transfer of current between said discharge
circuit having a plurality of intervals of different
devices, for effecting the sequential‘ connection
durations during which currents of different levels
of said resistors in circuit with said capacitance
are supplied to said load circuit, said control
to determine the interval required for said capaci
means including a ?rst control circuit for deter
tance to charge from one predetermined value of
mining the intervals during which said load is
capacitance to determine the interval required
voltage to another and thereby determine the
duration of the intervals between successive
transfers of current from one of said discharge
devicestothe other.
'
'
i
energized, a second control circuit for establish
ing different levels of current to be supplied to
said load circuit during different ones of said in
tervals, a timing circuit for establishing the dura
2,411,708
19
tion of said intervals including a plurality of re
Lsistances of different predetermined magnitudes
and a plurality of circuit controlling means con
nected to be controlled in response to the opera
tion of said timing means to operate in succes—
sion, one for each successive operation of said
timing means, to connect different ones of said
resistances in said timing circuit in succession to
20
energization thereof, and additional timing
means controlled in response to operation of the
timing means for controlling the current pattern
for effecting selective control of the electrically
controlled means associated with said electrodes
to establish periods during which pressures of
di?erent magnitudes are impressed on said elec
trodes, said last mentioned timing means being
independently adjustable with respect to the tim- .
determine the duration of the successive intervals
of the pattern, said circuit controlling means 10 ing means for controlling the current pattern so
that the changes inpressure are accomplished at
being provided with circuit controlling elements
instants which are independent of the instants
connected in either said ?rst or second control
that changes in load current are effected but in ‘
circuits to establish which of said intervals that
de?nite timed relation with respect thereto.
said load is energized_and to establish the level
11. In combination, a pair of electric discharge
of current supplied to the load during each inter 15
devices each including an anode, a cathode and a
val of energization.
control member, a supply of direct-current volt
9. In combination. an alternating current sup
age, the anode-cathode circuits of said discharge
ply circuit, a load circuit, electric translating ap
devices being connected in parallel circuits for ,
electric valve means having a control member, a 20 energization from said supply of direct current
voltage, a timing circuit connected with the con
?rst circuit for controlling the energization of
trol member of each of said discharge devices and
said control member to control the cycles of said
paratus interconnecting said circuits including
each including a capacitor connected between the
supply circuit during which said valve means is
control member of one of said discharge devices
conducting to determine the periods of energiza
tion of said load circuit, a second control circuit 25 and a point the potential of which is controlled
by conduction of the other of said discharge de
for controlling the energization of said control
vices, so that the time required for the capacitor
member to determine the instant in the voltage
associated with the control member of one of said
wave of said supply circuit that said valve means
discharge devices to charge to a voltage which
is rendered conducting to determine the level of
current supplied to said load circuit during each 30 will render said one of said discharge devices con
ductive is determined by the magnitude of the re
period of energization, said second control circuit
sistance connected therewith and the level of
including a plurality of impedance elements and
voltage of the point to which it is connected,
circuit controlling means for selectively connect—
means controlled by the transfer of current from
ing said impedance elements in said second con
, said‘ one of said discharge devices to the other
trol circuit, a timing circuit for e?ecting opera
to eifect a change in the magnitude of the resist
tion of said circuit controlling means in sequence
ance connected in circuit with the control mem
and for eifecting the selective establishment of
ber of the other of said discharge devices to con
said ?rst control circuit to effect the transfer of
trol the time required for a subsequent transfer
a predetermined pattern of current to said load
circuit including a plurality of periods of ener 40 of current between said discharge devices, and
circuit controlling means energized in response to
gization and at least one intermediate period of
the alternate conduction of current by said dis
deenergization, said timing means including an
charge devices for effecting-a sequence of circuit
electric discharge device and a plurality of re
controlling operations at intervals the duration of
sistance-capacitance combinations for control
-_which are determined by the magnitudes of re
ling the duration of the intervals between suc
sistance in the timing circuits connected with
cessive conductions of said device, and means re
said control members.
sponsive to the successive conductions of said dis
12. A circuit for e?ecting a plurality of circuit
charge device for controlling the establishment of
controlling operations in sequence at different
said ?rst control circuit, for controlling the cir
cuit controlling means of said second control 50 predetermined intervals comprising a supply of
direct current voltage, a pair of electric discharge
circuit and for eifecting successive alterations of
devices each including an anode, a cathode and a
said resistance-capacitance combinations to es
control member, means connecting the anode
tablish the duration of the successive intervals of
cathode circuits of said devices in parallel circuit
said pattern.
10. In combination, an alternating current sup 55 relation for energization from said supply circuit,
commutating means interconnecting said anode
ply circuit, a resistance welding load circuit in
cathode circuits, a capacitor for controlling con
cluding a pair of electrodes, electric translat
ing apparatus interconnecting said supply circuit
duction of one of said devices having one terminal
connected with thecontrol member thereof and
a predetermined pattern/of current to said elec 60 the other terminal connected with the anode cir
cuit of the other of said devices, a second capaci
trodes including electric valve means having a
tor for controlling conduction of the other of said
control member, electrically vcontrolled means
devices having one terminal connected with the
associated with said electrodes for controlling
control member of said other device and a second
the application of pressure to said electrodes, an
excitation circuit for controlling the energiza 65 terminal connected with the anode circuit of said
one device, said capacitors cooperating with said
tion of said control member to determine the.
commutating means to effect the transfer of cur
periods of energization of said load circuit and
rent from one of said devices to the other, a plu
the levels of current supplied to said load circuit
rality of circuits connected with the terminal of
during each period of energization thereof, tim
ing means for effecting a plurality of switching 70 each of said capacitors connected to said control
members and points of potential which are sub
operations in de?nite timed sequence to control
stantially more positive than the cathodes of
said excitation circuit to establish the periods
said devices, said circuits including circuit con
of deenergization of said load circuit and to
trolling means operable to change an electrical
establish the different levels of current to be sup
plied to said load circuit during each interval of 75 characteristic of said circuits to adjust the inter
and said electrodes to effect the transmission of
2,411,708
val required for said capacitors to charge from
of said electric’ valve, and commutating means
one predetermined voltage to another and there
for e?ecting transfer of current from one of said
discharge devices to the other for each of said -
by determine the interval of time between suc
voltage impulses.
cessive transfers of current between said devices,
and means responsive to the successive transfers
of current between said devices for operating said
15. In combination, means for establishing a
supply of direct current voltage including a plu
rality of points of diiferent voltage, a timing
circuit controlling means in sequence to establish
the duration of a subsequent timing interval for
circuit 6f the single tube inverter'type including
each transfer of current between said devices.
an electric valve having an anode, a cathode
13. A circuit for e?ecting a plurality of circuit
and a control member, means connecting said
controlling operations in sequence at different
anode to a point of relatively positive voltage,
predetermined intervals comprising a supply of
means for connecting said cathode to a point of
direct current voltage, a pair of electric discharge
relatively negative voltage through a circuit in
devices each including an anode, a cathode and a
cluding a timing resistance, means for estab
control member, means connecting the anode 15 lishing said control member at a voltage inter
cathode circuits of said devices in parallel circuit.
mediate said points, a capacitor connected in
relation for energization from said supply circuit,
parallel circuitv relation with respect to the
commutating means interconnecting said anode
anode-cathode circuit of said valve so that‘said
cathode circuits, a capacitor for controlling con
capacitor discharges rapidly through the anode
duction of one of saiddevices having one terminal 20 cathode circuit of said valve when said valve
connected with the control member thereof and
conducts and so that the charging of said capac
the other terminal connected with the anode cir
itor through said resistance determines the inter
cuit of the other of said devices, a second capaci
val between successive conductions by said valve,
tor for controlling conduction of the other of said
a pair of electric discharge devices connected
devices having one terminal connected with the
across a portion of said supply of direct current
control member of said other device and a second
voltage in parallel circuit relation, each of said
terminal connected with the anode circuit of said
devices including a control member, means for
one device, said capacitors cooperating with said
impressing a voltage on the control members
commutating means to eifect the transfer of cur
of said discharge devices to maintain said de—
rent from one of said devices to the other, circuits 30 vices nonconducting, a capacitor connecting said
, connected with the terminals of said capacitors
control members with the cathode circuit of said
connected to said control members for establish
electric valveto impress a positive voltage on
ing charging circuits for said capacitors to a point
the control members of said discharge devices
of potential which is substantially more positive
in response to each conduction of said electric
than the cathodes of said devices, said circuits
valve, and means controlled by the transfer of
including circuit controlling means operable to
current from one or" said discharge devices to
change an electrical characteristic of said circuits
the other for changing the effective value of said
to adJ'ust the interval required for said capacitors
timing resistance to establish different intervals
to charge from one predetermined voltage to an
of time between successive conductions of said
other and thereby determine the intervals of time 40 electric valve.
between successive transfers of current between
16. In combination, means for establishing a
said devices, and means responsive to the transfer
supply of direct current voltage including a
of current between said devices for operating said
plurality of points of different voltage, a timing
circuit controlling means to condition said cir
circuit of the single tube inverter type including
cuits for a subsequent timing interval.
an electric valve having an anode, a cathode and
>14. In combination, means for establishing a
a control member, means connecting said anode
supply of direct current voltage including a
to a point of relatively positive voltage, means for
plurality of points of different voltage, a timing
connecting said cathode to a point or" relatively
circuit of the single tube inverter type includ
negative voltage through a circuit including a
ing an electric valve having an anode, a cathode
timing resistance, means for establishing said
and a control'member, means connecting said
control member at a voltage intermediate said
anode to a point of relatively positive voltage,
points, a capacitor connected in parallel circuit
means for connecting said cathode to a point
relation with respect to the anode-cathode cir
of relatively negative voltage through a circuit
cuit of said valve so that said capacitor dis
including a timing resistance, means for estab
charges rapidly through the anode-cathode airlishing said control member at a voltage inter
cult of said valve when said valve conducts and
mediate said points, a capacitor connected in
so that the charging of said capacitor through
parallel circuit relation with respect to the
said
resistance determines the interval between
anode-cathode circuit of said valve so that said
successive conductions by said valve, a pair or“
capacitor discharges rapidly through the anode
cathode circuit of said valve when said valve
conducts and so that the charging of said capac
00 electric discharge devices connected across a
itor through said resistance determines the in
terval between successive conductions by said
valve, a pair of electric discharge devices con
nected across a portion of said supply of direct
current voltage in parallel circuit relation, each
of said devices including a control member,
means for impressing a voltage on the control
members of said discharge devices to maintain -
said devices nonconducting, a capacitor connect
ing said control member withthe cathode cir
cuit of said electric valve to impress a positive
voltage impulse on the control members of said
portion of said supply of direct current voltage
in parallel circuit relation, each of said devices
including a control member, means for impress»
ing a voltage on the control members of said
discharge devices to maintain said devices non
conducting, means connecting said control mem
bers with the circuit of said electric valve to
impress a positive voltage on the control mem
bers 01' said discharge devices in response to each
conduction of said electric valve, commutating
means for e?'ecting transfer of current from one
of said discharge devices to the other for each
conduction of said electric valve, a pair of re
lays each having an operating coilameans con‘
discharge devices in response to each conduction 75 necting said operating coils to be energized alter
2,411,703
23
nately in response to the alternate conduction by
said discharge devices, a plurality of circuit con
trollers to be operated in sequence, energizing
circuits for said circuit controllers, and means
including contacts on said relays and means con
trolled by one of said circuit controllers for ef
fecting operation of an additional one of said
circuit controllers for each transfer of current
between said discharge devices.
1'7. In combination, a supply of direct current
voltage including means for establishing a plu
rality of points of di?erent voltage levels, a tim
ing circuit of the single tube inverter type in
24
which the voltage of said capacitance changes
from one voltage to another to determine the du- -
rations of the intervals between successive con
ductions of said electric discharge device, said cir
cuit including means for effecting the connection
therein of different magnitudes of resistance in ,
succession to establish different predetermined
, intervals between successive conductions of said
electric discharge device, a plurality of relays
connected to be energized in succession in re
sponse to the successive conductions of said elec
tric discharge device with one additional relay
being energized for each conduction of said elec
tric discharge device, and means responsive to
cluding an electric valve having an anode, a
cathode and a control member, means connecting 15 operation of said relays for controlling the suc
said. anode with a point of relatively positive
cessive changes in resistance of said timing cir
cuit and for effecting a, succession of switching
voltage and means for connecting said cathode to
a point of relatively negative voltage through a
operations in accordance with the time pattem
established by the successive operations of said
circuit including a timing resistance, means for
connecting said control member to a point having 20 electric discharge device.
a voltage intermediate the voltages of said points,
19. In combination, a pair of electric discharge
a capacitor connected in parallel circuit relation
devices each including an anode, a cathode and
with respect to the anode-cathode circuit of said
a control member, a supply of direct current
valve so that said capacitor discharges rapidly
voltage, the anode-cathode circuits of said dis
through the anode-cathode circuit of said valve 25 charge devices being connected in parallel cir-.
cuits for energization from said supply of direct
when said valve conducts and so that the charg
ing of said capacitor through said timing resist
current voltage, a timing circuit connected with
the control member of each of said discharge
ance from one predetermined voltage to the other
» devices and each including a capacitor connected
determines the interval between successive con
ductions of said valve, and circuit controlling 30 between the control member of one of said dis- '
charge devices and a point the potential of which
means operated in response to the successive con
ductions of said valve for e?ecting switching op
is controlled by conduction of the other of said
erations in timed sequence in accordance with a
discharge devices, so that the time required for
predetermined timing pattern, said circuit con
the capacitor associated with the control mem
trolling means also including means for altering 35 ber of one of said discharge devices to charge to a
voltage which will render said one of said dis
said timing‘ resistance for each conduction of
charge devices conductive is determined by the
said valve to establish the duration of the succes
sive intervals of said pattern.
magnitude of the resistance connected therewith
and the level of voltage of the point to which it
18. In combination, a supply circuit, an elec
tronic timer connected for energization from 40 is connected, and means controlled by the trans
fer of current from said one of said discharge de
said supply circuit and including an electric dis
charge device having a pair of principal elec
vices to the other to eil’ect a change in the mag
nitude of the resistance connected in circuit with
trodes and a control member, a capacitor con
the control member of the other of said discharge
nected in circuit with said supply circuit and
said electric discharge device to control the volt 45 devices to control the time required for a sub
age between the control member and' one of the
sequent transfer of current between said dis
charge devices.
.
principal electrodes of said electric discharge de
vice, a timing circuit for controlling the rate at
MAURICE E. BIVENS.
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