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Nov.26',1946. f
W.L.DEBAUFRE
"
2,411,711
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING AND \LIQUEFYING GASES
‘ Filed Sept. 22, 1941
,
uwmvroe ‘
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Nov. 26, 1946-
’w. L. DE BAUFRE I
2,411,711
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING AND LIQUEFYI-NG GASES I
_ Filed Sept. 22,, 1941
‘2 Sheets-Sheet 2
A
WW {M we 3%
_
IIVI/ENTOI?
l
Patented Nov. 26;
2,411,111
\
UNITED STATES, PATENT 1 OFF-ICE
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SEPARAT- I
ING AND LIQUEFYING GASES
>
' William Lane De Baufre, Lincoln, Nebr.
Application September '22, 1941, Serial No. 411,874
17 Claims.
(Cl. 62-1755)
1
This invention relates to improvements in the
2
aftercocler for compressmg atmospheric air to
be processed and removing the heat of compres
art of separating mixed gases by liquefaction and .
sion. This compressor is'driven by motor M,
recti?cation, being particularly useful in the sep
Puri?cation apparatus B for removing mois
' aratlon of one ofthe constituents in liquid form.
ture and carbon dioxide from the compressed air.
It is, for example, particularly useful in the pro
Interchanger C for cooling the compressed air
duction of liquid oxygen by the liquefaction and
by the returning nitrogen product of recti?cation.
recti?cation of atmospheric air.
‘
Auxiliary interchanger D for warming a por
The primary object of the invention is to in-.
tion of the nitrogen product‘ of recti?cation in
crease the amount of refrigeration produced in _
the process in orderto compensate for the refrig-_ 10 cooling this portion after compression by com
eratlon lost in removing the oxygen in liquid '
‘form. In gaseous oxygen plants, the refrigera
pressor F.
-
‘
Expansion engine E for expanding part or ‘all
of the recooled compressed nitrogen, Expansion
_, tion in the liquid oxygen produced is recovered by
engine E and compressor F are both connected
vaporizing the liquid oxygen and heating the re
sulting vapor to approximately atmospheric tem
15 to motor N. Puri?er G may also be provided for ‘
perature.
Another object of the invention is to produce
this refrigeration with minimum power expendi-.
the compressed nitrogen.
I
7 Preliminary recti?er H for separating the cooled
air into a vapor portion of nearly pure nitrogen
and a liquid portion rich in oxygen.
air to be separated. \In order to' accomplish this 20 Exchanger K for liquefying the vapor portion.
Final recti?er L for separating the two lique
purpose, an auxiliary cycle is provided to augment
?ed portions from preliminary recti?er H and’
the refrigeration produced in the main cycle of
exchanger K into nearly pure nitrogen and nearly
the air to be separated.
“
pure oxygen.
A further object of the invention is to tie in this
auxiliary refrigeration cycle with the main sepa 25 In Figure 3, single-stage recti?er L is employed.
preliminary recti?er H and exchanger K being
rationcycle so as to eliminate any need of puri
omitted. Puri?er G is not shown in Figure 2 and
?cation of the refrigerant except as‘ it may be
ture by reducing the compression pressure of the
Figure 3.
contaminated in passing through the refrigera
-
'1
The above listed apparatus can be used for sep
A further object of the invention is to tie inthe 30 arating in liquid form one component of any gase
tion cycle.
'
_
'
main and refrigeration cycles together'so as to
simplify the construction of the apparatus and
insure automatic operation.
'
A further object of the invention is to_increase
the purity and recovery of the products by in
creasing the vapor and liquid refluxes in recti?
cation. This step would be advantageous in sepa
ous mixture; The apparatus will be described,
however, for the production of liquid oxygen from
atmospheric air. The following description was
written for Figure 1,‘ but will apply to Figure 2
and Figure 3 except for details mentioned later. '
The atmospheric air to be processed enters
compressor A through pipe I, Puri?ers for re
moval of carbon dioxide might be provided for the air before it ?ows through pipe I. In the
rating the products in gaseous form; but it is
particularly valuable in separating one of the
products in liquid form because these re?uxes are 40 drawings, however, removal of carbon dioxide is
combined with drying in purifier B through which
reduced by withdrawing one product in liquid
the air ?ows after being compressed by com
form.
'
pressor A. The pressure of compression will vary
The foregoing, together with such other ad
with conditions and may be selected in accord
vantages as may hereinafter appear or are inci
dent to the invention, are realized by thecon 45 ance with the economics of any particular case.
_ Assume a high pressure of 50 atmospheres for a
struction illustrated in preferred form in the ac
small liquid oxygen plant.
companying drawings wherein: Figure 1 shows
Compressor A is provided with intercoolers and
one arrangement of a two-stage recti?cation liq
an aftercooler to remove the heat of compression.
' uid oxygen plant. Figure 2 shows an alternative
arrangement . of a two-stage recti?cation plant. 50 The puri?ed compressed‘air at about atmospheric
Figure 3 shows one arrangement of a single-stage
recti?cation plant.
~
1
Referring to the drawings, a plant for produc
ing liquid oxygen from atmospheric air might
include:
,
Three-stage compressor A‘with intercoolers and
temperature enters the upper headof interchang
er C through pipe 2, Within interchanger C, the - puri?ed compressed air is cooled to a low tem
perature while ?owing down through tubes 3.
55 From the lower head of interchanger C, the cooled
compressed air leaves through pipe I.
2,411,711
3
4
-
.
The slightly warmed nitrogen vapor product
of the final recti?cation flows through pipe 29
The cooled compressed air ?ows through coil 5
where it is further cooled by vaporizing some of
the liquid surrounding thiscoil. The pressure
is then reduced by throttle valve 6 so that the air
to the shell of interchanger C. .In ?owing up
through the ‘shell of interchanger C. the nitrogen
is warmed nearly to atmospheric temperature in
cooling the compressed air ?owing down through
tubes 3. The nitrogen gas ?nally leaves at nearly 7
to be processed enters preliminary recti?er K
through pipe 1 under a pressure of say! atmos
pheres. Under this reduced pressure, the air is
atmospheric temperature through pipe 30 as one
product of the process.
a
v.
The liquid part ?ows down over trays 8 and
A portion of the returning nitrogen is with
accumulates around the coils in the bottom of‘ 10
drawn from interchanger C at an intermediate
preliminary recti?er H. By heat transfer from
point through pipe 3| and ?ows through the
the ?uids within these coils, this liquid is vapor
shell of‘ auxiliary interchanger D where this por
ized to form a vapor re?ux for the preliminary
tion of nitrogen is warmed approximately to at
rectification. The liquid remaining unvaporized
leaves through pipe 9.’
\
15 mospheric temperature. The ?ow of nitrogen is
induced by compressor F driven by motor N, pipe
a vapor re?ux mentioned together with the
32 conveying the returning nitrogen from auxil
vapor entering through pipe 1, rise through trays
iary interchanger D to compressor F. The nitro
l0. Within tubes H, the rising vapor is con
gen is compressed by compressor F and then dis
densed to form a liquid re?ux for the preliminary
recti?cation- The vapor remaining ?ows through 20 charged through pipe 33 to puri?er G where it
is puri?ed of any oil vapor, etc., contaminating
pipe l2 to. exchanger K.
_
‘ part liquid and part vapor.
it. The puri?ed compressed nitrogen~ ?ows
through pipe 34 to the head of auxiliary inter
By the rectifying action of ‘liquid and vapor
re?uxes upon trays 8 and ill, the entering atmos
pheric air is separated into a nearly pure nitro
gen vapor leaving preliminary recti?er H through
pipe l2 and an oxygen-rich liquid leaving through
pipe 9.
The nearly pure nitrogen vapor is condensed
within tubes'l3 of exchanger K. The resulting
changer D.
'
> In ?owing through tubes 35 within auxiliary
2.5 interchanger
D, the compressed nitrogen is
cooled by heat transfer to the returning cold
. nitrogen from interchanger C. Leaving auxiliary
interchanger. D through pipe 36, the cooled com
nearly vpure nitrogen liquid leaves exchanger K 30 pressed nitrogen is divided into two parts. One
part ?ows through pipe 31 to expansion, engine
through pipe l4. This liquid is throttled through
E where it is expanded by doing work. This re
valve l5 and enters ?nal recti?er L through pipe
Hi. In ?nal recti?er L, the nearly pure nitrogen
liquid serves as‘ a re?ux liquid to rectify the
~moves heat from the nitrogen, thereby cooling
oxygen-rich liquid from preliminary recti?er H.
nitrogen is discharged through pipe 38 into the
This oxygen-rich liquid is throttled through valve
, shell of interchanger C where it commingles with
as well as expanding it.
The cold expanded
the returning nitrogen therein. In this way, the
I1 and enters ?nal recti?er L through pipe [8.
cooling effect of the returning nitrogen is aug-v
The ?nal recti?cation occurs on trays [9 above
mented and they compressed air is cooled to a
the inlet and trays 20 below the inlet of ?nal
recti?er L, resulting in nearly pure nitrogen va 40' lower temperature within tubes 3.‘
The other part of the cooled compressed nitro
por leaving the ?nal recti?er through pipe 2|
gen ?ows through pipe 39 to coil 40 within pre
and nearly pure oxygen liquid accumulating in
liminary recti?er H. Heat transfer occurs from
the pot at the bottom of the ?nal recti?er.
this compressed nitrogen to the oxygen-rich liq
A portion of the nearly pure oxygen liquid is
uid within preliminary recti?er H thereby vapor
vaporized by heat transfer from the oxygen-rich
izing some of. the oxygen-rich liquid and aug
liquid ?owing through coil 22 before being throt
tled through valve H. The remaining nearly
menting the vapor re?ux in the preliminary ree
pure oxygen liquid ?ows through pipe 23 to pre
ti?cation. From coil 40, the further cooled com
pressed nitrogen ?ows through pipe 4| to throt
liminary recti?er H where ‘more of it is vapor
ized by heat transfer through tubes 1 l in produc 50 tle valve 42 where the pressure is reduced. The
nitrogen is then discharged into ?nal recti?er '
ing liquid re?ux for the preliminary recti?cation.
L through pipe 43, most of the nitrogen being in
The remainder of the nearly pure oxygen liquid
?ows through pipe 24 to exchanger _K where
liquid form as the result of cooling it in coil 40.
more of it is vaporized in condensing the vapor
This liquid nitrogen augments the liquid reflux
product of the preliminary recti?cation. The
in the ?nal recti?cation. The nitrogen vapor
nearly pure oxygen liquid remaining is with
leaving through pipe 2| is increased by‘ the
amount of nitrogen admitted through pipe 43
drawn as the liquid oxygen product of the proc
thereby further augmenting the cooling effect of
ess through valve 25.
the returning‘v nitrogen in interchanger C.
The vapor produced in exchanger K leaves
The result of augmenting the liquid re?ux in
through pipe 26. The commingled vapor from 60
exchanger K and preliminary recti?er H ?ows
the ?nal recti?cation and the vapor re?ux in the
through pipe 21 to ?nal recti?er L where it formsv -
preliminary recti?cation by means of nitrogen _
the vapor re?ux for the ?nal recti?cation. The . from the auxiliary refrigeration cycle as de
vapor re?ux for the ?nal recti?cation is aug
scribed, is to also augment the vapor re?ux in
mented by cooling the liquid product of the pre
the ?nal recti?cation and the liquid re?ux in the
65
liminary recti?cation as this liquid ?ows through
preliminary recti?cation. This is due to the
coil 22.
thermal relations involved in a two-stage recti?
The vapor product of the ?nal recti?cation~
cation process where the liquid re?ux for the
?ows through coil 28 in the top of preliminary
preliminary recti?cation is produced by heat
recti?er H. In so doing, heat is transferred from 70 transfer in vaporizing liquid to form the vapor
the vapor product of the preliminary recti?cation
re?ux in the ?nal recti?cation. The augment
to the vapor product of the ?nal recti?cation.
ing of all re?uxes in both preliminary and ?nal
Some of the former is condensed, thereby aug
recti?cations results in a more nearly complete
menting the liquid re?ux in the preliminary rec
separation‘of atmospheric air into its main con—
ti?cation.
76 stituents oxygen and nitrogen with any given
2,411,711
\
recti?ers. In fact, su?lcient re?uxes are thereby
obtained to- produce’ a degree of separation
which would otherwise be impossibleto'attain
with any type and proportions of recti?ers be
cause the necessary thermal relations would not
be present.
.
'
6-
.
then be cooled before throttling. thus providing
a regenerative effect to cool the apparatus to
The attainment of these added re?uxes and
improved thermal relations by the use of a por
' tion of the vapor product of the ?nal recti?ca
.
throttling.
cooled gas will cool the prelim
inary recti?er H and ?nal Irecti?er Lin ?owing
through pipe 8 and valve l1 and returning,
through pipes 2| and 29 to interchangerC. Even
tually, the cooled gas will reach interchanger C
at a temperature below that of the compressed
"gas within tubes 3. The compressed gas will
type and proportions ‘of the preliminary and ?nal
l0
tion is particularly advantageous because this
portion can be commingled with the liquid re
?ux in the ?nal recti?cation without contami
' mating the re?ux or the product of recti?cation.
lower and lower temperatures'until partial lique
faction of the gas results by throttling.
This
liquid will accumulate in the, bottom of prelim
inary recti?er H and may be discharged through
valve I'I into ?nal recti?er L. The trays in both
The same result could be obtained, however, by 15 preliminary recti?er H and ?nal recti?er L will
?ll with liquid which will also accumulate
' another ?uid, such as a portion of the original
gaseous mixture if provision were made to avoid
around tubes II and i3.
- .
In order to cool more rapidly to liquid air
such contamination.
> temperature, the'by-pass valve 44 may be opened
The apparatus in Figure 2 differs from the ap
paratus in Figure 1- in that the cooled compressed 20 to return the air expanded through throttle valve
6 directly to the shell of interchanger C without
portion of nitrogen leaving auxiliary inter
changer D is all expanded by expansion engine _ ?owing through the trays within the recti?er.
With a single-stage recti?er as shown in Figure
E and is then all used for creating re?uxes in
the recti?cation of the atmospheric air. These ' 3, the interchanger can be cooled to liquid air
‘ two steps in the process are thus in series instead 25 temperature without
appreciably cooling the -
trays within the recti?er. With a. two-stage rec
t‘i?er as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. the in
terchanger can be cooled to liquid air tempera
ture without cooling the ?nal recti?er, and even
?nal recti?cations.
.
‘
Referring to Figure 2, the cooled compressed 30 with very little cooling of the trays within the
preliminary recti?er. Of course, after liquid air
portion of nitrogen ?ows from auxiliary inter
changer D through pipe 31 to expansion engine - temperature is reached, liquid air is formed which
accumulates on the trays and cools them to
E where it is all expanded and cooled. The ex
of in parallel. A further di?erence is that the
re?uxes are augmented in the ?nal recti?cation
only rather than in both preliminary and the
panded portion of nitrogen then flows through .
liquid air temperature.
. =
.
pipe 38 to coil 40 immersed in the liquid in the 35 At anytime in the cooling period, the auxiliary
cycle can be put into operation by starting com
bottom of ?nal recti?er L. Part of this liquid is
pressor F and expansion engine E. This will
vaporized to augment the vapor re?ux in the ?nal
augment the refrigerating effect with consequent
' recti?cation, the nitrogen portion being further
quickening of the cooling to operating tempera
cooled and partly lique?ed within coil 40. The
partly lique?ed nitrogen ?ows through pipe 4! 40 tures and accumulation of necessary liquids.
As these liquids accumulate, the rectifying ef
to throttle valve 42 and is .then discharged
Iects of the trays as vapor and liquid ?ow there-.
through pipe 43 into ?nal lique?er L.
' through will result in separation of the gaseous
It is necessary to maintain a su?iciently high
mixture into a. liquid product around tubes H
pressure within coil 40 by means of throttle valve
42 in order to partly liquefy the nitrogen at the 45 and I3 and a vapor product returning through
temperature in the bottom of ?nal recti?er L. _ 'pipes 2i and 28 to interchanger C. The liquid
product may be removed through valve 25 in liq
Coil 40 might be located in the bottom of pre
uid form. The liquid product could be vaporized
liminary recti?er H as shown in Figure l with
and removed in vapor form. In the latter case;
the arrangement otherwise as shown in Figure 2.
A higher pressure would have to be maintained 60 it would probably be returned through inter
changer C .where it would be warmed nearly to
in coil 40, however, in order to liquefy thenitro
gen at the higher temperature within thepre
liminary recti?er. The increased back pressure
on expansion engine E would decrease the re
frigerating e?'ect obtained by adiabatic expan
sion. The arrangement in Figure 2 thus pro
vides larger refrigerating effect withv less re?ux
effect than if coil 40 were in the preliminary rec
ti?er.
.
The apparatus in Figure 3 di?ers from the ap
paratus in Figure 2’in that single-stage recti?
cation is used instead of two-stage recti?cation.
The cooled compressed portion of nitrogen leav
ing auxiliary interchanger D through pipe 31 is
all expanded in expansion engine E and is then
‘all used to produce re?uxes in the single-stage .
recti?cation by ?owing through coil 40, being‘
throttled through valve 42 and then being (in
jected into the top of recti?er L.
With a three-stage compressor A, the pressure
of compression may be su?lciently high to cool
atmospheric temperature.
v
During normal operation, the liquid product of
the process may be removed through valve 25 at
a rate which will maintain a constant liquid level
around tubes H and I3. Throttle valve i1 is op
erated to maintain a constant liquid level in the
bottom of preliminary recti?er H. With com
pressor A and compressor-expander F--E run
ning at constant speeds and valve 42 operated to
maintain constant ?ow therethrough, the pro
duction of lique?ed ‘product will be constant in
quantity and quality for a given gaseous mixture
. processed.
A change in quality can be produced
by changing the re?uxes in adjusting valve 42.
This will also change the refrigerating effect by
altering either the amount of ?ow through ex
pansion engine E or the back pressure upon this
engine. A change in quality can also be produced
by changing the speed of compressoriexpander
lower the refrigerating effect, the
be the amount of liquid accumulat
system. The quality can also be
changing
the pressure of compres
pheric pressure at valve 6. In this case, there
will be an appreciable drop in temperature by 75 sion of the gaseous mixture by operating valve 6
the apparatus to operating temperatures by
throttling the compressed air to nearly atmos
F-E. The
smaller will
ing in the
changed by
2,411,711
8
because this will change‘ the refrigerating effect.
liminary rectification, and utilizing the resulting
The quality of the product is thus under control .
and the quantity can be changed by varying the
amount of gaseous mixture compressed by com
recti?cation.
liquid to augment the'liquid re?ux in the ?nal
'
3. Method of separating mixed gases by recti
5 ?cation into a vapor product and a liquid product
Dresser A.
1
‘
.
which includes cooling the mixed gases, subject
While the method and apparatus heretofore
ing the cooled mixed gases to a preliminary and
described are particularly suitable for rectifying "
‘ a ?nal recti?cation into said vapor and‘ liquid
mixed gases where one of the products of recti
products, producing liquid reflux for said prelim
form, many of the features are also applicable 10 inary recti?cation and liquid and vapor re?uxes
?cation is withdrawn from the process in liquid
for said ?nal recti?cation by heat interchange be
tween vapor from said preliminary recti?cation
and liquid from said ?nal recti?cation, utilizing
the vapor product to ‘cool the compressed gases,
withdrawing a portion of said vapor product,
compressing the withdrawn portion, expanding a
part thereof with performance of external work,
utilizing the expanded part to augment the cool
ing effect of the vapor product, and utilizing an.
‘other part of the withdrawn portion to augment
the vapor re?ux in the preliminary recti?cation
and the liquid re?ux in the ?nal recti?cation.
where the liquid product of recti?cation is vapor
ized and warmed to room temperature before be
ing withdrawn from the process. In either case,
there is a vapor product and a liquid product of
recti?cation. With this interpretation of vapor
product and liquid product, the following claims
apply to both cases because they are not limited
to withdrawing the liquid product before vapor
izins it.
.
Iclaim:
-
1. Method of separating mixed gases by recti
?cation into a vapor product and a liquid prod
uct which includes compressing the mixed gases,
‘cooling the compressed gases, subjecting the
4. Method of separating mixed gases by rec
ti?cation into a vapor product and a liquid
cooled compressed gases to a preliminary and‘ a 25 product which includes cooling the mixed gases,
?nal recti?cation’ into said vapor and liquid prod- . subjecting the cooled mixed gases to a recti?cation
into said vapor and liquid products, utilizing the
, ucts, producing liquid reflux for said preliminary
vapor product to cool the compressed gases, with
recti?cation and liquid and vapor re?uxes for
drawing a portionof said vapor product, com
‘ said ?nal recti?cation by heat interchange be
tween vapor from the preliminary recti?cation
30
and liquid from the ?nal recti?cation, augmenting
the liquid re?ux for the preliminary recti?ca
tion by warming the vapor productfrom the ?nal
recti?cation, augmenting the vapor re?ux for
the ?nal recti?cation by cooling liquid from the
preliminary recti?cation before subjecting this
liquid to the ?nal recti?cation, utilizing the va
por product to cool the compressed gases, with
drawing a portion of said vapor product, warm
ing the portion withdrawn to about atmospheric 40
temperature, compressing the warmed portion
withdrawn, recooling the compressedportion'by
‘heat, interchange with another portion before
compressing it, expanding a part of the recooled
pressing the withdrawn portion, expanding a part
thereof with performance of external work,
utilizing the expanded part to augment the cool
ing effect of the vapor product, and utilizing an
other part of the withdrawn portion to produce
vapor and liquid re?uxes in the'recti?cation.
5. Method of separating mixed gases by recti
?cation into a vapor product and a liquid product
which includes cooling the mixed gases, subjecting
the cooled mixed gases to recti?cation into said
vapor and liquid products, utilizing the vapor
product for cooling the mixed gases, withdrawing
a portion of said vapor product, compressing the
withdrawn portion and expanding it with per
formance of external work, and then utilizing
compressed portion with performance of exter 45 the expanded portion to augment the cooling
effect of the vapor product.
nal work, utilizing the expanded part to augment
6. Method of separating mixed ‘gases into a
the cooling effect of the vapor product, further
vapor product and a liquid product as in claim
cooling and liquefying another part thereof to
5 wherein said expanded portion is commingled
augment the vapor re?ux in the preliminary rec
ti?cation, and utilizing the resulting liquid to 50 with said vapor product.
7. Method of separating mixed gases into a
augment the liquid re?ux in the ?nal recti?ca
vapor product and a liquid product as in claim 5
tion.
wherein the external work is recovered in com
2. Method of separating mixed gases by rectipressing the portion withdrawn.
?cation into a vapor product and a liquid product
which includes compressing the mixed gases, 55 8. Method of separating‘ mixed gases by rec
ti?cation which includes subjecting the mixed
cooling the compressed gases, subjecting the
cooled compressed gases to a preliminary and a
?nal‘recti?cation into said vapor‘and liquid prod
ucts, producing liquid re?ux for said preliminary
gases to a preliminary and a ?nal recti?cation,
' producing liquid re?ux for the preliminary recti
?cation and liquid and vapor re?uxes for the
recti?cation and liquid and vapor re?uxes for 80 ?nal recti?cation by heat interchange between
vapor from said preliminary recti?cation and
said ?nal recti?cation by heat interchange be
liquid from said ?nal recti?cation, producing
tween vapor vfrom the preliminary recti?cation
vapor re?ux for said preliminary recti?cation by
and liquid from the ?nal recti?cation, utilizing
vaporizing liquidvfrom said preliminary recti?ca
the vapor product to cool the compressed gases,
withdrawing a portion of said vapor product, 65 tion in liquefying a portion of said vapor product
- from the ?nal recti?cation, and utilizing the
warming the portion withdrawn to about at
’ lique?ed portion to augment the liquid re?ux in
mospheric temperature, compressing the warmed
the ?nal recti?cation.
portion withdrawn, recooling the compressed por
9. Method of separating mixed gases by recti
tion by heat interchange with another portion
before compressing it, expanding a part of the 7'o ?cation into a vapor product and a liquid product
which includes compressing the mixed gases, cool
recooled compressed portion, with performance
ing the compressed gases, subjecting the cooled '
of external work, utilizing the expanded part to
compressed gases to a'preliminary and a ?nal rec
augment the cooling effect of the vapor product,
further cooling and liquefying another part ‘ ti?cation into said vapor and liquid products,
thereof to augment the vapor re?ux in the pre 75 producing liquid re?ux for said preliminary recti
'
2,411,711
9
'
.
-
l0
14. Apparatus for separating mixed gases by
?cation and liquid and vapor re?uxes for said
?nal recti?cation by heat interchange between
vapor from the preliminary recti?cation and
liquid from the ?nal recti?cation, augmenting the
recti?cation into a vapor product and a liquid
product including an interchanger for cooling the
mixed gases by heat interchange with said vapor
liquid re?ux for the preliminary recti?cation by 5 product, rectifying equipment for separating the
cooled mixed gases into said vapor and liquid
products, means for returning said vapor product
warming the vapor product from the ?nal rec
ti?cation, augmenting the vapor re?ux for the
?nal recti?cation by cooling liquid from the pre
to said interchanger, means for withdrawing from
the interchanger a portion of said vapor product,
liminary recti?cation before subjecting this liquid
to the ?nal recti?cation, utilizing the vapor prod 10 an auxiliary interchanger for warming the por
tion withdrawn and for recooling it after com
pression, a compressor for compressing the por
tion withdrawn, an expansion engine for expand
ing and further cooling part of the cooled com—
ture, compressing the warmed portion .withdrawn,
recooling the compressed portion by heat inter 15 pressed portion, means for returning this expand
ed part to the ?rst mentioned interchanger,
change witht-another portion before compressing
it, expanding the recooled portion with per
means for bringing another part of the cooled
uct to cool the compressed gases, withdrawing a .
portion of said vapor product, warming the por
tion withdrawn to about atmospheric tempera
compressed portion into heat exchange with liquid
formance of external work, utilizing the expanded
in the recti?er to ‘augment vapor re?ux- therein
portion to augment the vapor re?uxin the ?nal
recti?cation thereby liquefying the expanded por 20 whereby this part is further cooled and lique?ed, ‘
and means for utilizing the lique?ed part to aug
tion, and utilizing the resulting liquid to augment
' ment the liquid re?ux in the rectifying equip
the liquid re?ux-in the ?nal recti?cation.
10. Method of, separating mixed gases by rec
ment.
‘
15. Apparatus for separating mixed gases by
ti?cation into a vapor product and a liquid prod
uct which includes cooling the mixed gases, sub 25 recti?cation into a vapor product and a liquid
product including a compressor for compressing
jecting the cooled mixed gases to a recti?cation
the mixed gases, an interchanger for cooling the
into said»vapor and liquid products, utilizing the
vapor product to cool the compressed gases, withcompressed mixed gases by heat interchange with
drawing a portion of said vapor product, com
said vapor product, a recti?er ‘containing trays
pressing the withdrawn portion, expanding the
withdrawn portion with performance of external
work, and utilizing the expanded portion to pro
duce vapor and liquid re?uxes in the recti?cation.
30
for separating the cooled mixed gases into said
vapor and liquid products, a throttle valve for
throttling the cooled compressed mixed gases into
said. recti?er and a by-pass valve for returning
11. Apparatus for separating mixed gases by ‘
the throttled mixed gases from said recti?er to
recti?cation into a vapor product and a liquid 35 said interchanger whereby said interchanger is;
product including an interchanger for cooling
cooled without appreciably cooling said trays in
‘the mixed gases by heat interchange with said
said recti?er.
'
16. Apparatus for separating mixed gases by
vapor product, means for withdrawing from the
interchanger a- portion of said vapor product, a
recti?cation into a vapor product and a liquid
compressor for compressing the portion with 40 product’ including a compressor for compressing
the mixed gases, an interchanger for cooling the
' drawn, an expansion engine for expanding a part
compressed mixed gases by heat interchange with of the compressed portion, and means for retum
ing the expanded portion to‘ saidiinterchanger
where the expanded portion commingles with said
vapor product of recti?cation and augments the
cooling of the mixed gases. _
12.,Apparatus for separating mixed gases by
recti?cation into a vapor product and a liquid
product including an interchanger for cooling the
said vapor product, a preliminary and a ?nal rec
ti?er for separating the cooled mixed gases into
said vapor and liquid products, a throttle valve
for throttling the cooled compressed mixed gases
into said preliminary recti?er and a by-pass valve
for returning the throttled mixed gases from said
preliminary recti?er to said interchanger whereby
50 said interchanger is cooled without appreciably
cooling said ?nal recti?er.
17. Apparatus for separating mixed gases by
recti?cation into a vapor product and a liquid
mixed gases by heat interchange with said vapor
product, a recti?er for separating the cooled
mixed gases into said vapor and liquid products,
means-for withdrawing from the interchanger a
product which includes an'interchanger for cool portion of said vapor product, an auxiliary inter
changer for warming the portion withdrawn and 5;, ing the mixed gases by heat interchange with
for recooling it after compression, a compressor
said vapor product, a recti?er for separating the
cooled mixed gases into said vapor‘and liquid
‘for compressing the portion withdrawn, an ex
pansion engine for expanding and further cooling
products, means for supplying said interchanger
a part of the cooled compressed portion, ~ and
with said vapor, means for withdrawing from the
means for returning the expanded portion to the m, interchanger a portion of said vapor product, an
auxiliary interchanger for warming the portion
?rst mentioned interchanger where the expanded
withdrawn and for recooling it after compression,
portion commingles withthe vapor product of rec-_
ti?cation and augments the cooling oi’ the mixed
a compressor for compressing the portion with
drawn, an expansion engine for expanding and
gases.
13. Apparatus for separating mixed gases by 05 further cooling the cooled compressed portion,
recti?cation into a.vapor product and a liquid
product as in claim 12 wherein means are pro
means for returning theexpanded portion to said
' recti?er where it is commingled with said vapor‘
vided for bringing the unexpanded part into heat
product, a throttle valve for throttling the cooled
compressed mixed gases into said recti?er, and
exchange with liquid in the recti?er to augment
the vapor re?ux therein whereby ‘the unexpanded 70 a by-pass valve for returning the throttled mixed
gases from said recti?er to said interchanger
. part is further cooled and lique?ed and wherein
means are‘ provided to utilize the lique?ed portion
whereby said interchanger is cooled without 8.9- . ‘
preclably cooling said recti?er.
to augment the liquid reflux in the recti?er before
returning the unexpanded partv to the ?rst men
tioned interchanger.
1s
,WILLIAM Lens: DE BAUFRE.
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